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Peptides ; 106: 96-101, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30016700


For clinical use, it is essential to develop potent endomorphin (EM) analogs with reduced antinociceptive tolerance. In the present study, the antinociceptive activities and tolerance development of four potent EM-1 analogs with C-terminal oligoarginine-conjugation was evaluated and compared in the radiant heat paw withdrawal test. Following intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration, all analogs 1-4 produced potent and prolonged antinociceptive effects. Notably, analogs 2 and 4 with the introduction of D-Ala in position 2 exhibited relatively higher analgesic potencies than those of analogs 1 and 3 with ß-Pro substitution, consistent with their µ-opioid binding characteristic. In addition, at a dose of 50 µmol/kg, endomorphin-1 (EM-1) failed to produce any significant antinociceptive activity after peripheral administration, whereas analogs 1-4 induced potent antinociceptive effects with an increased duration of action. Herein, our results indicated the development of antinociceptive tolerance to EM-1 and morphine at the supraspinal level on day 7. By contrast, analogs 1-4 decreased the antinociceptive tolerance. Furthermore, subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of morphine at 50 µmol/kg also developed the antinociceptive tolerance, whereas the extent of tolerance developed to analogs 1-4 was largely reduced. Especially, analog 4 exhibited non-tolerance-forming antinociception after peripheral administration. The present investigation gave the evidence that C-terminal conjugation of EM-1 with oligoarginine vector will facilitate the development of novel opioid analgesics with reduced opioid tolerance.

Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Arginina/química , Tolerância a Medicamentos , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Membro Posterior/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Camundongos , Modelos Animais , Oligopeptídeos/síntese química , Oligopeptídeos/química , Dor/prevenção & controle , Receptores Opioides mu/efeitos dos fármacos
Peptides ; 99: 128-133, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28888771


Previously, we have demonstrated that endomorphins (EMs) analogs with C-terminal hydrazide modification retained the µ-opioid receptor affinity and selectivity, and exhibited potent antinociception after intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration. In the present study, we extended our studies to evaluate the antinociceptive profiles of EMs and their analogs EM-1-NHNH2, EM-2-NHNH2 given spinally in the radiant heat paw withdrawal test. Following intrathecal (i.t.) administration, EM-1, EM-2, EM-1-NHNH2 and EM-2-NHNH2 dose-dependently increased the latency for paw withdrawal response. EM-1-NHNH2 displayed the highest antinociceptive effects, with the ED50 values being 1.63 nmol, more potent than the parent EM-1 (1.96 nmol), but with no significant difference. By contrast, the analgesic activities of EM-2 and its analog EM-2-NHNH2 were almost equivalent (P>0.05). Naloxone and ß-funaltrexamine (ß-FNA) almost completely attenuated the antinociceptive effects of EMs and their analogs EM-1-NHNH2, EM-2-NHNH2 (10 nmol, i.t.), indicating the involvement of µ-opioid receptors. Notably, the antinociception of EM-1 was not significantly antagonized by naloxonazine, a selective µ1-opioid receptor antagonist, but partially reversed the effects of EM-2, suggesting that EM-1 and EM-2 may produce antinociception through distinct µ1- and µ2-opioid receptor subtypes. Moreover, naloxonazine didn't significantly block the antinociceptive effects of EM-1-NHNH2 and EM-2-NHNH2, and nor-BNI, the κ-opioid receptor antagonist, attenuated the analgesic effects of EM-2, but not EM-1, EM-1-NHNH2 or EM-2-NHNH2. These results indicated that C-terminal amide to hydrazide conversion changed the antinociceptive opioid mechanisms of EM-2 but not EM-1 at the spinal level. Herein, the acute antinociceptive tolerance were further determined and compared. EM-1-NHNH2 and EM-2-NHNH2 shifted the dose-response curve rightward by only 2.8 and 1.5-fold as determined by tolerance ratio, whereas EM-1 and EM-2 by 3.4 and 4.6-fold, respectively, indicating substantially reduced antinociceptive tolerance. The present study demonstrated that C-terminal hydrazide modification changes the spinal antinociceptive profiles of EMs.

