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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 125857, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492806

RESUMO

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is persistent in the environment. The activities of microorganisms alone are insufficient for the decomposition of PFOA, but microorganisms can contribute positively to the degradation of PFOA in synergistic systems. Herein, a synergistic system combining photocatalytic decay with microbial degradation of the transformation products was applied to degrade 500.0 µg L-1 PFOA. The microorganisms increased the total removed percentage by 30.7% to a final percentage of 79.7 ± 9.4% in comparison with the photocatalytic method alone. Moreover, an additional 44.2% of removed total organic carbon and additional defluorination percentage of 24.5% were obtained after the synergistic tests. The 16S RNA sequencing analysis indicated that Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, and Brevundimonas were highly enriched in the functional microbial community, which was simultaneously shaped by photocatalysis and substances. This study found it would be feasible to use a synergistic method containing photocatalysis and a microbial community for the degradation of low-concentrations of PFOA, and the results provided a reference to modified the removal efficiency of the synergistic system by looking insight into the relationship between the functional microbial community and PFOA.


Assuntos
Caprilatos , Fluorcarbonetos , Estudos de Viabilidade
2.
Water Res ; 204: 117592, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469809

RESUMO

As(III) species are the predominant form of arsenic found in groundwater. However, nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes are often unable to effectively reject As(III). In this study, we fabricate highly conducting ultrafiltration (UF) membranes for effective As(III) rejection. These membranes consist of a hydrophilic nickel-carbon nanotubes layer deposited on a UF support, and used as cathodes. Applying cathodic potentials significantly increased As(III) rejection in synthetic/real tap water, a result of locally elevated pH that is brought upon through water electrolysis at the membrane/water interface. The elevated pH conditions convert H3ASO3 to H2AsO3-/HAsO32- that are rejected by the negatively charged membranes. In addition, it was found that Mg(OH)2 that precipitates on the membrane can further trap arsenic. Importantly, almost all As(III) passing through the membranes is oxidized to As(V) by hydrogen peroxide produced on the cathode, which significantly decreased its overall toxicity and mobility. Although the high pH along the membrane surface led to mineral scaling, this scale could be partially removed by backwashing the membrane. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of effective As(III) removal using low-pressure membranes, with As(III) rejection higher than that achieved by NF and RO, and high water permeance.

3.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 282: 114601, 2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487847

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Yanggan Huayu granule (YGHY) is a formula of traditional Chinese medicine that has been widely used to treat patients with liver cancer. But its working mechanism is still poorly understood. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the anti-tumor effect of YGHY and its working mechanisms in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: H22 mouse xenograft model was used to detect the effect of YGHY on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). MTT and CCK8 assays were performed to assess the effect of YGHY on HCC cell growth. Transwell assay was performed to detect the invasion and migration activities of HCC cells. Effect of YGHY drug-contained serum on apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry. Western blot was performed to detect the protein expressions. RESULTS: Results showed that YGHY inhibited tumor volume and weight, induced the apoptosis of HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells and increased the protein expressions of Cleaved-Caspase3 and Cleaved-PARP. Furthermore, YGHY significantly down-regulated the protein expression of p-AKT. SC79, as an activator of AKT signaling, was able to increase the expression of p-AKT, and regulate the protein expressions of Cleaved-Caspase3, Cleaved-PARP, BCL-2 and BAX. YGHY drug-contained serum negated the protein expression change provided by SC79. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, this data indicates that YGHY could inhibit HCC growth by inducing apoptosis, operating through AKT signaling.

4.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(18): 6793-6803, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477943

RESUMO

Some microbial-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs), like glucan oligosaccharides, can be recognized by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) of plant to elicit further immunity response. In this study, a novel glycoside hydrolase family 55 ß-1,3-glucanase (AcGluA) from Archangium sp. strain AC19 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Among the reported ß-1, 3-glucanases from the glycoside hydrolase 55 family, the purified AcGluA exhibited the highest activity on laminarin at pH 6.0 and 60 °C with 112.3 U/mg. Activity of AcGluA was stable in the range of pH 4.0-9.0 and at temperatures below 60 °C. The Km and Vmax of AcGluA for laminarin were 3.5 mg/ml and 263.5 µmol/(ml·min). AcGluA hydrolyzed laminarin into a series of oligosaccharides, suggesting it was an endo-ß-1,3-glucanase. The high dose of oligosaccharides (1600 mg/l) had conspicuous biocontrol efficacy on the defense of rice seedlings to Magnaporthe oryzae, which provided a new idea for the development of green biopesticide.Key points• The AcGluA was determined bacteria-derived ß-1,3-glucanases in the GH55 family.• The AcGluA showed the highest activity towards laminarin among reported GH55 family.• The hydrolysates of laminarin showed conspicuous biocontrol efficacy to M. oryzae.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Glicosídeo Hidrolases , Ascomicetos/metabolismo , Clonagem Molecular , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/genética , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Especificidade por Substrato
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(37)2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34504014

