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1.
Oncogene ; 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685947

RESUMO

The DEPTOR-mTORC1/2 axis has been shown to play an important, but a context dependent role in the regulation of proliferation and the survival of various cancer cells in cell culture settings. The in vivo role of DEPTOR in tumorigenesis remains elusive. Here we showed that the levels of both DEPTOR protein and mRNA were substantially decreased in human prostate cancer tissues, which positively correlated with disease progression. DEPTOR depletion accelerated proliferation and survival, migration, and invasion in human prostate cancer cells. Mechanistically, DEPTOR depletion not only activated both mTORC1 and mTORC2 signals to promote cell proliferation and survival, but also induced an AKT-dependent epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and ß-catenin nuclear translocation to promote cell migration and invasion. Abrogation of mTOR or AKT activation rescued the biological consequences of DEPTOR depletion. Importantly, in a Deptor-KO mouse model, Deptor knockout accelerated prostate tumorigenesis triggered by Pten loss via the activation of mTOR signaling. Collectively, our study demonstrates that DEPTOR is a tumor suppressor in the prostate, and its depletion promotes tumorigenesis via the activation of mTORC1 and mTORC2 signals. Thus, DEPTOR reactivation via a variety of means would have therapeutic potential for the treatment of prostate cancer.

2.
Eur J Med Chem ; : 111841, 2019 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708183

RESUMO

Influenza A neuraminidase plays an indispensable role in the process of replication and transmission of influenza, so the neuraminidase inhibition can prevent the reproduction of the viruses therefore achieve the effect of treatment of influenza. However, drug resistance of neuraminidase inhibitors such as oseltamivir highlights the need to develop novel structural neuraminidase inhibitors. Here we explored a series of oseltamivir derivatives bearing pyridyl group. Among them, compound 23b exhibiting potent inhibitory activity against neuraminidase from H5N1 subtype was comparable to oseltamivir carboxylate. Cytopathic effect inhibition assay in MDCK cells indicated that compound 23b exerted powerful inhibitions on influenza viruses. And compound 23b were nontoxic to MDCK cells. Meanwhile, compound 23b showed high stability towards rat liver microsomes, human liver microsomes and human plasma. This research enriched the structural type of neuraminidase inhibitors.

3.
Bioresour Technol ; : 122344, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708387

RESUMO

In this work, a pilot-scale low dissolved oxygen (DO) composite biological system (LDOCBS) composed of an anoxic rotating biological contactor (RBC) and four aeration tanks with gradient aeration was used to treat landfill leachate for 88 d. The maximum removals of 85.65%, 99.92% and 84.06% for chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia (NH4+-N) and total nitrogen (TN) were achieved, respectively. The three-dimensional exaction and emission matrix (3D-EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that the biodegradability of leachate was significantly improved by the LDOCBS. Mass balance calculations showed that the COD removal and denitrification process mainly occurred in RBC while 1# contributed primarily to nitrification. High-throughput sequencing analysis indicated that denitrifying bacteria with highly relative abundances of 46.45%-53.81% played key roles in organic degradation and nitrogen removal. This work could add some guiding insights into the cost-efficient treatment of landfill leachate by the composite biological system.

4.
Int J Pharm ; : 118839, 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715359

RESUMO

This study intended to investigate the in vivo pulmonary fate of intratracheally dosed nanosuspensions of fluticasone propionate (FP). Three FP suspensions, including a microsuspension and two nanosuspensions with different dissolution profiles, were prepared and they exhibited comparable aerodynamic performances after nebulization via a jet nebulizer. Following intratracheal administration to rats, the microsuspension underwent extensive mucociliary clearance, leading to a limited absorption time whereas the nanosuspensions decreased the mucociliary clearance and allowed dissolution rate-limiting and extended pulmonary absorption, resulting in prolonged pulmonary retention and long-acting anti-inflammatory efficacy in a lipopolysaccharide induced lung injury model. Delaying the FP dissolution of a nanosuspension by phospholipid coating increased AUC value in lung tissues to 1.72-fold of a conventional nanosuspension, but led to a decreased pharmacological efficacy. This study demonstrated that inhalable nanosuspensions were a feasible means for the sustained pulmonary delivery of FP and the local anti-inflammatory efficacy was highly dependent on the dissolution profiles.