Analgésicos , Hidrazinas/química , Oligopeptídeos , Analgésicos/química , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Animais , Injeções Espinhais , Masculino , Camundongos , Oligopeptídeos/química , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia
Anesth Analg ; 125(6): 2123-2133, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28787346


BACKGROUND: The spared nerve injury (SNI) model is a new animal model that can mimic several characteristics of clinical neuropathic pain. Opioids are recommended as treatment of neuropathic pain. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate the antinociceptive effects of endomorphin-1 (EM-1) and endomorphin-2 (EM-2) given centrally and peripherally in the SNI model of neuropathic pain in mice. METHODS: The SNI model was made in mice by sparing the sural nerve intact, when the other 2 of 3 terminal branches of the sciatic nerve (common peroneal and tibial nerves) were tightly ligated and cut. Von Frey monofilaments were used to measure the SNI-induced mechanical allodynia-like behavior. The antiallodynic effects of EM-1 and EM-2 were determined after central and peripheral administration in the SNI model of neuropathic pain. Also, the specific opioid receptor antagonists were used to determine the opioid mechanisms of EMs involved in neuropathic pain. Values were expressed as the mean ± standard deviation. RESULTS: Our results showed that the SNI mice developed prolonged mechanical allodynia-like behavior in ipsilateral paw after surgery, with the withdrawal threshold value being 0.061 ± 0.02 g after 14 days. EM-1 and EM-2 produced significant antiallodynic effects in ipsilateral paw after intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration, more effective than that of morphine. The peak withdrawal thresholds of 10 nmol EM-1 and EM-2 determined at 5 minutes after injection were 0.92 ± 0.36 and 0.87 ± 0.33 g, respectively, higher than that of morphine (0.46 ± 0.20 g). Moreover, both EMs (10 nmol, i.c.v.) exerted significant antiallodynic effects in the contralateral paw, whereas no significant antinociceptive activity was seen after i.c.v. administration of morphine with equimolar dose. It was noteworthy that EM-1 and EM-2 produced antinociception through distinct µ1- and µ2-opioid receptor subtypes, and the EM-2-induced antiallodynia contained an additional component that was mediated by the release of endogenous dynorphin A, acting on κ-opioid receptor. In addition, the antiallodynic activities of peripheral administration of EM-1, EM-2, and morphine were also investigated. Intraplantar, but not subcutaneous administration of EM-1 and EM-2 also exhibited potent antinociception, establishing the peripheral and local effects. Both µ1- and µ2-opioid receptor subtypes, but not the δ- or κ-opioid receptors were involved in the peripheral antiallodynia of EMs. CONCLUSIONS: The present investigation demonstrated that both EM-1 and EM-2 given centrally and peripherally produced potent antiallodynic activities in SNI mice, and differential opioid mechanisms were involved.

Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Hiperalgesia/tratamento farmacológico , Neuralgia/tratamento farmacológico , Oligopeptídeos/administração & dosagem , Nervo Sural/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hiperalgesia/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Neuralgia/patologia , Medição da Dor/efeitos dos fármacos , Medição da Dor/métodos , Nervo Fibular/efeitos dos fármacos , Nervo Fibular/patologia , Nervo Sural/patologia , Nervo Tibial/efeitos dos fármacos , Nervo Tibial/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento
Neuropharmacology ; 116: 98-109, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28042019


C-terminal esterification of opioid peptides may change their opioid activities due to the modified physicochemical properties. In the present study, the pharmacological activities of C-terminal esterified endomorphin-2 (EM-2) analogs 1-3 were characterized by in vitro metabolic stability and octanol/buffer distribution assays. Also, the antinociceptive profiles in the radiant heat paw withdrawal test and related side effects of these analogs were determined. Our results showed that all three analogs significantly increased the metabolic stability and lipophilicity. Moreover, analogs 1-3 displayed potent antinociceptive activities after intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration. Analogs 1 and 3 exhibited about 2-fold higher antinociception than EM-2, and differential opioid mechanisms were involved. In addition, EM-2 at 50 µmol/kg failed to produce any significant antinociceptive activity after subcutaneous (s.c.) administration, whereas equimolar dose of analogs 1-3 produced significant analgesic effects. Analog 3 showed the highest antinociceptive activity after systemic administration, which was consistent with its in vitro stability and lipophilicity. We further evaluated the antinociceptive tolerance of analogs 1-3. In acute tolerance test, analogs 1-3 shifted the dose-response curves rightward by only 1.4-3.2 fold as determined by tolerance ratio, whereas EM-2 by 5.6-fold, demonstrating reduced antinociceptive tolerance. Also, analogs 1 and 2 decreased chronic antinociceptive tolerance by central and peripheral administration of drugs. In particular, analogs 3 displayed insignificant chronic antinociceptive tolerance. Furthermore, analogs 1-3 were less prone to induce gastrointestinal side effects at analgesic doses. The present investigation gave the evidence that C-terminal esterified modifications of EM-2 will facilitate the development of novel opioid analgesics with reduced side effects.

Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos Opioides/química , Analgésicos Opioides/farmacocinética , Animais , Cateteres de Demora , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/fisiologia , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Tolerância a Medicamentos , Esterificação , Trânsito Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura Alta , Masculino , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Dor Nociceptiva/tratamento farmacológico , Oligopeptídeos/efeitos adversos , Oligopeptídeos/química , Oligopeptídeos/farmacocinética