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1.
Talanta ; 221: 121570, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076117

RESUMO

Microporous organic networks (MONs) are a potential class of microporous materials in analytical chemistry. As great efforts have been made in sample pretreatment and gas chromatography, the application of MONs in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has largely lagged and has never been investigated. In addition, directly packing of MONs into columns for HPLC is impractical due to the high column pressure and low column efficiency resulted from the sub-micron sized and irregular MONs. To solve these issues and uncover the possibility of MONs in HPLC, here we report the fabrication of spherical silica amino-functionalized MON (SiO2@MON-NH2) composite as a novel stationary phase for HPLC. Neutral, acidic and alkaline probes were evaluated on SiO2@MON-NH2 packed column. A column efficiency of 21,246 plates per meter was obtained for n-propylbenzene. The results revealed the hydrophobic interaction was the main separation mechanism on SiO2@MON-NH2 packed column. Baseline separation of benzenediol, dichlorophenol, chlorophenol and phenylenediamine position isomers, deoxynucleosides and nucleosides was also achieved on SiO2@MON-NH2 packed column. The relative standard deviations of retention time, peak height and peak area for the studied position isomers, deoxynucleosides and nucleosides were 0.2-0.7%, 0.3-3.7% and 1.7-3.5%, respectively. The SiO2@MON-NH2 packed column also offered better resolution for dichlorophenol isomers, deoxynucleosides and nucleosides than SiO2-NH2 and commercial C18 columns. These results revealed the potential of MONs in HPLC and also provided a new way for the use of nano-sized or irregular MONs in HPLC.

2.
Mol Ther ; 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007201

RESUMO

Follistatin-like 1 (FSTL1) is a matricellular protein that is upregulated during development and disease, including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), keloid, and arthritis. The profibrotic and pro-inflammatory roles of FSTL1 have been intensively studied during the last several years, as well as in this report. We screened and identified epitope-specific monoclonal neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) to functionally block FSTL1. FSTL1 nAbs attenuated bleomycin-induced pulmonary and dermal fibrosis in vivo and transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß1-induced dermal fibrosis ex vivo in human skin. In addition, FSTL1 nAbs significantly reduced existing lung fibrosis and skin fibrosis in experimental models. FSTL1 nAbs exerted their potent antifibrotic effects via reduced TGF-ß1 responsiveness and subsequent myofibroblast activation and extracellular matrix production. We also observed that FSTL1 nAbs attenuated the severity of collagen-induced arthritis in mice, which was accompanied by reduced inflammatory responses in vitro. Our findings suggest that FSTL1 nAbs are a promising new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of multiple organ fibrosis and systemic autoimmune diseases.

3.
Neuropsychol Rev ; 2020 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009976

RESUMO

Impulsivity is a multi-faceted construct that underpins various mental health disorders. Impulsive behavior exacts a substantial health and economic burden, hence the importance of developing specific interventions to target impulsivity. Two forms of non-invasive brain stimulation, namely transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), have been used to modulate impulsivity. To date, no reviews have systematically examined their effects on modulating impulsivity in people with mental health disorders. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature from AMED, Embase, Medline and PsycINFO databases on the use of rTMS and tDCS to modulate impulsivity in people with mental health disorders. Results from 11 tDCS and 18 rTMS studies indicate that tDCS has a significant, albeit small, effect on modulating impulsivity (g = 0.29; 95% CI, 0.09 to 0.48; p = .004) whereas rTMS has no significant effect on impulsivity (g = -0.08; 95% Cl, -0.35 to 0.19; p = .550). Subgroup analyses identified the key parameters required to enhance the effects of tDCS and rTMS on impulsivity. Gender and stimulation intensity acted as significant moderators for effects of rTMS on impulsivity. There is insufficient evidence to support the use of tDCS or rTMS in clinical practice to reduce impulsivity in people with mental health disorders. The use of standardized non-invasive brain stimulation protocols and outcome measures in patients with the same diagnosis is advised to minimize methodological heterogeneity.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006691

