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1.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(9): e27098, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hemodialysis (HD) therapy is an indispensable tool used in critical care management. Patients undergoing HD are at risk for intradialytic adverse events, ranging from muscle cramps to cardiac arrest. So far, there is no effective HD device-integrated algorithm to assist medical staff in response to these adverse events a step earlier during HD. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to develop machine learning algorithms to predict intradialytic adverse events in an unbiased manner. METHODS: Three-month dialysis and physiological time-series data were collected from all patients who underwent maintenance HD therapy at a tertiary care referral center. Dialysis data were collected automatically by HD devices, and physiological data were recorded by medical staff. Intradialytic adverse events were documented by medical staff according to patient complaints. Features extracted from the time series data sets by linear and differential analyses were used for machine learning to predict adverse events during HD. RESULTS: Time series dialysis data were collected during the 4-hour HD session in 108 patients who underwent maintenance HD therapy. There were a total of 4221 HD sessions, 406 of which involved at least one intradialytic adverse event. Models were built by classification algorithms and evaluated by four-fold cross-validation. The developed algorithm predicted overall intradialytic adverse events, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.83, sensitivity of 0.53, and specificity of 0.96. The algorithm also predicted muscle cramps, with an AUC of 0.85, and blood pressure elevation, with an AUC of 0.93. In addition, the model built based on ultrafiltration-unrelated features predicted all types of adverse events, with an AUC of 0.81, indicating that ultrafiltration-unrelated factors also contribute to the onset of adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that algorithms combining linear and differential analyses with two-class classification machine learning can predict intradialytic adverse events in quasi-real time with high AUCs. Such a methodology implemented with local cloud computation and real-time optimization by personalized HD data could warn clinicians to take timely actions in advance.

2.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444962

RESUMO

Galectin-3 reportedly participates in the inflammatory process that causes insulin resistance in the target tissues. However, the role of high plasma galectin-3 levels as an indicator of protein-energy wasting (PEW) in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis remains unclear. This study included 240 hemodialysis patients (64.5 [55.3-74.0] years, 35.8% women) from a tertiary medical center. A baseline assessment of demographic and clinical data, biochemical parameters, and body composition was conducted. Plasma galectin-3 and other biomarkers were measured using a multiplex bead-based immunoassay. Participants were then divided into two subgroups depending on the median value of plasma galectin-3. Malnutrition was identified using the geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) and the criteria of the International Society of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism. Independent risk factors for elevated plasma galectin-3 and malnutrition were identified by multivariate logistic regression. The high galectin-3 group was more likely to be older, have lower lean tissue mass and GNRI scores, be diagnosed with PEW, dialyze through a tunneled catheter, and have higher circulating IL-6, TNF-α, and MCP-1 concentrations than the low galectin-3 group. After multivariate adjustment, only low mean arterial pressure, dialyzing with tunneled cuffed catheters, and elevated systemic inflammatory markers correlated with high galectin-3 levels. Plasma galectin-3 concentrations also increased significantly in hemodialysis patients with PEW. However, compared with other commonly used nutritional indicators, galectin-3 did not show superiority in predicting PEW. Although the plasma galectin-3 levels correlated with PEW severity, this correlation disappeared after adjustment for potential confounding variables (OR, 1.000; 95% CI, 0.999-1.001). In conclusion, plasma galectin-3 is a valuable biomarker for systemic inflammation but is less prominent for PEW in patients with maintenance hemodialysis. Further identification of novel biomarkers is required to detect patients at risk for malnutrition and implement appropriate interventions.

3.
Perfusion ; : 2676591211040945, 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407657

RESUMO

Venous stenosis is the most common cause of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) failure in hemodialysis patients. For patients with AVF stenosis, the pressure over the antecedent part of the AVF stenotic lesion will increase if arterial inflow is sufficient. We report a chronic hemodialysis patient who received an angiographic examination for the juxta-anastomosis stenosis of his AVF. A unique feature of a collateral venous branch antecedent to the stenotic lesion was noted, resembling a musical sign as the "eighth note." After percutaneous transluminal angioplasty, the eighth note attenuated markedly at once. Of note, the eighth note sign is not seen frequently, and thus we postulate that the formation of an eighth note sign on the radiocephalic fistula should fulfill the following requirements, including a sufficient arterial inflow, an adjacent collateral branch close enough to the arteriovenous anastomosis, a severe juxta-anastomotic stenotic lesion, and an intact ulnar venous drainage system.