RESUMO

Many tailed bacteriophages assemble ejection proteins and a portal-tail complex at a unique vertex of the capsid. The ejection proteins form a transenvelope channel extending the portal-tail channel for the delivery of genomic DNA in cell infection. Here, we report the structure of the mature bacteriophage T7, including the ejection proteins, as well as the structures of the full and empty T7 particles in complex with their cell receptor lipopolysaccharide. Our near-atomic-resolution reconstruction shows that the ejection proteins in the mature T7 assemble into a core, which comprises a fourfold gene product 16 (gp16) ring, an eightfold gp15 ring, and a putative eightfold gp14 ring. The gp15 and gp16 are mainly composed of helix bundles, and gp16 harbors a lytic transglycosylase domain for degrading the bacterial peptidoglycan layer. When interacting with the lipopolysaccharide, the T7 tail nozzle opens. Six copies of gp14 anchor to the tail nozzle, extending the nozzle across the lipopolysaccharide lipid bilayer. The structures of gp15 and gp16 in the mature T7 suggest that they should undergo remarkable conformational changes to form the transenvelope channel. Hydrophobic α-helices were observed in gp16 but not in gp15, suggesting that gp15 forms the channel in the hydrophilic periplasm and gp16 forms the channel in the cytoplasmic membrane.

6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5263, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489457

RESUMO

Immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) are important for the treatment of multiple myeloma and myelodysplastic syndrome. Binding of IMiDs to Cereblon (CRBN), the substrate receptor of the CRL4CRBN E3 ubiquitin ligase, induces cancer cell death by targeting key neo-substrates for degradation. Despite this clinical significance, the physiological regulation of CRBN remains largely unknown. Herein we demonstrate that Wnt, the extracellular ligand of an essential signal transduction pathway, promotes the CRBN-dependent degradation of a subset of proteins. These substrates include Casein kinase 1α (CK1α), a negative regulator of Wnt signaling that functions as a key component of the ß-Catenin destruction complex. Wnt stimulation induces the interaction of CRBN with CK1α and its resultant ubiquitination, and in contrast with previous reports does so in the absence of an IMiD. Mechanistically, the destruction complex is critical in maintaining CK1α stability in the absence of Wnt, and in recruiting CRBN to target CK1α for degradation in response to Wnt. CRBN is required for physiological Wnt signaling, as modulation of CRBN in zebrafish and Drosophila yields Wnt-driven phenotypes. These studies demonstrate an IMiD-independent, Wnt-driven mechanism of CRBN regulation and provide a means of controlling Wnt pathway activity by CRBN, with relevance for development and disease.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Via de Sinalização Wnt/fisiologia , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/química , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Animais , Caseína Quinase Ialfa/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Embrião não Mamífero , Evolução Molecular , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/química , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Lenalidomida/química , Lenalidomida/farmacologia , Camundongos , Organoides , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/química , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitinação , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
7.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 126138, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492927

