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1.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2022 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35040862

RESUMO

The coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is causing serious impacts in the world, and safe and effective vaccines and medicines are the best methods to combat the disease. The receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein plays a key role in interacting with the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor, and is regarded as an important target of vaccines. Herein, we constructed the adjuvant-protein conjugate Pam3CSK4-RBD as a vaccine candidate, in which the N-terminal of the RBD was site-selectively oxidized by transamination and conjugated with the TLR1/2 agonist Pam3CSK4. This demonstrated that the conjugation of Pam3CSK4 significantly enhanced the anti-RBD antibody response and cellular response. In addition, sera from the Pam3CSK4-RBD immunized group efficiently inhibited the binding of the RBD to ACE2 and protected cells from SARS-CoV-2 and four variants of concern (alpha, beta, gamma and delta), indicating that this adjuvant strategy could be one of the effective means for protein vaccine development.

2.
Food Chem ; 367: 130740, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375891

RESUMO

Traditional sample preparation methods for insecticide analysis are laborious and fatal to living organisms. In the work, an in vivo sampling rate calibrated-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was established and successfully used for in vivo sampling and quantitative determination of three insecticides (hexachlorobenzene, fipronil and chlorfenapyr) by direct exposing micron-sized fiber in living garlic. Absorption, enrichment, migration and elimination behavior of insecticides in garlic were investigated. Bioaccumulative effects with obvious tissue differences were observed to all three insecticides, especially for chlorfenapyr. Bioconcentration factors (BCFs) ranging from 0.0342 to 1.0887 were obtained, and the closer to roots, the higher BCFs. The half-life of insecticides in garlic ranged from 0.43 to 0.96 d. In the first 24 h, 55.0% - 80.3% insecticides residues in garlic were eliminated with first-order elimination kinetics. The research provides in vivo insights into the environmental fates of insecticides in complex living system with minimized organism damage.


Assuntos
Alho , Inseticidas , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Inseticidas/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Microextração em Fase Sólida
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(46): 13700-13712, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34752105

RESUMO

Sulfur is an element that is indispensable throughout the growth of plants. In plant cells, reactive sulfur species (RSS) play a vital role in maintaining cellular redox homeostasis and signal transduction. There is demand accordingly for a simple, highly selective, and sensitive method of RSS detection and imaging for monitoring dynamic changes and clarifying the biological functions of RSS in plant systems. Fluorescent analysis based on organic small-molecule fluorescent probes is an effective and specific approach to tracking plant RSS characteristics. This perspective summarizes the recent progress regarding organic small-molecule fluorescent probes for RSS monitoring, including small-molecule biological thiols, hydrogen sulfide, and sulfane sulfurs, in plants; it also discusses their response mechanism toward RSS and their imaging applications in plants across the agricultural chemistry field.


Assuntos
Química Agrícola , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio , Fluorescência , Corantes Fluorescentes , Enxofre
4.
Brief Bioinform ; 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643234

RESUMO

Protein post-translational modifications (PTM) play vital roles in cellular regulation, modulating functions by driving changes in protein structure and dynamics. Exploring comprehensively the influence of PTM on conformational dynamics can facilitate the understanding of the related biological function and molecular mechanism. Currently, a series of excellent computation tools have been designed to analyze the time-dependent structural properties of proteins. However, the protocol aimed to explore conformational dynamics of post-translational modified protein is still a blank. To fill this gap, we present PTMdyna to visually predict the conformational dynamics differences between unmodified and modified proteins, thus indicating the influence of specific PTM. PTMdyna exhibits an AUC of 0.884 tested on 220 protein-protein complex structures. The case of heterochromatin protein 1α complexed with lysine 9-methylated histone H3, which is critical for genomic stability and cell differentiation, was used to demonstrate its applicability. PTMdyna provides a reliable platform to predict the influence of PTM on protein dynamics, making it easier to interpret PTM functionality at the structure level. The web server is freely available at http://ccbportal.com/PTMdyna.