4.
FASEB J ; 35(8): e21785, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314075

RESUMO

In the present study, acute onset of severe lupus nephritis was successfully treated in mice using a new, benzamide-linked, small molecule that targets immune modulation and the NLRP3 inflammasome. Specifically, 6-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-(3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-2H-benzo[e][1,3]oxazine-2,4(3H)-dione (Cf-02) (a) reduced serum levels of IgG anti-dsDNA, IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α, (b) inhibited activation of dendritic cells and differentially regulated T cell functions, and (c) suppressed the NF-κB/NLRP3 inflammasome axis, targeting priming and activating signals of the inflammasome. Moreover, treatment with Cf-02 significantly inhibited secretion of IL-1ß in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages, but this effect was abolished by autophagy induction. These results recommend Cf-02 as a promising drug candidate for the serious renal conditions associated with systemic lupus erythematosus. Future investigations should examine whether Cf-02 may also be therapeutic in other types of chronic kidney disease involving NLRP3 inflammasome-driven signaling.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Nefrite Lúpica/tratamento farmacológico , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/imunologia , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Células Cultivadas , Células Dendríticas , Feminino , Humanos , Macrófagos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Síndrome de Sjogren
5.
Clin Toxicol (Phila) ; : 1-2, 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256673

RESUMO

This case report describes a 56-year-old woman receiving regular hemodialysis for three years who presented with an unsteady gait for one month, dysarthria, and frequent choking on liquids for two weeks. Brain MRI revealed a characteristic "lentiform fork sign" with hyperintense T2W/FLAIR signal in the bilateral lentiform nuclei and restricted diffusion in bilateral globus pallidus. She was inadvertently prescribed metformin 1,000 mg per day one month ago by a physician who was unaware of her end-stage kidney disease. After intensive hemodialysis therapy with eight hemodialysis sessions within 12 days, her neurological deficits fully resolved. Clinicians should be aware of metformin-induced encephalopathy, presenting with relevant medication history, neurological symptoms, and the lentiform fork sign.

6.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070850

RESUMO

Protein-energy wasting (PEW) is associated with adverse outcomes in hemodialysis patients. This study compares the simplified creatinine index (SCI) and circulating inflammatory markers as nutritional screening tools for hemodialysis patients. Maintenance hemodialysis patients (230 total patients, 34.8% women, 64.0 ± 14.3 years old) from a tertiary medical center were assessed for demographic data, body composition analysis, biochemistry tests, and circulating inflammatory biomarkers. The SCI was calculated using Canaud's formula. Reduced fat-free mass index (FFMI), a surrogate of lean body mass, was identified according to the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism guidelines. Nutritional status was assessed by the geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) and International Society of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism (ISRNM) criteria. Multivariate logistic regression revealed independent risk factors for low FFMI and malnutrition. Of the patients, 47.4% had low FFMI. Patients with a reduction in FFMI tended to be older females with lower body mass index, SCI, and GNRI scores but significantly higher levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and IL-8. SCI was found to be an independent predictor for reduced FFMI (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.40-0.81) and presence of PEW according to ISRNM criteria (OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.21-0.68). Although a positive association between systemic inflammatory markers and low FFMI was observed, this association disappeared in multivariate analysis. Moreover, the inflammatory markers examined in this study were not associated with malnutrition after adjusting for potential confounders. Compared with markers of systemic inflammation, SCI achieved better performance in assessing the nutritional status of hemodialysis patients.


Assuntos
Creatinina/sangue , Inflamação/sangue , Desnutrição Proteico-Calórica/sangue , Desnutrição Proteico-Calórica/etiologia , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Taiwan
7.
Viruses ; 13(3)2021 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809472

RESUMO

BK polyomavirus nephropathy (BKVN) and allograft rejection are two closely-associated diseases on opposite ends of the immune scale in kidney transplant recipients. The principle of balancing the immune system remains the mainstay of therapeutic strategy. While patient outcomes can be improved through screening, risk factors identification, and rapid reduction of immunosuppressants, a lack of standard curative therapy is the primary concern during clinical practice. Additionally, difficulty in pathological differential diagnosis and clinicopathology's dissociation pose problems for a definite diagnosis. This article discusses the delicate evaluation needed to optimize immunosuppression and reviews recent advances in molecular diagnosis and immunological therapy for BKVN patients. New biomarkers for BKVN diagnosis are under development. For example, measurement of virus-specific T cell level may play a role in steering immunosuppressants. The development of cellular therapy may provide prevention, even a cure, for BKVN, a complex post-transplant complication.