RESUMO

Pyroptosis and autophagy are two different biological processes that determine cell fates. Our previous studies revealed that pyroptosis and autophagy were involved in cytotoxicity co-induced by molybdenum (Mo) and cadmium (Cd) in duck renal tubular epithelial cells, but crosstalk between them is unclear. Hence, the cells were treated with 500.0 µM Mo, 4.0 µM Cd, 10.0 µM Z-YVAD-fluoromethylketone (YVAD), 2.5 µM 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and 10.0 µM chloroquine (CQ) alone or in combination for 12 h (CQ for the last 4 h). Under Mo and Cd co-stress, data evidenced that YVAD addition decreased the number of autophagosomes, LC3 puncta, and AMPKα-1, Atg5, Beclin-1, LC3A, LC3B mRNA levels and LC3-II/LC3-I, Beclin-1 protein levels, and increased p62 expression levels. Besides, both 3-MA and CQ addition increased NLRP3, Caspase-1, NEK7, ASC, GSDMA, GSDME, IL-1ß, IL-18 mRNA levels, NLRP3, Caspase-1 p20, ASC, GSDMD protein and ROS levels, and NO, LDH, IL-1ß, IL-18 releases. Collectively, our results revealed that pyroptosis and autophagy co-induced by Mo and Cd were interrelated in duck renal tubular epithelial cells, and inhibiting pyroptosis might attenuate Mo and Cd co-induced autophagy, but inhibiting autophagy might promote Mo and Cd co-induced pyroptosis.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Piroptose , Animais , Autofagia , Cádmio/toxicidade , Patos , Células Epiteliais , Molibdênio
8.
Math Biosci Eng ; 18(5): 5006-5028, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517475

RESUMO

This paper presents a lattice Boltzmann model to simulate the aqueous humor (AH) dynamics in the human eye by involving incompressible Navier-Stokes flow, heat convection and diffusion, and Darcy seepage flow. Verifying simulations indicate that the model is stable, convergent and robust. Further investigations were carried out, including the effects of heat convection and buoyancy, AH production rate, permeability of trabecular meshwork, viscosity of AH and anterior chamber angle on intraocular pressure (IOP). The heat convection and diffusion can significantly affect the flow patterns in the healthy eye, and the IOP can be controlled by increasing the anterior chamber angle or decreasing the secretion rate, the drainage resistance and viscosity of AH. However, the IOP is insensitive to the viscosity of AH, which may be one of the causes that the viscosity would not have been considered as a factor for controlling the IOP. It's interesting that all these factors have more significant influences on the IOP in pathologic eye than healthy one. The temperature difference and the eye-orientation have obvious influence on the cornea and iris wall shear stresses. The present model and simulation results are expected to provide an alternative tool and theoretical reference for the study of AH dynamics.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543000

RESUMO

Immunotherapy is currently an important adjuvant therapy for malignant tumors besides surgical treatment. However, the heterogeneity and low immunogenicity of the tumor are two main challenges of the immunotherapy. Here, we have constructed a nanoplatform (CP@mRBC-PpIX) to realize reversion of the tumor acidosis and hypoxia through alkali and oxygen generation triggered by tumor acidosis. By targeting tumor universal features other than endogenous biomarkers, it was found that CP@mRBC-PpIX could polarize tumor-associated macrophages to anti-tumor M1 phenotype macrophages to enhance tumor immune response. Furthermore, under regional light irradiation, the reactive oxygen species produced by photosensitizers located in CP@mRBC-PpIX could increase the immunogenicity of tumors, so that tumor changes from an immunosuppressive "cold tumor" to an immunogenic "hot tumor," thereby increasing the infiltration and response of T cells, further amplifying the effect of immunotherapy. This strategy circumvented the problem of tumor heterogeneity to realize a kind of broad-spectrum immunotherapy, which could effectively prevent tumor metastasis and recurrence.

10.
Diabetes ; 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544729

RESUMO

We previously demonstrated that male, but not female, Swiss Webster mice are susceptible to diabetes, with incidence increased by early overnutrition and high-fat diet (HFD). Here, we investigated how HFD in Swiss Webster males and females during preweaning, peripubertal, and post-pubertal periods alters glucose homeostasis and diabetes susceptibility. In males, HFD throughout life resulted in the highest diabetes incidence. Notably, switching to chow post-puberty was protective against diabetes relative to switching to chow at weaning, despite the longer period of HFD exposure. Similarly, HFD throughout life in males resulted in less liver steatosis relative to mice with shorter duration of postpubertal HFD. Thus, HFD timing relative to weaning and puberty, not simply exposure length, contributes to metabolic outcomes. Females were protected from hyperglycemia regardless of length or timing of HFD. However, postpubertal HFD resulted in a high degree of hepatic steatosis and adipose fibrosis, but glucose regulation and insulin sensitivity remained unchanged Interestingly, peri-insulitis was observed in the majority of females but was not correlated with impaired glucose regulation. Our findings reveal critical periods of HFD-induced glucose dysregulation with striking sex differences in Swiss Webster mice, highlighting the importance of careful consideration of HFD timing relative to critical developmental periods.