5.
Molecules ; 24(22)2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752414

RESUMO

Marine collagen peptides (MCPs) with the ability to promote cell proliferation and migration were obtained from the skin of Nibea japonica. The purpose of MCPs isolation was an attempt to convert the by-products of the marine product processing industry to high value-added items. MCPs were observed to contain many polypeptides with molecular weights ≤ 10 kDa and most amino acid residues were hydrophilic. MCPs (0.25-10 mg/mL) also exhibited 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl, superoxide anion, and 2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activities. Furthermore, MCPs promoted the proliferation of NIH-3T3 cells. In vitro scratch assays indicated that MCPs significantly enhanced the scratch closure rate and promoted the migration of NIH-3T3 cells. To further determine the signaling mechanism of MCPs, western blotting was used to study the expression levels of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) p65, IκB kinase α (IKKα), and IκB kinase ß (IKKß) proteins of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Our results indicated protein levels of NF-κB p65, IKKα and IKKß increased in MCPs-treated NIH-3T3 cells. In addition, MCPs increased the expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and transforming growth factor (TGF-ß) in NIH-3T3 cells. Therefore, MCPs, a by-product of N. japonica, exhibited potential wound healing abilities in vitro.

6.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(95): 14335-14338, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31720600

RESUMO

A syn-atropisomer of naphthalene diimide as a highly preorganized precursor was used to construct a type of trapezoid-shape macrocycle, namely 'trapezoid' molecular boxes (TBox). As supramolecular hosts, TBox can bind electron-rich guests and selectively recognize free tryptophan and tryptophanyl residues from 20 standard amino acids.

7.
Environ Pollut ; : 113444, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676094

RESUMO

Microcystis blooms and their secondary metabolites microcystins (MCs) occurred all over the world, which have damaged aquatic ecosystems and threatened public health. Techniques to reduce the Microcystis blooms and MCs are urgently needed. This study aimed to investigate the algicidal and inhibitory mechanisms of a red pigment prodigiosin (PG) against the growth and MC-producing abilities of Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa). The numbers of Microcystis cells were counted under microscope. The expression of microcystin synthase B gene (mcyB) and concentrations of MCs were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods, respectively. The inhibitory effects of PG against M. aeruginosa strain FACHB 905 with 50% algicidal concentration (LC50) at 120 h was 0.12 µg/mL. When M. aeruginosa cells exposed to 0.08 µg/mL, 0.16 µg/mL, 0.32 µg/mL PG, the expression of mcyB of M. aeruginosa was down-regulated 4.36, 8.16 and 18.51 times lower than that of the control at 120 h. The concentrations of total MC (TMC) also were 1.66, 1.72 and 5.75 times lower than that of the control at 120 h. PG had high algicidal effects against M. aeruginosa, with the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) initially increased and then decreased after 72 h, the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) increase, the expression of mcyB gene down-regulation, and MCs synthesis inhibition. This study was first to report the PG can simultaneously lyse Microcystis cells, down-regulate of mcyB expression and inhibit MCs production effectively probably due to oxidative stress, which indicated PG poses a great potential for regulating Microcystis blooms and MCs pollution in the environment.

8.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; : e21643, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667894

RESUMO

Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) can visualize the composition, abundance, and spatial distribution of molecules in tissues or cells, which has been widely used in the research of life science. Insects, especially the agricultural pests, have received a great deal of interests from the scientists in biodiversity and food security. This review introduces the major characteristics of MSI, summarizes its application to the investigation of insect endogenous metabolites, exogenous metabolites, and the spatiotemporal changes of metabolites between insects and plants, and discusses its shortfalls and perspectives. The significance of these concerns is beneficial for future insect research such as physiology and metabolism.

