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1.
J Thorac Oncol ; 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470129

RESUMO

Detailed guidelines pertaining to radiological assessment of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) are currently lacking due to the rarity of the disease, complex morphology, propensity to invade multiple planes simultaneously and lack of specific recommendations within the radiology community about assessment, reporting and follow-up. In March 2017, a multidisciplinary meeting of mesothelioma experts was co-sponsored by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Thoracic Malignancy Steering Committee, International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC), and the Mesothelioma Applied Research Foundation (MARF). One of the outcomes of this conference was the foundation of detailed, multidisciplinary consensus imaging and management guidelines. Here, we present the recommendations for radiologic assessment of MPM in the setting of clinical trial enrollment. We discuss optimization of imaging parameters across modalities, standardized reporting and response assessment within clinical trials.

2.
CA Cancer J Clin ; 69(5): 402-429, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283845

RESUMO

Mesothelioma affects mostly older individuals who have been occupationally exposed to asbestos. The global mesothelioma incidence and mortality rates are unknown, because data are not available from developing countries that continue to use large amounts of asbestos. The incidence rate of mesothelioma has decreased in Australia, the United States, and Western Europe, where the use of asbestos was banned or strictly regulated in the 1970s and 1980s, demonstrating the value of these preventive measures. However, in these same countries, the overall number of deaths from mesothelioma has not decreased as the size of the population and the percentage of old people have increased. Moreover, hotspots of mesothelioma may occur when carcinogenic fibers that are present in the environment are disturbed as rural areas are being developed. Novel immunohistochemical and molecular markers have improved the accuracy of diagnosis; however, about 14% (high-resource countries) to 50% (developing countries) of mesothelioma diagnoses are incorrect, resulting in inadequate treatment and complicating epidemiological studies. The discovery that germline BRCA1-asssociated protein 1 (BAP1) mutations cause mesothelioma and other cancers (BAP1 cancer syndrome) elucidated some of the key pathogenic mechanisms, and treatments targeting these molecular mechanisms and/or modulating the immune response are being tested. The role of surgery in pleural mesothelioma is controversial as it is difficult to predict who will benefit from aggressive management, even when local therapies are added to existing or novel systemic treatments. Treatment outcomes are improving, however, for peritoneal mesothelioma. Multidisciplinary international collaboration will be necessary to improve prevention, early detection, and treatment.

3.
J Thorac Oncol ; 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260832

RESUMO

The accurate diagnosis of mesothelioma is critical for the appropriate clinical management of this cancer. Many issues complicate making the diagnosis of mesothelioma including the presence of reactive mesothelial cells in benign pleural effusions, the heterogeneity of mesothelioma histopathology, the relatively high incidence of other epithelial malignancies that metastasize to the pleura, and primary sarcomas that arise within the pleura. Given the rapidly evolving field of molecular profiling and the need for translational correlates in mesothelioma clinical trials, the National Cancer Institute (NCI)-International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer-Mesothelioma Applied Research Foundation Clinical Trials Planning Meeting was convened in March 2017 to develop a consensus on standard pathology guidelines for future NCI-sponsored clinical trials in mesothelioma. This consensus statement covers recommendations for specimen handling, pathologic classification and diagnosis, biobanking, and tissue correlative studies.

4.
5.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4385, 2018 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30349006

RESUMO

The tumor suppressor and deubiquitinase (DUB) BAP1 and its Drosophila ortholog Calypso assemble DUB complexes with the transcription regulators Additional sex combs-like (ASXL1, ASXL2, ASXL3) and Asx respectively. ASXLs and Asx use their DEUBiquitinase ADaptor (DEUBAD) domain to stimulate BAP1/Calypso DUB activity. Here we report that monoubiquitination of the DEUBAD is a general feature of ASXLs and Asx. BAP1 promotes DEUBAD monoubiquitination resulting in an increased stability of ASXL2, which in turn stimulates BAP1 DUB activity. ASXL2 monoubiquitination is directly catalyzed by UBE2E family of Ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes and regulates mammalian cell proliferation. Remarkably, Calypso also regulates Asx monoubiquitination and transgenic flies expressing monoubiquitination-defective Asx mutant exhibit developmental defects. Finally, the protein levels of ASXL2, BAP1 and UBE2E enzymes are highly correlated in mesothelioma tumors suggesting the importance of this signaling axis for tumor suppression. We propose that monoubiquitination orchestrates a molecular symbiosis relationship between ASXLs and BAP1.