5.
J Med Chem ; 64(20): 15503-15514, 2021 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668694

RESUMO

Tropomyosin receptor kinase (TRK) inhibition is an effective therapeutic approach for treatment of a variety of cancers. Despite the use of first-generation TRK inhibitor (TRKI) larotrectinib (1) resulting in significant therapeutic response in patients, acquired resistance develops invariably. The emergence of secondary mutations occurring at the solvent-front, xDFG, and gatekeeper regions of TRK represents a common mechanism for acquired resistance. However, xDFG mutations remain insensitive to second-generation macrocyclic TRKIs selitrectinib (3) and repotrectinib (4) designed to overcome the resistance mediated by solvent-front and gatekeeper mutations. Here, we report the structure-based drug design and discovery of a next-generation TRKI. The structure-activity relationship studies culminated in the identification of a promising drug candidate 8 that showed excellent in vitro potency on a panel of TRK mutants, especially TRKAG667C in the xDFG motif, and improved in vivo efficacy than 1 and 3 in TRK wild-type and mutant fusion-driven tumor xenograft models, respectively.

6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(44): 13227-13234, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34709809

RESUMO

Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH, EC 1.3.5.1) has proven to be an important fungicidal target, and the inhibition of SDH is useful in the treatment of plant pathogens. The discovery of a novel active SDH inhibitor is of high value. Herein, we disclose the discovery of a potent, highly active inhibitor as a fungicide candidate by using a computational substitution optimization method, a fast drug design method developed in our laboratory. The greenhouse experiments showed that compound 17c exhibited high protective activity against south corn rust, soybean rust (SBR), and rice sheath blight at a very low dosage of 0.781 mg/L. Moreover, the field trials indicated that compound 17c is comparable to and even better than commercial fungicides against SBR and cucumber powdery mildew at 50 mg/L concentration. Most surprisingly, compound 17c resulted to be strictly better in curative activity than the commercial fungicide benzovindiflupyr. The computation results indicated that 17c could form another hydrogen bond with C_S42 and then lead to strong van der Waals and electronic interactions with SDH. Our results suggested that 17c is a potential fungicide candidate for SDH.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Cucumis sativus , Fungicidas Industriais , Basidiomycota/metabolismo , Cucumis sativus/metabolismo , Desenho de Fármacos , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Doenças das Plantas , Succinato Desidrogenase/genética , Succinato Desidrogenase/metabolismo
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(40): 12039-12047, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587743

RESUMO

Novel insecticidal targets are always in demand due to the development of resistance. OfHex1, a ß-N-acetyl-d-hexosaminidase identified in Ostrinia furnacalis (Asian corn borer), is involved in insect chitin catabolism and has proven an ideal target for insecticide development. In this study, structure-based virtual screening, structure simplification, and biological evaluation are used to show that compounds with a biphenyl-sulfonamide skeleton have great potential as OfHex1 inhibitors. Specifically, compounds 10k, 10u, and 10v have Ki values of 4.30, 3.72, and 4.56 µM, respectively, and thus, they are more potent than some reported nonglycosyl-based inhibitors such as phlegmacin B1 (Ki = 26 µM), berberine (Ki = 12 µM), 2 (Ki = 11.2 µM), and 3 (Ki = 28.9 µM). Furthermore, inhibitory kinetic assessments reveal that the target compounds are competitive inhibitors with respect substrate, and based on toxicity predictions, most of them have potent drug properties. The obtained results indicate that the biphenyl-sulfonamide skeleton characterized by simple chemical structure, synthetic tractability, potent activity, and low toxicity has potential for further development in pest management targeting OfHex1.


Assuntos
Hexosaminidases , Mariposas , Animais , Compostos de Bifenilo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Sulfonamidas , beta-N-Acetil-Hexosaminidases
8.
Anal Chem ; 93(39): 13311-13318, 2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569224

RESUMO

As a global health challenge, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is strongly associated with chronic inflammation. Targeting inflammation, particularly inflammatory factors, is regarded as an important strategy for HCC diagnosis and treatment. Pyroglutamic aminopeptidase I (PGP-I), a common exopeptidase, was recently identified as a novel inflammatory cytokine in cells. However, whether PGP-I is involved in HCC development and can be regarded as a biomarker remains unclear. To address this issue, endogenous PGP-I was imaged in live cells and in vivo, and the related biochemical and pathological processes were analyzed accordingly with a newly developed fluorogenic PGP-I biosensor. Bioimaging with the specific biosensor demonstrated the aberrant expression of PGP-I in HCC cell lines and tumor-bearing nude mice. Moreover, overexpression of PGP-I in HCC cells promoted tumor progression, whereas knockdown of PGP-I significantly suppressed tumor cell growth and migration. The activity of PGP-I was further identified to be highly related to the phosphorylation of STAT3, which could be impeded by the natural product parthenolide. Collectively, these findings suggest that PGP-I, which can promote hepatocellular tumor progression through the classical inflammation-/tumor-related IL-6/STAT3 pathway, may serve as a potential HCC biomarker and therapeutic target.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Piroglutamil-Peptidase I , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Animais , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Ácido Pirrolidonocarboxílico
9.
Top Curr Chem (Cham) ; 379(6): 37, 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34554348

