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1.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787396

RESUMO

Sulfidated zero-valent iron (S-ZVI) enhances the degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbon (CHC) in contaminated groundwater. Despite numerous studies of S-ZVI, a versatile strategy to improve its dechlorination kinetics, electron efficiency (εe), and dechlorination capacity is still needed. Here, we used heteroatom incorporation of N(C) and S by ball-milling of microscale ZVI with melamine and sulfur via nitridation and sulfidation to synthesize S-N(C)-mZVIbm particles that contain reactive Fe-NX(C) and FeS species. Sulfidation and nitridation synergistically increased the trichloroethene (TCE) dechlorination rate, with reaction constants kSA of 2.98 × 10-2 L·h-1·m-2 by S-N(C)-mZVIbm, compared to 1.77 × 10-3 and 8.15 × 10-5 L·h-1·m-2 by S-mZVIbm and N(C)-mZVIbm, respectively. Data show that sulfidation suppressed the reductive dissociation of N(C) from S-N(C)-mZVIbm, which stabilized the reactive Fe-NX(C) and reserved electrons for TCE dechlorination. In addition to lowering H2 production, S-N(C)-mZVIbm dechlorinated TCE to less reduced products (e.g., acetylene), contributing to the material's higher εe and dechlorination capacity. This synergistic effect on TCE degradation can be extended to other recalcitrant CHCs (e.g., chloroform) in both deionized and groundwater. This multiheteroatom incorporation approach to optimize ZVI for groundwater remediation provides a basis for further advances in reactive material synthesis.

2.
Food Chem ; 373(Pt B): 131438, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34741967

RESUMO

Various research groups have been paying huge attention to tune the metal states in metal-carbon hybrid materials. Herein, a mixed-valence copper-iodine co-doped carbon dots (Cu,I-CDs, Cu2+/Cu+/Cu0) were prepared through a one-step hydrothermal method, which displayed an intrinsic reduction performance under given conditions. Moreover, AuNPs/Cu,I-CDs composite was fabricated using Cu,I-CDs as reductant and stabilizer. Among them, the AuNPs/Cu,I-CDs composite exhibited the highest oxidase- and peroxidase-like activities, which was used for the colorimetric detection of tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ), with the detection limits of 23.45 µg/kg. Interestingly, the catalytic oxidation of TBHQ to oxidized TBHQ (TQ) could be inhibited by formaldehyde (HCHO). Therefore, a colorimetric sensor for HCHO was developed with the detection limit 0.335 mg/L. The catalytic mechanism for TBHQ was investigated by employing scavengers of different reactive species, indicating the significant roles of •O2- in the catalytic process. Therefore, it is believed that the as-prepared AuNPs/Cu,I-CDs nanozyme has promising potential applications in the fields of biomedicine and food safety.

4.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 6281-6295, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548791

RESUMO

Background: Ziyuglycoside I (ZgI), an active ingredient isolated from traditional Chinese medicine Sanguisorba officinalis L, has been demonstrated to increase the leucocytes and protect hematopoietic stem cells. However, the poor solubility and a short half-life of ZgI limit its bioavailability and efficacy. The D-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) has been widely used to increase the solubility, improve the encapsulation rate, and extend the half-life of drugs. Methods: Here, we formulated the TPGS-modified long-circulating liposomes loading ZgI with a sustained drug release and enhanced therapy for myelosuppression. ZgI-TPGS-liposomes were manufactured using a thin-film hydration technique, followed by characterizations of physicochemical properties, including the particle size, zeta potential, TEM, SEM, FTIR, XRD, stability, drug loading (DL), encapsulation efficiency (EE). The in vitro and in vivo delivery efficiency were further evaluated by cellular uptake, in vitro drug release and in vivo pharmacokinetics. Finally, therapeutic effect on myelosuppression was investigated. Results: The ZgI-TPGS-liposomes had an particle size of 97.89 ± 1.42 nm and ZP of -28.65 ± 0.16 mV. It exhibited DL of 9.06 ± 0.76% and EE of 92.34 ± 3.83%, along with excellent storage stability, cellular uptake and sustained drug release to free ZgI and liposomes without TPGS. Additionally, the TPGS modified liposomes significantly enhanced the therapeutic effect of ZgI on CTX induced myelosuppression, which can be confirmed in the apoptosis inhibition and cell viability promotion of CTX injured HSPC-1 cells. Also, the mice in vivo pharmacodynamics demonstrated that TPGS liposomes promoted ZgI increasing the numbers of leucocytes and neutrophils in myelosuppression mice induced by CTX. Conclusion: Our research suggest that TPGS-modified long-circulating liposomes loading ziyuglycoside I has potential application in myelosuppression therapy.