9.
Pharm Biol ; 57(1): 744-752, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679431

RESUMO

Context: Liuweibuqi (LWBQ) capsule has been reported to influence symptoms of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); however, specific function of LWBQ capsules in COPD with lung-qi deficiency syndrome remains elusive.Objective: This study investigates effect of LWBQ capsules on STAT4/STAT6 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 expression and pulmonary function in stable COPD with lung-qi deficiency syndrome.Materials and methods: Totally, 429 patients diagnosed with stable COPD and lung-qi deficiency syndrome were treated with starch capsules (each time for 9 capsules), or different doses: low (each dose for 8 capsules and 1 LWBQ capsules), medium (each time for 6 capsules and 3 LWBQ capsules), or high (each time for 9 LWBQ capsules) of LWBQ capsules for 30 days, 3 times a day. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC% and DLco%pred were evaluated by pulmonary function meter. STAT4/STAT6 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 expression was assessed by RT-qPCR and western blot analysis, and serum concentrations of IL-4, IFN-γ and IL-6 by ELISA.Results: Spearman rank correlation analysis and ROC curve showed that STAT4/STAT6 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 affected pulmonary functions and curative effect of stable COPD with lung-qi deficiency syndrome. After LWBQ capsule treatment, FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC% and DLco%pred elevated; STAT4/STAT6, MMP-9/TIMP-1, IFN-γ and IL-6 expression declined whereas IL-4 expression increased (p < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that FEV1/FVC was negatively correlated with STAT4/STAT6 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 expression in COPD patients.Conclusions: LWBQ capsules play a beneficial role in pulmonary function of stable COPD with lung-qi deficiency syndrome via STAT4/STAT6 and MMP-9/TIMP-1.

10.
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi ; 35(4): 355-358, 2019 Jul 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701722

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the therapeutic effects of puerarin on rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: T2DM models were established by high fat and high glucose feeding combined with a one-time intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 60 mg/kg). Then the rats were randomly divided into normal group, model group, metformin group (MET, 40 mg/kg), puerarin low-dose group, medium-dose group and high-dose group (40, 80, 160 mg/kg), n=10. After the model was successfully established, rats were treated with corresponding drug intervention by intragastrical administration for 4 weeks. The body weight and fasting blood glucose (FBG) were measured per week, and blood samples were collected 24 h after the last administration, and serum levels of blood glucose, serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein-cholestrol (HDL-C), serum enzyme activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (SCr), and blood uric acid (UA) were measured. RESULTS: As compared with normal group, the body weight was decreased after 4 weeks-intervention in the model group, and the levels of FBG, TC, TG, LDL-C, ALT, AST, BUN, SCr and UA were all increased,while HDL-C level was decreased (P<0.05). As compared with model group,the body weight was increased after 4 weeks-intervention in metformin group and puerarin groups, and the levels of FBG, TC, TG, LDL-C, ALT, AST, BUN, SCr and UA were decreased (P<0.01); meanwhile, HDL-C level was increased significantly (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Puerarin can reduce the weight loss of T2DM rats, decrease the blood lipid and blood glucose levels of T2DM rats, which can be used to control T2DM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Isoflavonas/farmacologia , Animais , Glicemia , Lipídeos/sangue , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Estreptozocina , Perda de Peso
11.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; : 110633, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740324

RESUMO

The microcystin-LR (MC-LR) produced due to harmful cyanobacterial blooms have brought great harm to human and aquatic organisms, attracting a wide public health attention. To deal with MC-LR contamination, we synthesized a novel bio-functionalized composite for the high-efficient and sustainable biodegradation of microcystin-LR by covalent immobilizing Sphingopyxis sp. YF1 onto chitosan-grafted Fe3O4 magnetic particles (Fe3O4@CTS). The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) were utilized to characterize the structural properties of Fe3O4@CTS/Sphingopyxis sp. YF1. The immobilization conditions were optimized. And the MC-LR-degrading capabilities of Fe3O4@CTS/Sphingopyxis sp. YF1 were assessed under various conditions. The results showed that the optimal immobilization conditions containing 1.0 % (v/v) glutaraldehyde, immobilization for 4 h at 30 ℃. The Fe3O4@CTS/Sphingopyxis sp. YF1 showed an attractive degradation performance which possesed a wide torlerance to pH (6.0-9.0) and temperature (25-35 ℃). More interesting is that the Fe3O4@CTS/Sphingopyxis sp. YF1 exhibited significantly increased MC-LR-degrading capabilities after recycling and reusing which degradation rate reached 1.50 µg/mL/h in the sixth cycle, and it was easily recycled by using a magnet (Ms 21.5 emug-1). Two intermediates (tetrapeptide and Adda) and three degradation related genes (mlrA, mlrB and mlrC) were obtained in this study and the pathway for the degradation was proposed. These results revealed that Fe3O4@CTS/Sphingopyxis sp. YF1 can be potentially used for treatment of MC-LR contaminated environment.