RESUMO

Our aim was to investigate whether SARS-CoV-2 infection raised high risks of late pregnancy complications, and posed health problems in fetuses and neonates. We analyzed the data of COVID-19 pregnant women with COVID-19 during late pregnancy and their neonates. Eleven out of 16 (69%) pregnant women with COVID-19 had ++ or +++ of ketone body in urine. The blood uric acid of pregnant patients was 334 µmol/L (IQR, 269-452). D-dimer and FDP in pregnant patients were 3.32 mg/L (IQR, 2.18-4.21) and 9.6 mg/L (IQR, 5.9-12.4). Results of blood samples collected at birth showed that 16 neonates had leukocytes (15.7 × 109/L (IQR, 13.7-17.2)), neutrophils (11.1 × 109/L (IQR, 9.2-13.2)), CK (401 U/L (IQR, 382-647)), and LDH (445 U/L (IQR, 417-559)). Twenty-four hours after birth, a neonate from COVID-19 woman had fever and positive of SARS-CoV-2 gene. Another woman had strongly positive for SARS-CoV-2 gene (+++) for 4 weeks, and delivered one neonate who had SARS-CoV-2 IgM (46 AU/mL) and IgG (140 AU/mL) on day 1 after birth. In the third trimester, COVID-19 infection in pregnant patients raised high risks of ketonuria, hypercoagulable state, and hyperfibrinolysis, which may lead to severe complications. COVID-19 increased the inflammatory responses of placenta, and fetuses and neonates had potential organ dysregulation and coagulation disorders. There was a potential intrauterine transmission while pregnant women had high titer of SARS-CoV-2, but it is necessary to detect SARS-CoV-2 in the blood cord, placenta, and amniotic fluid to further confirm intrauterine infection of fetuses.

5.
Acta Otolaryngol ; : 1-5, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043763

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High signals in the inner ear of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been reported, but no quantitative evaluation has yet been done. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate hearing outcomes and cochlear signal intensities on 3-T heavily T2-weighted three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging (hT2W-3D-FLAIR) in patients with ISSNHL. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-nine patients with ISSNHL were included. Patients underwent hT2W-3D-FLAIR with intravenous gadolinium injection and pure tone audiometry (PTA) at initial visits and 3 months later. Signal intensity ratios (SIRs) were measured in the basal or apical-middle turns of the affected cochlea. A statistical analysis of relationships between SIRs and the average hearing levels (HLs) at low (125, 250, and 500 Hz) and high (2, 4, and 8 kHz) tone frequencies was performed. RESULTS: Hearing improvements at high-tone frequencies in ears with HLs ≥60 dB were significantly worse in those with high SIRs at the basal turns on pre-contrast images. Similarly, hearing improvements at low-tone frequencies in ears with HLs ≥60 dB were significantly worse in those with high SIRs at the apical-middle turns on post-contrast images. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: High SIRs on hT2W-3D-FLAIR indicate cochlear disturbances with severe ISSNHL and could provide lesion-specific prognostic information.

7.
Org Lett ; 22(20): 8082-8085, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001651

RESUMO

Herein, an organocatalytic method for photochemical C-O bond cleavage of lignin systems is reported. The use of photochemistry enabled fragmentation of the ß-O-4 linkage, the primary linkage in lignin, provides the fragmentation products in good to high yields. The approach was merged with reported oxidation conditions in a one-pot, two-step platform without any intermediary purification, suggesting its high fidelity. The future utility of the organocatalytic method was illustrated by applying the visible light-mediated protocol to continuous flow processing.

8.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(20)2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066246

RESUMO

Dental laboratories require manpower resources for manufacturing prostheses and inventory management. In this paper, we developed an automated inventory management system for dental laboratories to improve the production efficiency. A sensing system was developed based on the framework of Internet of things to collect the information of cobalt-chromium disks both in the storage room and manufacturing area, and an expert system was developed to automatically conduct inventory management based on the established rules. The proposed system can reduce the time of recording data and also assist the manager in configuring and managing material orders. The experimental results showed that a large amount of working time is reduced, resulting in the benefits of saving money and improving efficiency in dental manufacturing.

9.
Cells ; 9(10)2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076478

RESUMO

Cognitive impairment (CI) is not uncommon in dialysis patients. Various factors have been implicated. This study aims to examine mutual interaction of various clinical factors for CI in patients receiving hemodialysis. A total of 48 hemodialysis patients in outpatient clinic were recruited from 2015 to 2017. Demographics, circulating uremic toxin concentrations, miRNA concentrations, and nerve injury protein concentrations were collected. Clinical dementia rating (CDR) scores were used to stratify the functional scores of the patients. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to evaluate diagnostic test performance for predicting dichotomous results, and cumulative ROC analysis was used to examine the combined contribution of clinical factors. CDR scale 0 included 15 patients (mean age, 59.1 years); CDR > 0.5 included 33 patients (mean age, 64.0 years). On cumulative ROC analysis, the major predictors of mild CI were hemoglobin, age, sex, homocysteine, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), and miR-486. The cumulative area under the curve (AUC) on combining hemoglobin, age, and miR-486 was the highest (0.897, 95% confidence interval 0.806-0.988). Two dichotomized variables reached 81.82% sensitivity and 86.67% specificity, with the likelihood ratio for positive and negative results being 6.14 and 0.21, respectively. In conclusion, hemoglobin, age, and miR-486 display high-degree combined effects on mild CI in patients receiving hemodialysis.