6.
Cell Death Differ ; 25(11): 1885-1904, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30323273

RESUMO

The relative contribution of intrinsic genetic factors and extrinsic environmental ones to cancer aetiology and natural history is a lengthy and debated issue. Gene-environment interactions (G x E) arise when the combined presence of both a germline genetic variant and a known environmental factor modulates the risk of disease more than either one alone. A panel of experts discussed our current understanding of cancer aetiology, known examples of G × E interactions in cancer, and the expanded concept of G × E interactions to include somatic cancer mutations and iatrogenic environmental factors such as anti-cancer treatment. Specific genetic polymorphisms and genetic mutations increase susceptibility to certain carcinogens and may be targeted in the near future for prevention and treatment of cancer patients with novel molecularly based therapies. There was general consensus that a better understanding of the complexity and numerosity of G × E interactions, supported by adequate technological, epidemiological, modelling and statistical resources, will further promote our understanding of cancer and lead to novel preventive and therapeutic approaches.

7.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO2018790352, 2018 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30376426

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We hypothesized that four criteria could help identify malignant mesotheliomas (MMs) most likely linked to germline mutations of BAP1 or of other genes: family history of MM, BAP1-associated cancers, or multiple malignancies; or age younger than 50 years. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Over the course of 7 years, 79 patients with MM met the four criteria; 22 of the 79 (28%) reported possible asbestos exposure. They were screened for germline BAP1 mutations by Sanger sequencing and by targeted next-generation sequencing (tNGS) for germline mutations in 55 additional cancer-linked genes. Deleterious mutations detected by tNGS were validated by Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: Of the 79 patients, 43 (16 probands and 27 relatives) had deleterious germline BAP1 mutations. The median age at diagnosis was 54 years and median survival was 5 years. Among the remaining 36 patients with no BAP1 mutation, median age at diagnosis was 45 years, median survival was 9 years, and 12 had deleterious mutations of additional genes linked to cancer. When compared with patients with MMs in the SEER cohort, median age at diagnosis (72 years), median survival for all MM stages (8 months), and stage I (11 months) were significantly different from the 79 patients with MM in the current study ( P < .0001). CONCLUSION: We provide criteria that help identify a subset of patients with MM who had significantly improved survival. Most of these patients were not aware of asbestos exposure and carried either pathogenic germline mutations of BAP1 or of additional genes linked to cancer, some of which may have targeted-therapy options. These patients and their relatives are susceptible to development of additional cancers; therefore, genetic counseling and cancer screening should be considered.

8.
J Thorac Oncol ; 13(11): 1655-1667, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30266660

RESUMO

On March 28- 29, 2017, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Thoracic Malignacy Steering Committee, International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, and Mesothelioma Applied Research Foundation convened the NCI-International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer- Mesothelioma Applied Research Foundation Mesothelioma Clinical Trials Planning Meeting in Bethesda, Maryland. The goal of the meeting was to bring together lead academicians, clinicians, scientists, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to focus on the development of clinical trials for patients in whom malignant pleural mesothelioma has been diagnosed. In light of the discovery of new cancer targets affecting the clinical development of novel agents and immunotherapies in malignant mesothelioma, the objective of this meeting was to assemble a consensus on at least two or three practice-changing multimodality clinical trials to be conducted through NCI's National Clinical Trials Network.

9.
J Thorac Oncol ; 13(9): 1269-1283, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29966799

RESUMO

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare and aggressive cancer that arises from the mesothelial surface of the pleural and peritoneal cavities, the pericardium, and rarely, the tunica vaginalis. The incidence of MPM is expected to increase worldwide in the next two decades. However, even with the use of multimodality treatment, MPM remains challenging to treat, with a 5-year survival rate of less than 5%. The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer has gathered experts in different areas of mesothelioma research and management to summarize the most significant scientific advances and new frontiers related to mesothelioma therapeutics.