12.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 11(21): 9264-9279, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683259

RESUMO

This study explored the influence of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) SNHG14 on α-synuclein (α-syn) expression and Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis. Firstly, we found that the expression level of SNHG14 was elevated in brain tissues of PD mice. In MN9D cells, the rotenone treatment (1µmol/L) enhanced the binding between transcriptional factor SP-1 and SNHG14 promoter, thus promoting SNHG14 expression. Interference of SNHG14 ameliorated the DA neuron injury induced by rotenone. Next, we found an interaction between SNHG14 and miR-133b. Further study showed that miR-133b down-regulated α-syn expression by targeting its 3'-UTR of mRNA and SNHG14 could reverse the negative effect of miR-133b on α-syn expression. Interference of SNHG14 reduced rotenone-induced DA neuron damage through miR-133b in MN9D cells and α-syn was responsible for the protective effect of miR-133b. Similarly, interference of SNHG14 mitigated neuron injury in PD mouse model. All in all, silence of SNHG14 mitigates dopaminergic neuron injury by down-regulating α-syn via targeting miR-133b, which contributes to improving PD.

13.
Chemosphere ; 243: 125284, 2019 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759210

RESUMO

In order to recognize organic contaminants responsible for ecological stresses from intensive shipping traffic and dockyard works, this study aimed at characterizing the sediment contamination of a large industrialized port located in Hainan Island, China. Surface sediment samples were collected from 17 stations including the main docks, the dockyards and the major industrial wastewater outlets. Organotin compounds, the pesticide DDT (bis(chlorophenyl)trichloroethane) and its metabolites and polycyclic aromatic compounds were identified as main pollutant groups by GC/MS applying a non-target screening approach. The pesticide DDT and its metabolites were found in the same samples as the organotin derivatives pointing to similar emission sources. The concurrent presence of these compounds in the dockyard samples suggests a combined usage of organotin compounds and DDT as active ingredients in antifouling paints in Yangpu. As highly specific molecular indicators for dockyard activities, butyltin and phenyltin compounds were identified. Noteworthy, also tributylmethyltin and triphenylmethyltin were detected, likely resulting from microbial assisted biomethylation of synthetic organotin compounds in the sediments. The concentrations of PAHs, DDX and TBT in sediments from dockyards exceeded global sediment quality guidelines and the toxicity thresholds, and potentially have adverse biological effects on marine organisms.

15.
Future Oncol ; 15(33): 3763-3774, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637942

RESUMO

Aim: To identify the difference in physical activity (PA) levels between individuals with and without cancer, and to estimate all-cause mortality associated with this difference. Methods: Current cancer, cancer survivor and cancer-free groups were identified from the UK Biobank. We used multivariate and Cox regression to estimate PA differences and association of PA with all-cause mortality. Results: Compared with the cancer-free individuals, participants in the two cancer groups had fewer minutes in moderate-to-vigorous PA per day in adjusted analyses. The PA difference was associated with higher mortality in the current cancer group. Conclusion: Patients with a history of cancer were less active than those without cancer, and PA is associated with increased mortality. PA improvement strategies in cancer patients must be explored.

16.
Chin Med Sci J ; 34(3): 177-183, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601300

RESUMO

Objective To evaluate the instant effects and five-year clinical outcomes of coronary artery disease patients complicated with diabetes mellitus after StentBoost-optimized percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods From March 2009 to July 2010, 184 patients undergoing PCI at our hospital were found stent underexpansion or malapposition by StentBoost after stents implantation and were divided into the diabetic (n=73, 39.67%) and the non-diabetic group (n=111, 60.33%). All patients received StentBoost-guided post-dilatation after stent implantation. The instant procedural results were measured and clinical outcome after five-year follow-up was analyzed in each group. Between-group comparisons were performed using Chi-square test or Student's t test. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out to reveal the independent predictors for long-term clinical outcomes of StentBoost-optimized PCI . Results After StentBoost-guided post-dilatation, the minimum diameter (MinLD), maximum diameter (MaxLD) and average diameter in both groups increased significantly than before (P<0.001), the (MaxLD-MinLD)/MaxLD ratio and the in-stent residual stenosis decreased accordingly (P<0.001). The five-year follow-up showed similar mortality rate (4.92% vs. 2.86%, P=0.67) and major adverse cardiac event rate (11.48% vs. 11.43%, P = 1.0) between the diabetic and the non-diabetic group, whereas the recurrence of angina pectoris was higher in the diabetic group compared to the non-diabetic group (47.54% vs. 29.52%; P=0.02). A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that age and left ventricular ejection fraction rather than diabetes mellitus were independent predictors for long-term clinical outcomes. Conclusions StentBoost could effectively improve instant PCI results; the long-term clinical outcomes of StentBoost-optimized PCI were similar between diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Age and left ventricular ejection fraction were the independent predictors for long-term clinical outcomes.