10.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2020: 1246920, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33014028

RESUMO

Education competitiveness is a key feature of national competitiveness. It is crucial for nations to develop and enhance student and teacher potential to increase national competitiveness. The decreasing population of children has caused a series of social problems in many developed countries, directly affecting education and com.petitiveness in an international environment. In Taiwan, a low birthrate has had a large impact on schools at every level because of a substantial decrease in enrollment and a surplus of teachers. Therefore, close attention must be paid to these trends. In this study, combining a whale optimization algorithm (WOA) and support vector regression (WOASVR) was proposed to determine trends of student and teacher numbers in Taiwan for higher accuracy in time-series forecasting analysis. To select the most suitable support vector kernel parameters, WOA was applied. Data collected from the Ministry of Education datasets of student and teacher numbers between 1991 and 2018 were used to examine the proposed method. Analysis revealed that the numbers of students and teachers decreased annually except in private primary schools. A comparison of the forecasting results obtained from WOASVR and other common models indicated that WOASVR provided the lowest mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) and root mean square error (RMSE) for all analyzed datasets. Forecasting performed using the WOASVR method can provide accurate data for use in developing education policies and responses.

11.
Polymers (Basel) ; 12(10)2020 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33080780

RESUMO

Hemostasis is a process causing bleeding to stop, and it is known from the literature that hemostasis can be enhanced using chitosan on wound gauzes. We proposed here a continuous flow-through device, with the test blood flowing through the gauze sample at a constant flow rate and the pressure drop across the gauze measured, for assessing the hemostatic performance of the gauze. Experiments were performed using the device with both whole blood and washed blood (with clotting factors and platelets removed from the whole blood), and their results agree with each other within 10% discrepancy, indicating quantitatively that hemostatic enhancement via chitosan is essentially independent of classical clotting pathways, which was demonstrated qualitatively through animal tests in the literature. The proposed device and method can be applied for evaluating quantitatively the hemostatic performance of various gauzes in a flowing blood environment (in comparison with static tests) with less test blood (20-60% less, in comparison with that of a flow-through device driven by a constant pressure gradient), and are thus, helpful for designing better wound gauzes. In particular, it is effective to enhance the hemostatic performance further (additional 30%) through acidification (changing the amino group to the ammonium group) of the gauze for chitosan-based wound gauzes.

12.
Water Res ; 185: 116282, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33086467

RESUMO

Increased availability and affordability of sensors, especially water quality sensors, is poised to improve process control and modelling in water and wastewater systems. Sensor measurements are often flawed by unavoidable influent complexity and sensor instability, making extraction of useful signals problematic. Although a natural reaction is to put extra effort into sensor maintenance to achieve more reliable measurements, useful signals can be extracted from those unqualified signals by appropriate usage of available data-driven tools instructed by physical factors (e.g. prior process knowledge, physical constraints, phenomenal observations). Such methodology is herein defined as hybrid approaches. While the concept of coupling physical factors into data-driven tools is not new in downstream applications such as process modelling and control, little literature has explicitly applied it in the first and equally important step - signal processing. With flawed influent five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) sensor measurements as an example, this paper provides a comprehensive case study demonstrating how physical factors were incorporated throughout the procedures of processing a flawed signal for its maximum value. Results showed that useful signals were extracted and validated via an assembly of well-established machine learning tools, whose performance was improved with physical factors. An Improved Standard Signal Processing Architecture (ISSPA) is also proposed based on the results of this research.