10.
J Thorac Oncol ; 13(5): 606-623, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29524617

RESUMO

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an uncommon, almost universally fatal, asbestos-induced malignancy. New and effective strategies for diagnosis, prognostication, and treatment are urgently needed. Herein we review the advances in MPM achieved in 2017. Whereas recent epidemiological data demonstrated that the incidence of MPM-related death continued to increase in United States between 2009 and 2015, new insight into the molecular pathogenesis and the immunological tumor microenvironment of MPM, for example, regarding the role of BRCA1 associated protein 1 and the expression programmed death receptor ligand 1, are highlighting new potential therapeutic strategies. Furthermore, there continues to be an ever-expanding number of clinical studies investigating systemic therapies for MPM. These trials are primarily focused on immunotherapy using immune checkpoint inhibitors alone or in combination with other immunotherapies and nonimmunotherapies. In addition, other promising targeted therapies, including pegylated adenosine deiminase (ADI-PEG20), which focuses on argininosuccinate synthase 1-deficient tumors, and tazemetostat, an enhancer of zeste 2 polycomb repressive complex 2 subunit inhibitor of BRCA1 associated protein 1 gene (BAP1)-deficient tumors, are currently being explored.

11.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 110(10): 1102-1114, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29579286

RESUMO

Background: Mammalian cells express a single functional heparanase, an endoglycosidase that cleaves heparan sulfate and thereby promotes tumor metastasis, angiogenesis, and inflammation. Malignant mesothelioma is highly aggressive and has a poor prognosis because of the lack of markers for early diagnosis and resistance to conventional therapies. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mode of action and biological significance of heparanase in mesothelioma and test the efficacy of heparanase inhibitors in the treatment of this malignancy. Methods: The involvement of heparanase in mesothelioma was investigated by applying mouse models of mesothelioma and testing the effect of heparanase gene silencing (n = 18 mice per experiment; two different models) and heparanase inhibitors (ie, PG545, defibrotide; n = 18 per experiment; six different models). Synchronous pleural effusion and plasma samples from patients with mesothelioma (n = 35), other malignancies (12 non-small cell lung cancer, two small cell lung carcinoma, four breast cancer, three gastrointestinal cancers, two lymphomas), and benign effusions (five patients) were collected and analyzed for heparanase content (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Eighty-one mesothelioma biopsies were analyzed by H-Score for the prognostic impact of heparanase using immunohistochemistry. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Mesothelioma tumor growth, measured by bioluminescence or tumor weight at termination, was markedly attenuated by heparanase gene silencing (P = .02) and by heparanase inhibitors (PG545 and defibrotide; P < .001 and P = .01, respectively). A marked increase in survival of the mesothelioma-bearing mice (P < .001) was recorded. Heparanase inhibitors were more potent in vivo than conventional chemotherapy. Clinically, heparanase levels in patients' pleural effusions could distinguish between malignant and benign effusions, and a heparanase H-score above 90 was associated with reduced patient survival (hazard ratio = 1.89, 95% confidence interval = 1.09 to 3.27, P = .03). Conclusions: Our results imply that heparanase is clinically relevant in mesothelioma development. Given these preclinical and clinical data, heparanase appears to be an important mediator of mesothelioma, and heparanase inhibitors are worthy of investigation as a new therapeutic modality in mesothelioma clinical trials.

12.
Nitric Oxide ; 76: 6-15, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29510200

RESUMO

Nitric oxide (NO) has a general inhibitory effects on chlorophyll biosynthesis, especially to the step of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) biosynthesis and protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) to chlorophyllide (Chlide) conversion (responsible by the NADPH:Pchlide oxidoreductase POR). Previous study suggested that barley large POR aggregates may be generated by dithiol oxidation of cysteines of two POR monomers, which can be disconnected by some reducing agents. POR aggregate assembly may be correlated with seedling greening in barley, but not in Arabidopsis. Thus, NO may affect POR activity and seedling greening differently between Arabidopsis and barley. We proved this assumption by non-denaturing gel-analysis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) monitoring during the greening. NO treatments cause S-nitrosylation to POR cysteine residues and disassembly of POR aggregates. This modification reduces POR activity and induces Pchlide accumulation and singlet oxygen generation upon dark-to-high-light shift (and therefore inducing photobleaching lesions) in barley leaf apex, but not in Arabidopsis seedlings. ROS staining and ROS-related-gene expression detection confirmed that superoxide anion and singlet oxygen accumulated in barley etiolated seedlings after the NO treatments, when exposed to a fluctuating light. The data suggest that POR aggregate assembly may be correlated with barley chlorophyll biosynthesis and redox homeostasis during greening. Cysteine S-nitrosylation may be one of the key reasons for the NO-induced inhibition to chlorophyll biosynthetic enzymes.