Assuntos
Rejeição de Enxerto/imunologia , Nefropatias/imunologia , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Polyomavirus/imunologia , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/imunologia , Vírus BK/imunologia , Humanos , Imunossupressão , Transplantados
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33860890

RESUMO

In the past, energy and environmental research focused on the performance of individual efficiencies. In order to make up for the research deficiencies, this research uses SBM (slack-based measures) dynamic network DEA (DN-SBM) to assess energy, health efficiency, and DN-TFP productivity changes from 2011 to 2015. This research uses forest area as the carryover that can objectively measure the performance of OECD energy, health, and total efficiency, and calls for the importance of forest protection and planting. The empirical results show that Estonia, Finland, Hungary, Iceland, Mexico, New Zealand, Portugal, Slovenia, Sweden, and Turkey have the best overall efficiency performance, while Ireland (0.4469), Israel (0.4179), and the Netherlands (0.3697) are the three worst. In total, 29 economies show progress in terms of productivity. Moreover, Chile (0.9706), Mexico (0.9995), Slovak Republic (0.9942), Turkey (0.9815), and the UK (0.9886) exhibit a slight decline. The overall efficiency value of 20 countries is greater than the average, and their productivity is showing an upward trend. Only the UK (0.5081, 0.9886) has an overall efficiency value that is less than the overall average with productivity that is showing a drop. About research method, this study utilizes dynamic intertemporal data to evaluate the changes in the overall efficiency and productivity of OECD members with DN-SBM and DN-TFP indices in order to offer more objective research results for various economies that are useful for formulating policies related to energy, national health, and forest conservation.

9.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 12(1): 193, 2021 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741073

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Life-long peritoneal dialysis (PD) as a renal replacement therapy is limited by peritoneal fibrosis. Previous studies showed immunomodulatory and antifibrotic effects of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) on peritoneal fibrosis. However, the role of the peritoneal macrophage in this process remains uninvestigated. METHODS: We examined the therapeutic effects of ADSC and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC) in the rat model of dialysis-induced peritoneal fibrosis using methylglyoxal. In addition, treatment of macrophages with the conditioned medium of ADSC and BM-MSC was performed individually to identify the beneficial component of the stem cell secretome. RESULTS: In the in vivo experiments, we found dialysis-induced rat peritoneal fibrosis was attenuated by both ADSC and BM-MSC. Interestingly, ADSC possessed a more prominent therapeutic effect than BM-MSC in ameliorating peritoneal membrane thickening while also upregulating epithelial cell markers in rat peritoneal tissues. The therapeutic effects of ADSC were positively associated with M2 macrophage polarization. In the in vitro experiments, we confirmed that interleukin-6 (IL-6) secreted by MSCs upon transforming growth factor-ß1 stimulation promotes M2 macrophage polarization. CONCLUSIONS: In dialysis-induced peritoneal fibrosis, MSCs are situated in an inflammatory environment of TGF-ß1 and secrete IL-6 to polarize macrophages into the M2 phenotype. Our findings reveal a previously unidentified role of tissue macrophage in this antifibrotic process. ADSC has the advantage of abundance and accessibility, making the application values extremely promising. In dialysis-induced peritoneal fibrosis, peritoneal mesothelial cells secrete transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1) when exposed to methylglyoxal (MGO)-containing peritoneal dialysate. When situated in TGF-ß1, the inflammatory environment induces mesenchymal stem cells to secrete interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-6 polarizes macrophages into the M2 phenotype. The dominant peritoneal tissue M2 macrophages, marked by upregulated Arg-1 expression, account for the attenuation of MGO-induced dedifferentiation of peritoneal mesothelial cells to maintain epithelial integrity.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Fibrose Peritoneal , Animais , Interleucina-6 , Macrófagos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/patologia , Fibrose Peritoneal/etiologia , Fibrose Peritoneal/patologia , Fibrose Peritoneal/terapia , Ratos , Diálise Renal
10.
11.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 25, 2021 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435901