Assuntos
Águas Residuárias , Qualidade da Água
13.
Biol Psychol ; : 107971, 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091450

RESUMO

Although great progress has been made in our understanding of perceptual-cognitive expertise in team sports, the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying such cognitive advantage in the face of multiple, sometimes conflicting, channels of information are not well understood. Two electroencephalographic indices associated with perceptual decisions, the P3 component of event-related potential and alpha inter-trial phase coherence (ITPC), were measured and compared across elite soccer players and non-athletic controls while performing a redundant-target task. Specifically, we adopted an effective diagnostic tool, Systems Factorial Technology, to assess participants' workload capacity. Soccer players exhibited larger workload capacity while making faster decisions compared with controls. Moreover, this larger workload capacity was associated with modulations of P3 and alpha ITPC when processing two targets relative to one target and one distractor, an effect that was not observed in controls. Together, the present findings offer a possible mechanistic explanation of perceptual-cognitive expertise in the context of team sports.

14.
Addict Biol ; : e12975, 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33094505

RESUMO

Methamphetamine (MA) is a potent stimulant and notoriously addictive. Individuals respond to MA effects differently and thus have a varying susceptible risk of developing MA use disorder. Cumulative evidence has indicated that gut dysbiosis contributes to behavioral response to drug effects. However, the role of gut microbiota in the susceptible risk of developing MA use disorder has remained elusive. Using an MA-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) rat model, we administrated the same dose of MA to rats, which then showed distinct preferences in drug-related place, indicating their different responses to MA. From all of the MA-exposed rats, the eight with the highest CPP scores were labeled as group high CPP (H-CPP), and the eight with the lowest were labeled as group low CPP (L-CPP). By 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequencing, we found that the gut microbiota compositions differed between H-CPP and L-CPP. Specifically, Akkermansia was significantly higher in H-CPP and positively correlated with the CPP scores. Notably, H-CPP and L-CPP differed in the gut microbiota composition prior to the CPP training; Ruminococcus was the dominant phylotype in H-CPP at baseline. More importantly, rats pretreated by antibiotics showed a significantly stronger MA-induced CPP than did the controls. Our study demonstrates that the gut dysbiosis was associated with the MA-induced CPP, indicating that the gut microbiota might be important modulators for MA-induced behavior and vulnerability to MA use disorder.

15.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095226

RESUMO

Ultra-stable Pickering emulsions synergistically stabilized by zein nanoparticles and starch nanocrystals were successfully prepared and the stabilization is ascribed to the double-layer shell of binary particles. The as-prepared Pickering emulsions showed unprecedented stability against centrifugation up to 20 000g and against environmental stresses such as pH change and high temperature.

16.
Cells ; 9(10)2020 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33086697

RESUMO

Coronaviruses are able to establish persistence. However, how coronaviruses react to persistence and whether the selected viruses have altered their characteristics remain unclear. In this study, we found that the persistent infection of bovine coronavirus (BCoV), which is in the same genus as SARS-COV-2, led to alterations of genome structure, attenuation of gene expression, and the synthesis of subgenomic mRNA (sgmRNA) with a previously unidentified pattern. Subsequent analyses revealed that the altered genome structures were associated with the attenuation of gene expression. In addition, the genome structure at the 5' terminus and the cellular environment during the persistence were responsible for the sgmRNA synthesis, solving the previously unanswered question regarding the selection of transcription regulatory sequence for synthesis of BCoV sgmRNA 12.7. Although the BCoV variants (BCoV-p95) selected under the persistence replicated efficiently in cells without persistent infection, its pathogenicity was still lower than that of wild-type (wt) BCoV. Furthermore, in comparison with wt BCoV, the variant BCoV-p95 was not able to efficiently adapt to the challenges of alternative environments, suggesting wt BCoV is genetically robust. We anticipate that the findings derived from this fundamental research can contribute to the disease control and treatments against coronavirus infection including SARS-CoV-2.

17.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res ; : 118895, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096144

RESUMO

MutT Homolog 1 (MTH1) is a mammalian 8-oxodGTPase for sanitizing oxidative damage to the nucleotide pool. Nudix type 5 (NUDT5) also sanitizes 8-oxodGDP in the nucleotide pool. The role of MTH1 and NUDT5 in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) progression and metastasis remains unclear. In the present study, we reported that MTH1 and NUDT5 were upregulated in NSCLC cell lines and tissues, and higher levels of MTH1 or NUDT5 were associated with tumor metastasis and a poor prognosis in patients with NSCLC. Their suppression also restrained tumor growth and lung metastasis in vivo and significantly inhibited NSCLC cell migration, invasion, cell proliferation and cell cycle progression while promoting apoptosis in vitro. The opposite effects were observed in vitro following MTH1 or NUDT5 rescue. In addition, the upregulation of MTH1 or NUDT5 enhanced the MAPK pathway and PI3K/AKT activity. Furthermore, MTH1 and NUDT5 induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition both in vitro and in vivo. These results highlight the essential role of MTH1 and NUDT5 in NSCLC tumor tumorigenesis and metastasis as well as their functions as valuable markers of the NSCLC prognosis and potential therapeutic targets.