17.
Int J Mol Med ; 44(5): 1908-1920, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573042

RESUMO

Diallyl disulfide (DADS) is one of the primary components of garlic and it exhibits a broad range of biological activities. In the present study, the effects of DADS on lipid metabolism and its potential role in the modulation of the gut microbiome were determined. Hematoxylin and eosin and oil­red O staining were used to assess the liver and intestinal tissues of mice treated with DADS. The expression of lipid metabolism­associated genes was measured using reverse transcription­quantitative PCR (RT­qPCR). The effects of DADS on the gut microbiome were measured using 16S recombinant (r)DNA gene analysis. The results revealed that the serum non­esterified free fatty acids, high density lipoprotein­cholesterol, low density lipoprotein­cholesterol, serum total cholesterol, liver triglyceride and total cholesterol levels of the mice fed with a low­dose of DADS was significantly higher when compared with the control. Hematoxylin and eosin and oil­red O staining demonstrated that DADS induced fatty liver in mice. The results of the RT­qPCR revealed that the expression levels of a number of lipid metabolism­associated genes were altered in the livers of mice treated with DADS. The 16S rDNA gene analysis demonstrated that the mice fed on a normal diet treated with a low­dose of DADS had decreased levels of bacteria from the Bacteroidetes phyla and increased levels of bacteria from the Firmicutes phyla. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis revealed the top 20 pathways enriched in the low­dose DADS group of mice fed with a normal diet. In the present study, low­dose DADS induced fatty liver and altered the gut microbiota, similar to the phenotype induced by a high fat diet, by regulating the expression of lipid metabolism associated genes.

19.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(15): 3246-3252, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602879

RESUMO

Inula japonica was used as the research object, "3414" fertilization experiment were conducted to study the effects of nitrogen,phosphorus and potassium formula fertilizer on the growth and chemical composition content of I. japonica. The characteristics of fertilizer requirement were preliminarily revealed and the study provided fertilization guidance for artificial cultivation of I. japonica. The results showed that different nitrogen,phosphorus and potassium formula fertilizers had significant effects on plant morphology,physiological and biochemical indexes,dry matter accumulation and chemical composition content. The growth indexes and chemical components of I. japonica showed an upward trend with the increase of fertilization amount,especially the nitrogen fertilizer was the most significant. The indicators were analyzed by membership function. After comprehensive evaluation,the optimal nitrogen,phosphorus and potassium formula fertilization level was N3 P2 K2,namely high level nitrogen fertilizer,medium level phosphorus fertilizer and potassium fertilizer. I. japonica is a high fertilizer demand plant,and the rational fertilization scheme is " applying nitrogen fertilizer again and applying phosphorus and potassium fertilizer properly".


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Inula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nitrogênio/química , Fósforo/química , Potássio/química , Inula/química
20.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223516, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613915

RESUMO

Citrus grandis seedlings were irrigated with nutrient solutions with four Al-P combinations [two Al levels (0 mM and 1.2 mM AlCl3·6H2O) × two P levels (0 µM and 200 µM KH2PO4)] for 18 weeks. Al dramatically inhibited the growth of C. grandis seedlings, as revealed by a decreased dry weight of roots and shoots. Elevating P level could ameliorate the Al-induced growth inhibition and organic acid (malate and citrate) secretion in C. grandis. Using a comparative proteomic approach revealed by the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) technique, 318 differentially abundant proteins (DAPs) were successfully identified and quantified in this study. The possible mechanisms underlying P-induced alleviation of Al toxicity in C. grandis were proposed. Furthermore, some DAPs, such as GLN phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate amidotransferase 2, ATP-dependent caseinolytic (Clp) protease/crotonase family protein, methionine-S-oxide reductase B2, ABC transporter I family member 17 and pyridoxal phosphate phosphatase, were reported for the first time to respond to Al stress in Citrus plants. Our study provides some proteomic details about the alleviative effects of P on Al toxicity in C. grandis, however, the exact function of the DAPs identified herein in response to Al tolerance in plants must be further investigated.

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