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immunoglobulin M (IgM) mesangial deposition in pediatric minimal change disease (MCD) has been reported to be associated with steroid dependence and poor renal outcomes. However, the evidence linking the impacts of IgM mesangial deposition to the treatment prognosis in adult-onset MCD is still elusive. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, 37 adult patients with MCD received kidney biopsies from January 2010 to May 2020. Immunofluorescence microscopy was performed and the patients dichotomized according to IgM mesangial deposition (12 patients with positive IgM deposition; 25 patients with negative IgM deposition). We analyzed the clinical features, the dosage of immunosuppressive agents, and the response to treatment for 2 years between the two groups. RESULTS: Analysis of the clinical symptoms, the dosage of immunosuppressive treatment, and the time to remission revealed no statistical difference between the groups. However, compared to the negative IgM group, the frequency of relapses was significantly higher in the positive IgM group during the two-year follow-up period (the negative IgM group 0.25 episodes/year; the positive IgM group 0.75 episodes/year, p = 0.029). Furthermore, multivariate linear regression revealed that the positivity of IgM mesangial deposition is independently associated with the frequency of relapses (regression coefficient B 0.450, 95% CI 0.116-0.784, p = 0.010). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicated that adult-onset MCD patients with IgM mesangial deposition have a high risk of relapses. Therefore, intensive monitoring of disease activity should be considered in MCD adults with IgM mesangial deposition.

12.
Cells ; 10(1)2021 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435396

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has long been known to cause significant digestive tract pathology. Of note, indoxyl sulfate is a gut microbe-derived uremic toxin that accumulates in CKD patients. Nevertheless, the relationship between gut microbiota, fecal indole content, and blood indoxyl sulfate level remains unknown. In our study, we established an adenine-induced CKD rat model, which recapitulates human CKD-related gut dysbiosis. Synbiotic treatment in CKD rats showed a significant reduction in both the indole-producing bacterium Clostridium and fecal indole amount. Furthermore, gut microbiota diversity was reduced in CKD rats but was restored after synbiotic treatment. Intriguingly, in our end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) patients, the abundance of indole-producing bacteria, Bacteroides, Prevotella, and Clostridium, is similar to that of healthy controls. Consistently, the fecal indole tends to be higher in the ESKD patients, but the difference did not achieve statistical significance. However, the blood level of indoxyl sulfate was significantly higher than that of healthy controls, implicating that under an equivalent indole production rate, the impaired renal excretion contributes to the accumulation of this notorious uremic toxin. On the other hand, we did identify two short-chain fatty acid-producing bacteria, Faecalibacterium and Roseburia, were reduced in ESKD patients as compared to the healthy controls. This may contribute to gut dysbiosis. We also identified that three genera Fusobacterium, Shewanella, and Erwinia, in the ESKD patients but not in the healthy controls. Building up gut symbiosis to treat CKD is a novel concept, but once proved effective, it will provide an additional treatment strategy for CKD patients.


Assuntos
Disbiose/complicações , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Indóis/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Simbióticos , Adenina , Idoso , Animais , Bactérias/metabolismo , Biodiversidade , Peso Corporal , Dieta , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Disbiose/sangue , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Indicã/sangue , Rim/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ratos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Crit Care Med ; 48(12): e1185-e1193, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932351

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Renal replacement therapy-requiring acute kidney injury frequently occurs in ICUs, which require evidence-based medical attention. However, in the postacute kidney injury patient population, the evidence regarding effective therapies to improve patient outcomes is lacking. Therefore, we aimed to examine whether the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade is effective in improving renal outcomes in postacute kidney injury patients who experienced temporary renal replacement therapy and have hypertension. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study. SETTING: A nationwide database in Taiwan. PATIENTS: From January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2013, we identified 8,558 acute kidney injury patients with hypertension in the national registry database. All these patients experienced an acute kidney injury episode, which required temporary renal replacement therapy for at least once. INTERVENTIONS: Users (n = 3,885) and nonusers (n = 4,673) of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to analyze hazard ratios for the commencement of end-stage renal disease and all-cause mortality for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin II receptor blocker users (n = 3,885) and nonusers (n = 4,673).In a median follow-up of 4.3 years, 5,880 patients (68.7%) required long-term dialysis, and 4,841 patients (56.6%) died. Compared with postacute kidney injury patients who did not use angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin II receptor blocker, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin II receptor blocker users are marginally less likely to progress to end-stage renal disease (adjusted hazard ratio 0.95; 95% CI 0.90-1.01; p = 0.06) and significantly less likely to suffer from all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 0.93; 95% CI 0.87-0.98; p = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: In patients who experienced renal replacement therapy-requiring acute kidney injury and have hypertension, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin II receptor blocker use is associated with better survival outcomes compared with nonuser.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
14.
Clin Exp Nephrol ; 24(10): 973, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783170

RESUMO

In the original publication of the article, the second sentence under the heading, Case presentation appears incorrectly as A computed tomographic (CT) scan demonstrated left-sided hydronephrosis (Fig. 1).