11.
J Med Genet ; 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A large number of new causative and risk genes for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have been identified mostly in patients of European ancestry. In contrast, we know relatively little regarding the genetics of ALS in other ethnic populations. This study aims to provide a comprehensive analysis of the genetics of ALS in an unprecedented large cohort of Chinese mainland population and correlate with the clinical features of rare variants carriers. METHODS: A total of 1587 patients, including 64 familial ALS (FALS) and 1523 sporadic ALS (SALS), and 1866 in-house controls were analysed by whole-exome sequencing and/or testing for G4C2 repeats in C9orf72. Forty-one ALS-associated genes were analysed. FINDINGS: 155 patients, including 26 (40.6%) FALS and 129 (8.5%) SALS, carrying rare pathogenic/likely pathogenic (P/LP) variants of ALS causative genes were identified. SOD1 was the most common mutated gene, followed by C9orf72, FUS, NEK1, TARDBP and TBK1. By burden analysis, rare variants in SOD1, FUS and TARDBP contributed to the collective risk for ALS (p<2.5e-6) at the gene level, but at the allelic level TARDBP p.Gly294Val and FUS p.Arg521Cys and p.Arg521His were the most important single variants causing ALS. Clinically, P/LP variants in TARDBP and C9orf72 were associated with poor prognosis, in FUS linked with younger age of onset, and C9orf72 repeats tended to affect cognition. CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide essential information for understanding the genetic and clinical features of ALS in China and for optimal design of genetic testing and evaluation of disease prognosis.

12.
J Psychosom Res ; 149: 110602, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467887

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Migrants from Sub-Saharan Africa to China faced challenges in accessing healthcare. Less is known about their depression prevalence. We aim to address this gap by providing an initial estimation on symptoms indicative of depression. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from August to October in 2019. Eligibility was defined as being originally from a Sub-Saharan African country and cumulative residence in China for at least one month. A convenience sample was drawn from snowball sampling online and venue-based sampling by community outreach. The primary outcome, symptoms indicative of depression, were measured by the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale using 16 as the cutoff. Multivariable logistic regressions were employed to examine the association between depression symptoms and their migration-related correlates. Data were analyzed using SAS 9.4. RESULTS: The prevalence of symptoms indicative of depression assessed by CES-D was high at 44% among 928 participants when using 16 as a cutoff. Depression symptoms were associated with unsatisfactory housing conditions (aOR: 1.7, 95%CI: 0.8 to 3.3) and perception of very unfriendly attitudes from the local people (aOR: 4.5, 95%CI: 1.2 to 16.1) after adjusting for covariates. CONCLUSIONS: Depression symptoms were prevalent among SSA migrants in China and warrants attention and intervention. Support should be provided during the post-migration period in China to mitigate depression risks. Future studies are needed to build more evidence on SSA migrants' mental health and to inform global health policies and programming.

13.
Pest Manag Sci ; 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34476893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The on-farm deployment of genetically modified crops may negatively affect nontarget arthropods, potentially disrupting food web structure and ecosystem functions. Aphid-parasitoid interactions are well-suited to study these potential impacts in agro-ecosystems. Over the span of 8 years, we systematically compared infestation levels of the aphid Aphis gossypii, its associated parasitoid community and overall parasitism rate between transgenic Cry1Ac + CpTI cotton and nontransgenic cotton. Furthermore, we measured the impact of transgenic Cry1Ac + CpTI cotton on structural traits and interspecies interactions within quantitative aphid-parasitoid food webs. RESULTS: Transgenic Cry1Ac + CpTI cotton did not affect the abundance of aphids and parasitoids, or in-field parasitism rates. Despite weak interannual variability, transgenic Cry1Ac + CpTI cotton also did not alter food web architecture or biological control services. CONCLUSIONS: Our work not only elucidates the impact of transgenic Cry1Ac + CpTI cotton on different nontarget arthropods (i.e. aphids, parasitoids, hyperparasitoids) and their associated ecosystem services or disservices, but also diversifies the ecological risk assessment toolbox for transgenic insecticidal crops.