5.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(44): 23771-23776, 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405502

RESUMO

Thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) materials with through-space charge transfers (CT) have attracted particularly interest recently. However, the slow reverse intersystem crossing (RISC) and radiative decay always limit their electroluminescence performances. Herein, TADF molecules with ortho-linked multiple donors-acceptor (ortho-Dn -A) motif are developed to create near-degenerate excited states for the reinforcement of spin-orbit coupling. The incorporation of both through-bond and through-space CT enlarges oscillator strength. The optimal ortho-D3 -A compound exhibits a photoluminescence quantum yield of ca. 100 %, a high RISC rate of 2.57×106  s-1 and a high radiative decay rate of 1.00×107  s-1 simultaneously. With this compound as the sensitizer, a TADF-sensitized-fluorescent organic light-emitting diode shows a maximum external quantum efficiency of 31.6 % with an ultrapure green Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage y coordinate value of 0.69.

6.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(44): 23635-23640, 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459540

RESUMO

Tailor-made red thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) molecules comprised of an electron-withdrawing pyrazino[2,3-f][1,10]phenanthroline-2,3-dicarbonitrile core and various electron-donating triarylamines are developed. They can form intramolecular hydrogen-bonding, which is conducive to improving emission efficiency and promoting horizontal orientation and show near infrared (NIR) emissions (692-710 nm) in neat films and red delayed fluorescence (606-630 nm) with high photoluminescence quantum yields (73-90%) in doped films. They prefer horizontal orientation with large horizontal dipole ratios in films, rendering high optical out-coupling factors (0.39-0.41). Their non-doped OLEDs exhibit NIR lights (716-748 nm) with maximum external quantum efficiencies (ηext,max ) of 1.0-1.9%. And their doped OLEDs radiate red lights (606-648 nm) and achieve record-beating ηext,max of up to 31.5%. These new red TADF materials should have great potentials in display and lighting devices.

7.
Cardiol Res Pract ; 2021: 1948624, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34336269

RESUMO

Background: Arrhythmia is one of the causes of death in severe coronary artery disease patients who also suffered from cancer. Our research aims to compare the incidence of arrhythmia between severe coronary artery disease patient with and without new-onset tumor. Methodology. We enrolled 79 patients (December 2019-December 2020) with severe coronary artery disease in this study, and 40 of them were complicated with new-onset tumor. The details of all subjects were thoroughly obtained; the laboratory tests were implemented including creatinine before coronary angiography. The appraisal of the severity of coronary artery disease was applied by Gensini score. The cardiac inspection includes UCG, 12-lead ECG, and Holter monitor. Results: Among them, there were 40 patients in the experimental group and 39 patients in the control group. The difference at the baseline between the two sets of figures was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The incidence of arrhythmia between the two groups was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The incidence of arrhythmia in severe coronary artery disease patients who were complicated with new-onset tumor was higher than that in patients with severe coronary artery disease alone, and attention should be paid to arrhythmia before tumor treatment.