13.
Cell Death Differ ; 24(10): 1694-1704, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28665402

RESUMO

Carriers of heterozygous germline BAP1 mutations (BAP1+/-) develop cancer. We studied plasma from 16 BAP1+/- individuals from 2 families carrying different germline BAP1 mutations and 30 BAP1 wild-type (BAP1WT) controls from these same families. Plasma samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF-MS), ultra-performance liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-TQ-MS), and gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS). We found a clear separation in the metabolic profile between BAP1WT and BAP1+/- individuals. We confirmed the specificity of the data in vitro using 12 cell cultures of primary fibroblasts we derived from skin punch biopsies from 12/46 of these same individuals, 6 BAP1+/- carriers and 6 controls from both families. BAP1+/- fibroblasts displayed increased aerobic glycolysis and lactate secretion, and reduced mitochondrial respiration and ATP production compared with BAP1WT. siRNA-mediated downregulation of BAP1 in primary BAP1WT fibroblasts and in primary human mesothelial cells, led to the same reduced mitochondrial respiration and increased aerobic glycolysis as we detected in primary fibroblasts from carriers of BAP1+/- mutations. The plasma and cell culture results were highly reproducible and were specifically and only linked to BAP1 status and not to gender, age or family, or cell type, and required an intact BAP1 catalytic activity. Accordingly, we were able to build a metabolomic model capable of predicting BAP1 status with 100% accuracy using data from human plasma. Our data provide the first experimental evidence supporting the hypothesis that aerobic glycolysis, also known as the 'Warburg effect', does not necessarily occur as an adaptive process that is consequence of carcinogenesis, but rather that it may also predate malignancy by many years and facilitate carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Mitocôndrias/genética , Mutação/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/genética , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Pele/patologia
14.
Transl Lung Cancer Res ; 6(3): 259-269, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28713671

RESUMO

Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive and lethal cancer, mostly related to inhalation of asbestos and erionite fibers. MM is associated with poor prognosis, because of its resistance to current therapies, even if higher survival occurs in patients diagnosed and treated when at stage I of the disease. However, these do not exceed 5% of the total number of cases, due to the inadequacy of the existing biomarkers for early and accurate diagnosis. Therefore, new effective biomarkers are needed for MM detection at earlier stages and to develop tailored therapies. Here we review the most promising biomarkers in MM to date: mesothelin, soluble mesothelin-related peptides (SMRPs), megakaryocyte potentiating factor (MPF), Osteopontin (OPN), Fibulin-3, high mobility group B1 (HMGB1), microRNAs (miRNAs), multiplex protein signatures. The validation of these biomarkers will allow their use, alone or in combination, for monitoring individuals from cohorts at risk of MM and attaining early detection of MM that is instrumental in improving patient survival.

15.
Ann Transl Med ; 5(11): 238, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28706906

RESUMO

Recent discoveries have elucidated some of the mechanisms responsible for the development of mesothelioma. These discoveries are: (I) the critical role of chronic inflammation in promoting mesothelioma growth, driven by the release of high mobility group box protein-1 (HMGB1) following asbestos deposition in tissues and its potential role as a biomarker to identify asbestos exposed individuals and mesothelioma patients; (II) the discovery that inherited heterozygous germline mutations of the deubiquitylase BRCA-associated protein 1 (BAP1) cause a high incidence of mesothelioma in some families; and that (III) germline BAP1 mutations lower the threshold of asbestos required to cause mesothelioma in mice, evidence of gene X environment interaction. These findings together with the identification of novel serum biomarkers, including HMGB1, Fibulin-3, etc., promise to revolutionize screening and treatment of this malignancy in the coming years.