RESUMO

Traditional drug discovery effectively contributes to the treatment of many diseases but is limited by high costs and long cycles. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) methods were introduced to evaluate the activity of compounds virtually, which saves the significant cost of determining the activities of the compounds experimentally. Over the past two decades, many web tools for QSAR modeling with various features have been developed to facilitate the usage of QSAR methods. These web tools significantly reduce the difficulty of using QSAR and indirectly promote drug discovery. However, there are few comprehensive summaries of these QSAR tools, and researchers may have difficulty determining which tool to use. Hence, we systematically surveyed the mainstream web tools for QSAR modeling. This work may guide researchers in choosing appropriate web tools for developing QSAR models, and may also help develop more bioinformatics tools based on these existing resources. For nonprofessionals, we also hope to make more people aware of QSAR methods and expand their use.


Assuntos
Descoberta de Drogas , Internet , Preparações Farmacêuticas/química , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade
10.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(38): 15674-15687, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542283

RESUMO

Increasing demands for efficient and versatile chemical reactions have prompted innovations in enzyme engineering. A major challenge in engineering α-ketoglutarate-dependent oxygenases is to develop a rational strategy which can be widely used for directly evolving the desired mutant to generate new products. Herein, we report a strategy for rational redesign of a model enzyme, 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD), based on quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculation and molecular dynamic simulations. This strategy enriched our understanding of the HPPD catalytic reaction pathway and led to the discovery of a series of HPPD mutants producing hydroxyphenylacetate (HPA) as the alternative product other than the native product homogentisate. The predicted HPPD-Fe(IV)═O-HPA intermediate was further confirmed by the crystal structure of Arabidopsis thaliana HPPD/S267W complexed with HPA. These findings not only provide a good understanding of the structure-function relationship of HPPD but also demonstrate a generally applicable platform for the development of biocatalysts.

11.
Methods Enzymol ; 657: 223-247, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353489

RESUMO

Benzobisthiadiazole as a typical electron acceptor, has been widely used to design fluorescent dyes and photoacoustic (PA) agents. With the strategy of constructing donor-acceptor-donor (D-A-D) type of electron characteristics, benzobisthiadiazole derivatives tend to behave stable in near-infrared absorption and emission, which is beneficial to PA imaging. In this chapter, two molecular design strategies are combined to improve the photoacoustic imaging effects of new PA contrast agent IR-1302 NPs, by installing strengthened conjugated bridges and electron donors. The nanoparticles exhibit high-contrast noninvasive photoacoustic imaging in tumor models with longer wavelength absorption and emission and show potential as a clinic contrast agent.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Técnicas Fotoacústicas , Corantes Fluorescentes , Análise Espectral
12.
Wiley Interdiscip Rev RNA ; : e1675, 2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34080311

RESUMO

Protein-RNA interactions play essential roles in many critical biological events. A comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms underlying these interactions is helpful when studying cellular activities and therapeutic applications. Hotspots are a small portion of residues contributing much toward protein-RNA binding affinity. In pharmaceutical research, the hotspot residues are seen as the best option for designing small molecules to target proteins of therapeutic interest. With the accumulation of experimental data about protein-RNA interactions, computational methods have been produced for hotspot prediction on a large scale. In this review, we first present an overview of the existing databases for protein-RNA binding data. Furthermore, we outline the most adopted computational methods for hotspots prediction in protein-RNA interactions. Finally, we discuss the applications of hotspot prediction. This article is categorized under: RNA Interactions with Proteins and Other Molecules > Protein-RNA Recognition RNA Interactions with Proteins and Other Molecules > Protein-RNA Interactions: Functional Implications RNA Methods > RNA Analyses In Vitro and In Silico.