8.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 649091, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34276585

RESUMO

Nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) is a novel ablation technique that is based on high-intensity electric voltage to achieve tumour-killing effect in the target region, and increasingly considered for treating tumours of the liver, kidneys and other organs with rich blood supply. This study aims to observe effect of nsPFE treatment on serum metabolites and gut microbiota. The serum and faecal specimens of the pigs were collected pre- and post-treatment. The gut microbiota of pigs was sequenced by Illumina Miseq platform for analysing the diversity and alterations of gut microbiota. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based metabonomic analysis and Pearson coefficient method were also used to construct the interaction system of different metabolites, metabolic pathways and flora. A total of 1,477 differential metabolites from the serum were identified by four cross-comparisons of different post-operative groups with the control group. In addition, an average of 636 OTUs per sample was detected. Correlation analysis also revealed the strong correlation between intestinal bacteria and differential metabolites. The nsPEF ablation of the liver results in a degree of liver damage that affects various metabolic pathways, mainly lipid metabolism, as well as gut microbiota. In conclusion, our study provided a good point for the safety and feasibility of applying nsPEF on liver through the integrated analysis of metabolomics and microbiomes, which is beneficial for the improvement of nsPEF in clinical use.

10.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063645

RESUMO

Drug combinations have been the hotspot of the pharmaceutical industry, but the promising applications are limited by the unmet solubility and low bioavailability. In this work, novel cocrystals, consisting of two antithrombotic drugs with poor solubility and low bioavailability in vivo, namely, apixaban (Apx) and quercetin (Que), were developed to discover a potential method to improve the poor solubility and internal absorption of the drug combination. Compared with Apx, the dissolution behavior of Apx-Que (1:1) and Apx-Que-2ACN (1:1:2) was enhanced significantly, while the physical mixture of the chemicals failed to exhibit the advantages. The dissolution improvements of Apx-Que-2ACN could be explained by the fact that the solid dispersion-like structure and column-shaped cage of Que accelerated the access of the solvent to the inner layer of Apx. The fracture of the hydrogen bonds of Apx, which was the joint of the adjacent Que chains, facilitated the break-up of the structures. Besides, the bioavailability of Apx-Que was increased compared with the physical mixture and Apx, and Apx-Que remained stable in high temperature and illumination conditions. Therefore, a drug-drug cocrystal of two antithrombotic agents with poor solubility was developed, which exhibited greatly improved solubility, bioavailability and superior stability, indicating a novel method to overcome the shortages of drug combination.


Assuntos
Cristalização , Combinação de Medicamentos , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Piridonas/farmacologia , Quercetina/farmacologia , Solventes , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fibrinolíticos/farmacologia , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Masculino , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Pós , Pirazóis/química , Piridonas/química , Quercetina/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Solubilidade , Temperatura , Termogravimetria , Difração de Raios X
11.
ACS Omega ; 6(24): 15543-15550, 2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34179597

RESUMO

Artificial intelligence (AI) is a technology that builds an artificial system with certain intelligence and uses computer software and hardware to simulate intelligent human behavior. When combined with drug research and development, AI can considerably shorten this cycle, improve research efficiency, and minimize costs. The use of machine learning to discover novel materials and predict material properties has become a new research direction. On the basis of the current status of worldwide research on the combination of AI and crystal form and cocrystal, this mini-review analyzes and explores the application of AI in polymorphism prediction, crystal structure analysis, crystal property prediction, cocrystal former (CCF) screening, cocrystal composition prediction, and cocrystal formation prediction. This study provides insights into the future applications of AI in related fields.