14.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(8): 2658-2667, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472286

RESUMO

Lipids are important components of living organisms that participate in and regulate a variety of life activities. Lipids in plants also play important physiological functions in response to a variety of abiotic stresses (e.g. salt stress, drought stress, temperature stress). However, most research on lipids focused on animal cells and medical fields, while the functions of lipids in plants were overlooked. With the rapid development of "omics" technologies and biotechnology, the lipidomics has received much attention in recent years because it can reveal the composition and function of lipids in a deep and comprehensive way. This review summarizes the recent advances in the functions and classification of lipids, the development of lipidomics technology, and the responses of plant lipids against drought stress, salt stress and temperature stress. In addition, challenges and prospects were proposed for future lipidomics research and further exploration of the physiological functions of lipids in plant stress resistance.


Assuntos
Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lipídeos , Plantas , Estresse Fisiológico
15.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(8): 2976-2983, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472314

RESUMO

Life sciences are the disciplines most closely related with human beings. As experimental disciplines, life sciences develop rapidly and highly intersect in many scientific fields. Under the "double first-class" initiative, the comprehensive development-oriented talent training system has put forward an urgent need for life sciences literacy and comprehensive ability training of college students. Taking the reform of liberal education curriculum system as an opportunity, we developed a series of eight life sciences practical liberal courses for students with non-biology majors. The courses cover all sub-disciplines or directions of life sciences, and aim to foster interdisciplinary talents with life sciences knowledge and literacy, as well as practical and innovative abilities. These courses could serve as references for experimental teaching centers in colleges and universities to set up practical liberal and experimental courses.


Assuntos
Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas , Estudantes , Currículo , Humanos , Universidades
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498345

RESUMO

Sulfur is an essential element for all life by forming various sulfur-containing molecules. Compared to the well-studied biological functions, the knowledge on sulfur incorporation mechanism involved in sulfur-containing molecule biosynthesis remains limited. Chuangxinmycin is a sulfur-containing antibiotic with a unique thiopyrano[4,3,2- cd ]indole (TPI) skeleton and selective inhibitory activity against bacterial tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase. Despite the previously reported biosynthetic gene clusters and the recent functional characterization of a P450 enzyme responsible for C-S bond formation, the enzymatic mechanism for sulfur incorporation remains unknown. Here, we resolve this central biosynthetic problem by in vitro biochemical characterization of the key enzymes, and reconstitute the TPI skeleton in a one-pot enzymatic reaction. Particularly, we reveal that the JAMM/MPN + protein Cxm3 functions as a deubiquitinase-like sulfurtransferase to catalyze a non-classical sulfur-transfer reaction by interacting with the ubiquitin-like sulfur carrier protein Cxm4GG. This finding adds a new mechanism for sulfurtransferase in nature.

17.
Sci Total Environ ; 792: 148550, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465039

RESUMO

Biochar and engineered biochar have been used for phosphorous recovery from wastewater, but the resulted phosphorous-laden (P-laden) biochar needs further disposal. In this study, the feasibility of reusing P-laden biochar for Pb immobilization as well as the underlying mechanism was explored. Three types of engineered biochar, i.e., Ca modified biochar, Mg modified biochar, and Fe modified biochar, were selected to sorb P and then the exhausted biochar was further used for Pb sorption. Results showed that Mg and Ca modified biochar exhibited considerable Pb sorption capacity after P sorption with the maximum value of 3.36-4.03 mmol/g and 5.49-6.58 mmol/g, respectively, while P-laden Fe modified biochar failed to sorb Pb due to its acidic pH. The removal of Pb by P-laden Mg modified biochar involved more precipitation including PbHPO4, Pb5(PO4)3(OH), and Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2 because of its higher P sorption capacity and more -OH group on the surface. Cation exchange with CaCO3 to form PbCO3 was the main mechanism for Pb removal by P-laden Ca modified biochar despite the formation of Pb5(PO4)3(OH) precipitate. Our results demonstrate that waste P-laden biochar can be further used for the effective removal of Pb, which provides a potential approach for waste adsorbent disposal.