16.
Fly (Austin) ; 11(4): 239-252, 2017 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28644712

RESUMO

Carbon dioxide is an important environmental cue for many insects, regulating many behaviors including some that have direct human impacts. To further improve our understanding of how this system varies among closely related insect species, we examined both the behavioral response to CO2 as well as the transcriptional profile of key developmental regulators of CO2 sensory neurons in the olfactory system across the Drosophila genus. We found that CO2 generally evokes repulsive behavior across most of the Drosophilids we examined, but this behavior has been lost or reduced in several lineages. Comparisons of transcriptional profiles from the developing and adult antennae for subset these species suggest that behavioral differences in some species may be due to differences in the expression of the CO2 co-receptor Gr63a. Furthermore, these differences in Gr63a expression are correlated with changes in the expression of a few genes known to be involved in the development of the CO2 circuit, namely dac, an important regulator of sensilla fate for sensilla that house CO2 ORNs, and mip120, a member of the MMB/dREAM epigenetic regulatory complex that regulates CO2 receptor expression. In contrast, most of the other known structural, molecular, and developmental components of the peripheral Drosophila CO2 olfactory system seem to be well-conserved across all examined lineages. These findings suggest that certain components of CO2 sensory ORN development may be more evolutionarily labile, and may contribute to differences in CO2-evoked behavioral responses across species.


Assuntos
Antenas de Artrópodes/metabolismo , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Dióxido de Carbono/farmacologia , Drosophila melanogaster/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/fisiologia , Animais , Antenas de Artrópodes/efeitos dos fármacos , Antenas de Artrópodes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/citologia , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
17.
Nature ; 546(7659): 549-553, 2017 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28614305

RESUMO

BRCA1-associated protein 1 (BAP1) is a potent tumour suppressor gene that modulates environmental carcinogenesis. All carriers of inherited heterozygous germline BAP1-inactivating mutations (BAP1+/-) developed one and often several BAP1-/- malignancies in their lifetime, mostly malignant mesothelioma, uveal melanoma, and so on. Moreover, BAP1-acquired biallelic mutations are frequent in human cancers. BAP1 tumour suppressor activity has been attributed to its nuclear localization, where it helps to maintain genome integrity. The possible activity of BAP1 in the cytoplasm is unknown. Cells with reduced levels of BAP1 exhibit chromosomal abnormalities and decreased DNA repair by homologous recombination, indicating that BAP1 dosage is critical. Cells with extensive DNA damage should die and not grow into malignancies. Here we discover that BAP1 localizes at the endoplasmic reticulum. Here, it binds, deubiquitylates, and stabilizes type 3 inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R3), modulating calcium (Ca2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum into the cytosol and mitochondria, promoting apoptosis. Reduced levels of BAP1 in BAP1+/- carriers cause reduction both of IP3R3 levels and of Ca2+ flux, preventing BAP1+/- cells that accumulate DNA damage from executing apoptosis. A higher fraction of cells exposed to either ionizing or ultraviolet radiation, or to asbestos, survive genotoxic stress, resulting in a higher rate of cellular transformation. We propose that the high incidence of cancers in BAP1+/- carriers results from the combined reduced nuclear and cytoplasmic activities of BAP1. Our data provide a mechanistic rationale for the powerful ability of BAP1 to regulate gene-environment interaction in human carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Cálcio/metabolismo , Transformação Celular Neoplásica , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Receptores de Inositol 1,4,5-Trifosfato/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/metabolismo , Apoptose/genética , Asbestos/toxicidade , Sinalização do Cálcio , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/efeitos dos fármacos , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/efeitos da radiação , Células Cultivadas , Dano ao DNA , Epitélio , Fibroblastos , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Humanos , Ligação Proteica , Estabilidade Proteica , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/deficiência , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/deficiência , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/genética
18.
J Transl Med ; 15(1): 58, 2017 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28298211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a very aggressive type of cancer, with a dismal prognosis and inherent resistance to chemotherapeutics. Development and evaluation of new therapeutic approaches is highly needed. Immunosuppressant FTY720, approved for multiple sclerosis treatment, has recently raised attention for its anti-tumor activity in a variety of cancers. However, its therapeutic potential in MM has not been evaluated yet. METHODS: Cell viability and anchorage-independent growth were evaluated in a panel of MM cell lines and human mesothelial cells (HM) upon FTY720 treatment to assess in vitro anti-tumor efficacy. The mechanism of action of FTY720 in MM was assessed by measuring the activity of phosphatase protein 2A (PP2A)-a major target of FTY720. The binding of the endogenous inhibitor SET to PP2A in presence of FTY720 was evaluated by immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation. Signaling and activation of programmed cell death were evaluated by immunoblotting and flow cytometry. A syngeneic mouse model was used to evaluate anti-tumor efficacy and toxicity profile of FTY720 in vivo. RESULTS: We show that FTY720 significantly suppressed MM cell viability and anchorage-independent growth without affecting normal HM cells. FTY720 inhibited the phosphatase activity of PP2A by displacement of SET protein, which appeared overexpressed in MM, as compared to HM cells. FTY720 promoted AKT dephosphorylation and Bcl-2 degradation, leading to induction of programmed cell death, as demonstrated by caspase-3 and PARP activation, as well as by cytochrome c and AIF intracellular translocation. Moreover, FTY720 administration in vivo effectively reduced tumor burden in mice without apparent toxicity. CONCLUSIONS: Our preclinical data indicate that FTY720 is a potentially promising therapeutic agent for MM treatment.