12.
mSphere ; 6(3): e0042821, 2021 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34047648

RESUMO

The PorX/PorY two-component system in the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis controls the expression of the por genes, encoding a type IX secretion system, and the sigP gene, encoding sigma factor σP. Previous results implied that PorX/PorY and σP formed a regulatory cascade because the PorX/PorY-activated σP enhanced the por genes, including porT, via binding to their promoters. We recently showed that PorX also binds to the por promoters, thus suggesting that an alternative mechanism is required for the PorX/PorY- and σP-governed expression. Here, our in vitro assays show the PorX response regulator binds to the sigP promoter at a sequence shared with the porT promoter and enhances its transcription, mediated by a reconstituted P. gingivalis RNA polymerase holoenzyme. Merely producing σP in trans fails to reverse the porT transcription in a porX mutant, which further argues against the action of the proposed regulatory cascade. An in vitro transcription assay using a reconstituted RNA polymerase-σP holoenzyme verifies the direct role of PorX in porT transcription, since transcription is enhanced by a pure PorX protein. Accordingly, we propose that the PorX/PorY system coordinates with σP to construct a coherent regulatory mechanism, known as the feedforward loop. Specifically, PorX will not only bind to the sigP promoter to stimulate the expression of σP, but also bind to the porT promoter to facilitate the RNA polymerase-σP-dependent transcription. Importantly, mutations at the porX and sigP genes attenuate bacterial virulence in a mouse model, demonstrating that this regulatory mechanism is essential for P. gingivalis pathogenesis. IMPORTANCE The anaerobic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis is not only the major etiologic agent for chronic periodontitis, but also prevalent in some common noncommunicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease, and rheumatoid arthritis. We present genetic, biochemical, and biological results to demonstrate that the PorX/PorY two-component system and sigma factor σP build a specific regulatory network to coordinately control transcription of the genes encoding the type IX secretion system, and perhaps also other virulence factors. Results in this study verify that the response regulator PorX stimulates the expression of the genes encoding both σP and the type IX secretion system by binding to their promoters. This study also provides evidence that σP, like the PorX/PorY system, contributes to P. gingivalis virulence in a mouse model.

13.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(27): 14846-14851, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33871909

RESUMO

Herein, we report a deep-red TADF emitter pCNQ-TPA, composed of quinoxaline-5,8-dicarbonitrile (pCNQ) acceptor and triphenylamine (TPA) donor. pCNQ-TPA supported its OLED with desired CIE coordinates of (0.69, 0.31) and the record maximum external quantum efficiency of 30.3 %, which is the best red TADF diode with Rec.2020 gamut for UHDTV. It is showed that through tuning pCNQ-TPA doping concentration, intra- and inter-molecular charge transfer are balanced to synchronously improve emission color saturation and TADF radiation, and remedy aggregation-induced quenching, rendering photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) reaching 90 % for deep-red emission peaked at ≈690 nm. Quasi-planar structure further endows pCNQ-TPA with an improved horizontal ratio of emitting dipole orientation, which increases light out-coupling ratio to 0.34 for achieving the state-of-the-art device efficiencies.

14.
J Biol Chem ; 296: 100574, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757767

RESUMO

PorX/PorY is a two-component system (TCS) of Porphyromonas gingivalis that governs transcription of numerous genes including those encoding a type IX secretion system (T9SS) for gingipain secretion and heme accumulation. Here, an in vitro analysis showed that the response regulator PorX specifically bound to two regions in the promoter of porT, a known PorX-regulated T9SS gene, thus demonstrating that PorX/PorY can directly regulate specific target genes. A truncated PorX protein containing the N-terminal receiver and effector domains retained a wild-type ability in both transcription regulation and heme accumulation, ruling out the role of the C-terminal ALP domain in gene regulation. The PorX/PorY system was the only TCS essential for heme accumulation and concomitantly responded to hemin to stimulate transcription of several known PorX-dependent genes in a concentration-dependent manner. We found that PorX/PorY activated the sigH gene, which encodes a sigma factor known for P. gingivalis adaptation to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Consistently, both ΔporX and ΔsigH mutants were susceptible to H2O2, suggesting a PorX/PorY-σH regulatory cascade to confer resistance to oxidative stress. Furthermore, the ΔporX mutant became susceptible to high hemin levels that could induce oxidative stress. Therefore, a possible reason why hemin activates PorX/PorY is to confer resistance to hemin-induced oxidative stress. We also demonstrated that PorX/PorY was essential for P. gingivalis virulence because the ΔporX mutant was avirulent in a mouse model. Specifically, this TCS was required for the repression of proinflammatory cytokines secreted by dendritic cells and T cells in the P. gingivalis-infected mice.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Sistemas de Secreção Bacterianos/metabolismo , Porphyromonas gingivalis/metabolismo , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Camundongos , Mutação , Porphyromonas gingivalis/genética , Porphyromonas gingivalis/fisiologia , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Fatores de Virulência/genética
15.
Adv Mater ; 33(11): e2006953, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33565188