13.
Trends Pharmacol Sci ; 42(7): 551-565, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33958239

RESUMO

Protein kinases (PKs) are important drug targets, but kinases selectivity poses a challenge to protein kinase inhibitors (PKIs) design. Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) has achieved great success in the discovery of highly specific PKIs. It makes full use of kinase-fragment interaction in target kinase subpockets to obtain promising selectivity. However, it's difficult to understand the complicated kinase-fragment interaction space, and systemic discussion of these interactions is still lacking. Herein, we introduce the advantages of the FBDD strategy in PKIs design. Key features of the selectivity of kinase-fragment interactions are summarized and analyzed. Some promising PKIs are introduced as case studies to help understand the fragment-to-lead (F2L) optimization process. Novel strategies and technologies for FBDD in PKIs discovery are also outlooked.


Assuntos
Desenho de Fármacos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases , Descoberta de Drogas , Humanos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(20): 5734-5745, 2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33999624

RESUMO

Exploring novel p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (EC 1.13.11.27, HPPD) inhibitors has become one of the most promising research directions in herbicide innovation. On the basis of our tremendous interest in exploiting more powerful HPPD inhibitors, we designed a family of benzyl-containing triketone-aminopyridines via a structure-based drug design (SBDD) strategy and then synthesized them. Among these prepared derivatives, the best active 3-hydroxy-2-(3,5,6-trichloro-4-((4-isopropylbenzyl)amino)picolinoyl)cyclohex-2-en-1-one (23, IC50 = 0.047 µM) exhibited a 5.8-fold enhancement in inhibiting Arabidopsis thaliana (At) HPPD activity over that of commercial mesotrione (IC50 = 0.273 µM). The predicted docking models and calculated energy contributions of the key residues for small molecules suggested that an additional π-π stacking interaction with Phe-392 and hydrophobic contacts with Met-335 and Pro-384 were detected in AtHPPD upon the binding of the best active compound 23 compared with that of the reference mesotrione. Such a molecular mechanism and the resulting binding affinities coincide with the proposed design scheme and experimental values. It is noteworthy that inhibitors 16 (3-hydroxy-2-(3,5,6-trichloro-4-((4-chlorobenzyl)amino)picolinoyl)cyclohex-2-en-1-one), 22 (3-hydroxy-2-(3,5,6-trichloro-4-((4-methylbenzyl)amino)picolinoyl)cyclohex-2-en-1-one), and 23 displayed excellent greenhouse herbicidal effects at 150 g of active ingredient (ai)/ha after postemergence treatment. Furthermore, compound 16 showed superior weed-controlling efficacy against Setaria viridis (S. viridis) versus that of the positive control mesotrione at multiple test dosages (120, 60, and 30 g ai/ha). These findings imply that compound 16, as a novel lead of HPPD inhibitors, possesses great potential for application in specifically combating the malignant weed S. viridis.


Assuntos
4-Hidroxifenilpiruvato Dioxigenase , Herbicidas , 4-Hidroxifenilpiruvato Dioxigenase/metabolismo , Aminopiridinas , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Ácidos Fenilpirúvicos , Plantas Daninhas/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
15.
Top Curr Chem (Cham) ; 379(3): 23, 2021 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886017

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is still a pandemic around the world. Currently, specific antiviral drugs to control the epidemic remain deficient. Understanding the details of SARS-CoV-2 structural biology is extremely important for development of antiviral agents that will enable regulation of its life cycle. This review focuses on the structural biology and medicinal chemistry of various key proteins (Spike, ACE2, TMPRSS2, RdRp and Mpro) in the life cycle of SARS-CoV-2, as well as their inhibitors/drug candidates. Representative broad-spectrum antiviral drugs, especially those against the homologous virus SARS-CoV, are summarized with the expectation they will drive the development of effective, broad-spectrum inhibitors against coronaviruses. We are hopeful that this review will be a useful aid for discovery of novel, potent anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs with excellent therapeutic results in the near future.