Assuntos
Chumbo , Fósforo , Adsorção , Carvão Vegetal , Cinética
18.
Clin Interv Aging ; 16: 1581-1589, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34471348

RESUMO

Purpose: The present study aimed to investigate the incidence and predictors of post-operative delirium (POD) in patients with complicated type B aortic dissection (TBAD) undergoing TEVAR with/without concomitant procedures and to assess the association of POD with early and follow-up outcomes. Methods: A retrospective single-center cross-sectional analysis was conducted using a prospectively maintained database from 2010 to 2017. Outcomes were postoperative clinical outcomes, early and follow-up survival. Results: A total of 517 complicated TBAD patients were enrolled. POD was observed in 13.3% (69/517) patients and was associated with increased hospital length of stay (LOS) and hospital costs (P< 0.001 for both). Besides, POD was found to be an independent risk factor for prolonged ICU stay (odds ratio [OR] 4.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.40-8.01, P< 0.001) and early death (OR 4.42, 95% CI 1.26-15.54, P= 0.020). Predictors of POD were hybrid procedure (OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.20-3.92, P= 0.010), the use of benzodiazepine (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.07-3.23, P= 0.027) or quinolone (OR 2.35, 95% CI 1.26-4.38, P= 0.007), creatinine >2 mg/dL (OR 3.25, 95% CI 1.57-6.72, P= 0.001) and preoperative blood transfusion (OR 3.31, 95% CI 1.76-6.21, P< 0.001). After a median follow-up of 73.6 months, POD remained as an independent indicator for follow-up mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 2.40, 95% CI 1.31-4.38, P= 0.005) after adjusting potential confounders. Conclusion: POD after TEVAR has an incidence of around 13% and could profoundly increase the in-hospital LOS, hospital costs, as well as the early and follow-up mortality. A series of risk factors, including hybrid procedure, the use of benzodiazepine or quinolone, creatinine >2 mg/dL and preoperative blood transfusion, were identified as independent risk factors for POD. Effective risk-stratification and patient-tailored management strategy should be developed to reduce the incidence of POD.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473939

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Ground-glass opacity (GGO)-associated lung cancers are common and radiologically distinct clinical entities known to have indolent clinical course and superior survival implying a unique underlying biology. However, the molecular and immune characteristics of GGO-associated lung nodules have not been systemically studied. Objectives Providing mechanistic insights for the treatment of these radiologically distinct clinical entities. Methods We initiated a prospective cohort study to collect and characterize pulmonary nodules with (non-solid and part-solid) or without GGO components precisely quantified by 3D image reconstruction to delineate molecular and immune features associated with GGO. Multiomics assessment by targeted gene panel sequencing, RNA sequencing, T cell receptor sequencing and circulating tumor DNA detection was performed. Measurements and Main Results: GGO-associated lung cancers exhibited lower tumor mutation burden than solid nodules. Transcriptomic analysis revealed a less active immune environment in GGO and immune pathways, decreased expression of immune activation markers and lower infiltration of most immune cell subsets, which was confirmed by multiplex immunofluorescence. Furthermore, T cell repertoire (TCR) sequencing revealed lower T cell expansion in GGO-associated lung cancers. Loss of heterozygosity of HLA was significantly less common in lung adenocarcinomas with GGO components than those without. Circulating tumor DNA analysis suggested that release of tumor DNA to peripheral blood was correlated with tumor size of non-GGO components. Conclusions Compared to lung cancers presenting with solid lung nodules, GGO-associated lung cancers are characterized by less active metabolism and immune microenvironment that may be the mechanisms underlying their indolent clinical course.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473398

RESUMO

Hydrosilylation reaction is one of the largest-scale applications of homogeneous catalysis, and Pt homogeneous catalyst has been widely used in this reaction for the commercial manufacture of silicon products. However, homogeneous Pt catalysts results in considerable problems, such as undesired side reactions, unacceptable catalyst residues and disposable platinum consumption. Here, we synthesized electron deficient Pt single atoms supported on humic matter (Pt 1 @AHA_U_400), and the catalyst was used in hydrosilylation reaction, which showed super activity (turnover frequency as high as 3.0 × 10 7 h -1 ) and selectivity (>99%). Density functional theory calculations reveal that the high performance of the catalyst results from the atomic dispersion of Pt and the electron deficiency of the Pt 1 atoms, which is different from conventional Pt nanoscale catalysts. Excellent performance is maintained during recycle experiments, indicating the high stability of the catalyst.

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