RESUMO

Aggregation-induced emission (AIE) materials are attractive for achieving highly efficient nondoped organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) owing to their strong luminescence in the solid state. However, the electroluminescence efficiency of most AIE-based OLEDs remains low owing to the waste of triplet excitons. Here, using theoretical calculations, photophysical dynamics, and magnetoluminescence measurements, the spin conversion process is demonstrated between the high-lying triplet state (Tn ) and the lowest excited singlet state (S1 ) in AIE materials. Moreover, the relative positions of Tn (n < 4) and S1 are shown to have a significant impact on the spin-conversion efficiency, thus influencing the harvesting of triplet excitons and the device efficiency. Finally, by selecting an upconversion material with an appropriate energy level for further utilizing the triplet excitons, a deep-blue fluorescent OLED with CIE coordinates of (0.15, 0.08), a maximum external quantum efficiency of 10.2%, low efficiency roll-off, and a high brightness of 16817 cd m-2 is developed. This is one of the most efficient deep-blue OLEDs based on AIE materials reported so far. These findings also provide new insights into the design of more efficient AIE molecules and corresponding OLEDs by managing high-lying triplet excitons.

16.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 413(5): 1373-1382, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33386935

RESUMO

A new type of nitrogen-iodine co-doped carbon dot (N/I-CD) was synthesized by a one-step hydrothermal method with a fluorescence quantum yield of 37%. The prepared N/I-CDs exhibit peroxidase-like activity, can catalyze bio-safety levels of H2O2 to generate hydroxyl radicals (•OH) under visible light and enhance the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in bacteria cells. All in vitro experiments showed that the designed system has strong photocatalytic antibacterial activity against both E. coli and S. aureus bacteria. The light-induced antibacterial function of N/I-CDs was evaluated under the conditions of changing other experimental parameters. When the visible light irradiation time was extended to 60 min, the antibacterial efficiency of N/I-CDs (0.21 mg·mL-1) against S. aureus and E. coli reached 100% in the presence of exogenous H2O2 (0.07 mM). More importantly, wound disinfection in vivo demonstrates the high antibacterial efficiency, low toxicity and application potential of good biocompatibility due to the nanozyme activity of N/I-CDs.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Carbono/farmacologia , Iodo/farmacologia , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Carbono/química , Catálise , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Células HT29 , Humanos , Iodo/química , Nanopartículas/química , Peroxidase/química , Peroxidase/farmacologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 183: 114302, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121927

RESUMO

Baicalein is the main active compound of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, a medicinal herb with multiple pharmacological activities, including the broad anti-virus effects. In this paper, the preclinical study of baicalein on the treatment of COVID-19 was performed. Results showed that baicalein inhibited cell damage induced by SARS-CoV-2 and improved the morphology of Vero E6 cells at a concentration of 0.1 µM and above. The effective concentration could be reached after oral administration of 200 mg/kg crystal form ß of baicalein in rats. Furthermore, baicalein significantly inhibited the body weight loss, the replication of the virus, and relieved the lesions of lung tissue in hACE2 transgenic mice infected with SARS-CoV-2. In LPS-induced acute lung injury of mice, baicalein improved the respiratory function, inhibited inflammatory cell infiltration in the lung, and decreased the levels of IL-1ß and TNF-α in serum. In conclusion, oral administration of crystal form ß of baicalein could reach its effective concentration against SARS-CoV-2. Baicalein could inhibit SARS-CoV-2-induced injury both in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, baicalein might be a promising therapeutic drug for the treatment of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/patologia , Flavanonas/uso terapêutico , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/metabolismo , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/patologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacocinética , COVID-19/metabolismo , Chlorocebus aethiops , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Flavanonas/farmacocinética , Mediadores da Inflamação/antagonistas & inibidores , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Transgênicos , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Resultado do Tratamento , Células Vero
18.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 244: 118882, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919158