18.
J Rehabil Med ; 52(9): jrm00105, 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924065

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors of admission to post-acute inpatient rehabilitation settings follow-ing acute care for stroke survivors in Taiwan. DESIGN: Prospective observation study. PARTICIPANTS: Stroke survivors (n = 558) admitted to acute care wards for inpatient rehabilitation (62% male; mean age 60.0 ± 12.2 years). METHODS: The primary outcome was whether survivors were admitted to post-acute inpatient rehabilitation settings after discharge from acute care wards. Logistic regression model was adopted to examine the predictors of admission to post-acute inpatient rehabilitation. A receiver operating characteristic curve was drawn to compute the ability of the predictors to discriminate the outcome. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis results indicated Activity Measure Post-Acute Care "6-Clicks" Basic Mobility score to be the only significant predictor of admission to post-acute inpatient rehabilitation (odds ratio = 0.44, 95% confidence interval: 0.34-0.56). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis results indicated that the cut-off point for Basic Mobility was 13 (standardized score: 33.99). This yielded a sensitivity value of 0.98 and a specificity value of 0.96 for determining the admission to post-acute inpatient rehabilitation. CONCLUSION: Activity Measure Post-Acute Care "6-Clicks" Basic Mobility subscale scores at admission for acute care can predict admission to post-acute inpatient rehabilitation for stroke survivors in Taiwan. This tool can aid clinicians in formulating adequate discharge plans at an early stage, and thus improve the quality of care.

19.
Cortex ; 132: 79-91, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956909

RESUMO

Soccer is the only major sport with voluntary unprotected head-to-ball contact. It is crucial to determine if head impact through long-term soccer training is manifested in brain structure and connectivity, and whether such alterations are due to sustained training per se. Using diffusion tensor imaging, we documented a comprehensive view of soccer players' brains in a sample of twenty-five right-handed male elite soccer players aged from 18 to 22 years and twenty-five non-athletic controls aged 19-24 years. Importantly, none had recalled a history of concussion. We performed a whole-brain tract-based spatial statistical analysis, and a tract-specific probabilistic tractography method to measure the differences of white matter properties between groups. Whole-brain integrity analysis showed stronger microstructural integrity within the corpus callosum tract in soccer players compared to controls. Further, tract-specific probabilistic tractography revealed that the anterior part of corpus callosum may be the brain structure most relevant to training experience, which may put into perspective prior evidence showing corpus callosum alteration in retired or concussed athletes practicing contact sports. Intriguingly, experience-related alterations showed left hemispheric lateralization of potential early signs of concussion-like effects. In sum, we concluded that the observed gains and losses may be due to a consequence of engagement in protracted soccer training that incurs prognostic hallmarks associated with minor injury-induced neural inflammation.

20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(18)2020 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962212

RESUMO

Cynoglossus monopus, a small benthic fish, belongs to the Cynoglossidae, Pleuronectiformes. It was rarely studied due to its low abundance and cryptical lifestyle. In order to understand the mitochondrial genome and the phylogeny in Cynoglossidae, the complete mitogenome of C. monopus has been sequenced and analyzed for the first time. The total length is 16,425 bp, typically containing 37 genes with novel gene rearrangements. The tRNA-Gln gene is inverted from the light to the heavy strand and translocated from the downstream of tRNA-Ile gene to its upstream. The control region (CR) translocated downstream to the 3'-end of ND1 gene adjoining to inverted to tRNA-Gln and left a 24 bp trace fragment in the original position. The phylogenetic trees were reconstructed by Bayesian inference (BI) and maximum likelihood (ML) methods based on the mitogenomic data of 32 tonguefish species and two outgroups. The results support the idea that Cynoglossidae is a monophyletic group and indicate that C. monopus has the closest phylogenetic relationship with C. puncticeps. By combining fossil records and mitogenome data, the time-calibrated evolutionary tree of families Cynoglossidae and Soleidae was firstly presented, and it was indicated that Cynoglossidae and Soleidae were differentiated from each other during Paleogene, and the evolutionary process of family Cynoglossidae covered the Quaternary, Neogene and Paleogene periods.

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