15.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 478, 2020 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI) is a major complication that results in increased morbidity and mortality after cardiac surgery. Most established prediction models are limited to the analysis of nonlinear relationships and fail to fully consider intraoperative variables, which represent the acute response to surgery. Therefore, this study utilized an artificial intelligence-based machine learning approach thorough perioperative data-driven learning to predict CSA-AKI. METHODS: A total of 671 patients undergoing cardiac surgery from August 2016 to August 2018 were enrolled. AKI following cardiac surgery was defined according to criteria from Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO). The variables used for analysis included demographic characteristics, clinical condition, preoperative biochemistry data, preoperative medication, and intraoperative variables such as time-series hemodynamic changes. The machine learning methods used included logistic regression, support vector machine (SVM), random forest (RF), extreme gradient boosting (XGboost), and ensemble (RF + XGboost). The performance of these models was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). We also utilized SHapley Additive exPlanation (SHAP) values to explain the prediction model. RESULTS: Development of CSA-AKI was noted in 163 patients (24.3%) during the first postoperative week. Regarding the efficacy of the single model that most accurately predicted the outcome, RF exhibited the greatest AUC (0.839, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.772-0.898), whereas the AUC (0.843, 95% CI 0.778-0.899) of ensemble model (RF + XGboost) was even greater than that of the RF model alone. The top 3 most influential features in the RF importance matrix plot were intraoperative urine output, units of packed red blood cells (pRBCs) transfused during surgery, and preoperative hemoglobin level. The SHAP summary plot was used to illustrate the positive or negative effects of the top 20 features attributed to the RF. We also used the SHAP dependence plot to explain how a single feature affects the output of the RF prediction model. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, machine learning methods were successfully established to predict CSA-AKI, which determines risks following cardiac surgery, enabling the optimization of postoperative treatment strategies to minimize the postoperative complications following cardiac surgeries.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Modelos Estatísticos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32793578

RESUMO

The juxta-anastomotic stenosis of an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is a significant clinical problem in hemodialysis patients with no effective treatment. Previous studies of AV anastomotic angles on hemodynamics and vascular wall injury were based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations using standardized AVF geometry, not the real-world patient images. The present study is the first CFD study to use angiographic images with patient-specific outcome information, i.e., the exact location of the AVF stenotic lesion. We conducted the CFD analysis utilizing patient-specific AVF geometric models to investigate hemodynamic parameters at different locations of an AVF, and the association between hemodynamic parameters and the anastomotic angle, particularly at the stenotic location. We analyzed 27 patients who used radio-cephalic AVF for hemodialysis and received an angiographic examination for juxta-anastomotic stenosis. The three-dimensional geometrical model of each patient's AVF was built using the angiographic images, in which the shape and the anastomotic angle of the AVF were depicted. CFD simulations of AVF hemodynamics were conducted to obtain blood flow parameters at different locations of an AVF. We found that at the location of the stenotic lesion, the AV angle was significantly correlated with access flow disturbance (r = 0.739; p < 0.001) and flow velocity (r = 0.563; p = 0.002). Furthermore, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed that the AV angle determines the lesion's flow disturbance with a high area under the curve value of 0.878. The ROC analysis also identified a cut-off value of the AV angle as 46.5°, above or below which the access flow disturbance was significantly different. By applying CFD analysis to real-world patient images, the present study provides evidence that an anastomotic angle wider than 46.5° might lead to disturbed flow generation, demonstrating a reference angle to adopt during the anastomosis surgery.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32675043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our aim was to characterize etiologic diagnoses obtained from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and blood specimens, and to identify risk factors for mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients with pneumonia and respiratory failure. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of SLE patients with pneumonia and respiratory failure. Clinical characteristics, laboratory profiles, and microbiology in BALF and blood samples were evaluated. We performed univariable analyses to identify mortality risk factors. RESULTS: All 24 patients (F:M = 21:3, median age 46.5 years; disease duration 11 years) received mechanical ventilation (median duration: 11 days). Pathogens identified in BALF included Pneumocystis jiroveci (12 patients [50%]), cytomegalovirus (CMV, 7 patients [29.2%]), and bacteria (11 patients [45.8%]). Thirteen patients (54.2%) yielded pathogens in blood (CMV in 8 patients [33.3%] and Escherichia coli in 5 patients [20.8%]). Eight developed septic shock, and 9 died within 30 days. Univariable analysis identified thrombocytopenia (odds ratio [OR]: 8.0, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.23-52.25), bacteremia within 30 days before or after endotracheal intubation (OR: 8.0, 95% CI: 1.23-52.5), and P. jiroveci pneumonia (PJP, OR: 7.0, 95% CI: 1.04-46.95) as risk factors for 30-day mortality. Kaplan-Meier analysis confirmed an increased risk of 30-day mortality with thrombocytopenia and bacteremia. CONCLUSION: There are high prevalence rates of PJP and CMV infections as evidenced by BALF analyses in SLE patients with pneumonia and respiratory failure. BALF analysis can facilitate rescue therapy per pathogen. Thrombocytopenia, bacteremia, and PJP in SLE patients can increase their 30-day mortality, so warrant early and aggressive treatments.