RESUMO

The study presents a spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of Cr(III) based on 2,3-diaminophenazine (DAP) as fluorescent nano sensor. With the peroxidase-mimicking activity of copper-doped carbon dots (Cu-CDs), colorless o-phenylenediamine (OPD) was oxidized to fluorescent DAP in the presence of H2O2 via generation of hydroxyl radicals. The Cr(III) was found to decrease the fluorescent intensity of the Cu-CDs-mediated OPD oxidation system. Cr(VI) species were reduced to Cr(III) by employing 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) as the reductant, and a novel spectrofluorimetric method for the highly sensitive detection of speciation Cr(VI) and Cr(III) was developed. The Cu-CDs nanozyme was prepared from ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid copper disodium salt (Na2[Cu (EDTA)]) by one-step pyrolysis method. Under optimal conditions, the fluorescence intensity of DAP is linearly proportional to the Cr(III) ion concentration in the range of 5 × 10-6 to 1.5 × 10-4 mol L-1 and the detection limit is 1.2 × 10-7 mol L-1. The method has a good anti-interference performance against some metal ions, such as, Hg2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Mg2+, Ba2+, K+, Mn2+, Ni2+, Al3+, and Fe3+. The proposed method was successfully applied in the determination of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) in water samples.

19.
ACS Omega ; 5(39): 25289-25296, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043207

RESUMO

Drospirenone (DE) is a fourth-generation progesterone that has been widely used in oral contraceptives for women because of its safety and few side effects in terms of pharmacological activity. A new solvatomorph (crystal form C) of DE with dimethyl sulfoxide was identified and characterized for the first time through a thermogravimetry-mass spectrometry (TG-MS) coupling system. The thermodynamic property of the new solvatomorph of DE was different from those of most pharmaceutical solvatomorphs, and it was revealed via the skimmer-type interfaced TG-MS system and differential scanning calorimetry. This new solvatomorph and a polymorph of DE obtained without solvent (crystal form A) were well characterized by X-ray crystallography and vibrational spectroscopic analysis. Computational studies based on their single-crystal structures, such as Hirshfeld surface analyses, were used to determine the intermolecular interactions in the crystal network. The single-crystal structure of crystal form C of DE was determined and reported for the first time.

20.
Nat Prod Bioprospect ; 10(6): 445-452, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128198

RESUMO

Inflammation is a defensive response of living tissues to damaging agents, which exists in two forms, acute inflammation and chronic inflammation, and chronic inflammation is closely related to arthritis. Currently, the commonly prescribed anti-inflammatory medications are greatly limited by high incidence of gastrointestinal erosions in the clinical applications. Rhein, a bioactive constituent of anthraquinone, exhibits excellent anti-inflammatory activities and therapeutic effects on arthritis with less gastrointestinal damages. Although there are numbers of studies on anti-inflammatory effects and mechanisms of rhein in the last few decades, to the best of our knowledge, only a few review articles pay attention to the interactive relationships of rhein on multiple inflammatory signaling pathways and cellular processes from a comprehensive perspective. Herein, we summarized anti-inflammatory effects and mechanisms of rhein and its practical applications in the treatment of arthritis, thereby providing a reference for its basic researches and clinical applications.

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