Assuntos
Antivirais/química , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/química , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/antagonistas & inibidores , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Antivirais/metabolismo , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Serina Endopeptidases/química , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/metabolismo , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Anal Chem ; 93(18): 7079-7085, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33906355

RESUMO

Pesticide residues, significantly hampering the overall environmental and human health, have become an increasingly severe issue. Thus, developing rapid, cost-effective, and sensitive tools for monitoring the pesticide residues in food and water is extremely important. Compared to the conventional and chromatographic techniques, enzyme inhibition-based biosensors conjugated with the fluorogenic probes provide effective alternative methods for detecting pesticide residues due to the inherent advantages including high selectivity and sensitivity, simple operation, and capability of providing in situ and real-time information. However, the detection efficiency of a single enzyme-targeted biosensor in practical samples is strongly impeded by the structural diversity of pesticides and their distinct targets. In this work, we developed a strategy of multienzyme-targeted fluorescent probe design and accordingly obtained a novel fluorescent probe (named as 3CP) for detecting the presence of wide variety of pesticides. The designed probe 3CP, targeting cholinesterases, carboxylesterases, and chymotrypsin simultaneously, yielded intense fluorescence in the solid state upon the enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis. It showed excellent sensitivity against organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides, and the detection limit for dichlorvos achieved 1.14 pg/L. Moreover, it allowed for the diffusion-resistant in situ visualization of pesticides in live cells and zebrafish and the sensitive measurement of organophosphorus pesticides in fresh vegetables, demonstrating the promising potential for tracking the pesticide residues in environment and biological systems.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Praguicidas , Animais , Corantes Fluorescentes , Humanos , Compostos Organofosforados/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Peixe-Zebra
17.
Methods Appl Fluoresc ; 9(3)2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33873170

RESUMO

Enzymes are very important for biological processes in a living being, performing similar or multiple tasks in and out of cells, tissues and other organisms at a particular location. The abnormal activity of particular enzyme usually caused serious diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, cancers, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, arthritis etc. Hence, nondestructive and real-time visualization for certain enzyme is very important for understanding the biological issues, as well as the drug administration and drug metabolism. Fluorescent cellular probe-based enzyme detectionin vitroandin vivohas become broad interest for human disease diagnostics and therapeutics. This review highlights the recent findings and designs of highly sensitive and selective fluorescent cellular probes targeting enzymes for quantitative analysis and bioimaging.


Assuntos
Enzimas/metabolismo , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Sondas Moleculares/química , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Enzimas/química , Humanos
18.
Drug Discov Today ; 26(10): 2358-2366, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33892145

RESUMO

The infectious disease Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) continues to cause a global pandemic and, thus, the need for effective therapeutics remains urgent. Global research targeting COVID-19 treatments has produced numerous therapy-related data and established data repositories. However, these data are disseminated throughout the literature and web resources, which could lead to a reduction in the levels of their use. In this review, we introduce resource repositories for the development of COVID-19 therapeutics, from the genome and proteome to antiviral drugs, vaccines, and monoclonal antibodies. We briefly describe the data and usage, and how they advance research for therapies. Finally, we discuss the opportunities and challenges to preventing the pandemic from developing further.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Descoberta de Drogas/tendências , Internet/tendências , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Big Data , Vacinas contra COVID-19/uso terapêutico , Biologia Computacional , Humanos
19.
J Exp Bot ; 72(13): 5051-5065, 2021 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33909901

RESUMO

In the 21st century, drought has been the main cause of shortages in world grain production and has created problems with food security. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a key plant hormone involved in the response to abiotic stress, especially drought. The pyrabactin resistance (PYR)/PYR1-like (PYL)/regulatory component of abscisic acid receptor (RCAR) family of proteins (simplified as PYLs) is a well-known ABA receptor family, which can be divided into dimeric and monomeric forms. PYLs can recognize ABA and activate downstream plant drought-resistance signals. However, the difference between monomeric and dimeric receptors in the mechanism of the response to ABA is unclear. Here, we reveal that monomeric receptors have a competitive advantage over dimeric receptors for binding to ABA, driven by the energy penalty resulting from dimer dissociation. ABA also plays different roles with the monomer and the dimer: in the monomer, it acts as a 'conformational stabilizer' for stabilizing the closed gate, whereas for the dimer, it serves as an 'allosteric promoter' for promoting gate closure, which leads to dissociation of the two subunits. This work illustrates how receptor oligomerization could modulate hormonal responses and provides a new concept for novel engineered plants based on ABA binding of monomers.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Ácido Abscísico , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Secas , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Ligação Proteica
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