18.
Inquiry ; 57: 46958020935664, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32660320

RESUMO

This study pays more attention to the energy consumption saving, environmental pollution, and health efficiency improvement. We employ the Slack-based measure of Dynamic network Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model (DNSBM) to assess the impact of forestry area on annual and overall energy and health efficiency in 2 intertemporal stages, and also put forward on direction and magnitude to be improved respect to the slack variables. For the empirical study, this study employs the 13 countries in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Plus Three Cooperation (hereinafter referred to as APT) during 2011-2015. From the empirical evidence, it is not easy to raise gross domestic product while reducing energy consumption and PM2.5 emissions to improve energy efficiency. What makes people neglect is the impact of reduced forestry area on health efficiency. Optimistically, all economies are able to adopt measures from policy and technical perspectives, for instance, appropriately adjust energy-related policies, energetically develop innovative energy technologies, and preserve forestry areas, to create a harmonious atmosphere featuring economic development, environmental conservation, and national health and well-being.


Assuntos
Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/tendências , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Poluição Ambiental , Saúde Pública , Ásia Sudeste , Agricultura Florestal , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos
19.
Clin Exp Nephrol ; 24(10): 971-972, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592079

RESUMO

We report a 71-year-old woman who presented with unilateral flank pain and sepsis. A computed tomographic (CT) scan demonstrated left-sided hydronephrosis. Subsequent percutaneous nephrotomy drainage showed pus-like material, confirming the diagnosis of pyonephrosis. The ureteral stricture was caused by previous radiation injury for cervical cancer in this ESRD patient who was on chronic dialysis for years. In our case, the grade IVB hydronephrosis is a result of an extremely atrophic kidney, pyonephrosis, and ureteral stricture. The CT section of pyonephrosis in an extremely atrophic kidney resembles a sagittal section of a Nautilus shell, as the shell corresponds to the diffusely thinned renal cortex.

20.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 83(7): 634-638, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32452908

RESUMO

Dialysis patients are more vulnerable and susceptible to the severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection due to multiple comorbidities. Since Taiwan has the highest incidence and prevalence of treated end-stage kidney disease worldwide, it is crucial to act in advance to prevent a potential disaster. In the face of the COVID-19 pandemic, we implement proactive infection control measures to prevent it from spreading without sacrificing the dialysis care quality. In this article, we focused on hemodialysis vascular access (HVA) care in particular. As a life-line of hemodialysis (HD) patients, HVA care has a profound impact on the patient's quality of dialysis and life. Specifically, in our facility, the working and office areas of the HD units are separated to reduce cross-infection. All elective procedures for HVA are postponed, and operating rooms equipped with a negative-pressure anteroom are used for the suspected or confirmed COVID-19 patients. Herein, we share how we modified our HVA care policy not only to prevent our patients from COVID-19 infection but also to maintain the quality of HVA care.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Diálise Renal , Dispositivos de Acesso Vascular , COVID-19 , Humanos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , SARS-CoV-2
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