Assuntos
Cloridrato de Fingolimode/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Mesotelioma/tratamento farmacológico , Mesotelioma/patologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cloridrato de Fingolimode/farmacologia , Cloridrato de Fingolimode/toxicidade , Camundongos , Proteína Fosfatase 2/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo
19.
Oncotarget ; 8(14): 22649-22661, 2017 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28186988

RESUMO

Human malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive cancer linked to asbestos and erionite exposure. We previously reported that High-Mobility Group Box-1 protein (HMGB1), a prototypic damage-associated molecular pattern, drives MM development and sustains MM progression. Moreover, we demonstrated that targeting HMGB1 inhibited MM cell growth and motility in vitro, reduced tumor growth in vivo, and prolonged survival of MM-bearing mice. Ethyl pyruvate (EP), the ethyl ester of pyruvic acid, has been shown to be an effective HMGB1 inhibitor in inflammation-related diseases and several cancers. Here, we studied the effect of EP on the malignant phenotype of MM cells in tissue culture and on tumor growth in vivo using an orthotopic MM xenograft model. We found that EP impairs HMGB1 secretion by MM cells leading to reduced RAGE expression and NF-κB activation. As a consequence, EP impaired cell motility, cell proliferation, and anchorage-independent growth of MM cells. Moreover, EP reduced HMGB1 serum levels in mice and inhibited the growth of MM xenografts.Our results indicate that EP effectively hampers the malignant phenotype of MM, offering a novel potential therapeutic approach to patients afflicted with this dismal disease.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína HMGB1/antagonistas & inibidores , Mesotelioma/prevenção & controle , Piruvatos/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Proteína HMGB1/metabolismo , Humanos , Mesotelioma/metabolismo , Mesotelioma/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Transdução de Sinais , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
20.
J Thorac Oncol ; 12(4): 714-723, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28007630

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In the Western world, malignant mesothelioma (MM) is most prevalent in the pleura of older males who have been professionally exposed to asbestos. Information about MM from rapidly industrializing countries such as China is minimal. There is concern that a proportion of MM diagnoses in China may be incorrect because most Chinese physicians do not have experience diagnosing this rare cancer. We recently reported an unusually high incidence of peritoneal MM among eastern Chinese female patients. Here, we review the accuracy of MM diagnoses in China and provide suggestions to improve the accuracy of diagnosis. METHODS: We reviewed 92 pathological diagnosis of MM in 2002-2015 from two reference centers in the province of Zhejiang in eastern China. We performed a large set of immunohistochemistry analyses to increase the reliability of the diagnosis. RESULTS: We confirmed the MM diagnosis in 12 of 34 of the pleural tumors (35.3%), in 38 of 56 of the peritoneal tumors (67.9%), and in two of two of the MMs of the tunica vaginalis (100%). MMs were characterized by tumor cells showing nuclear Wilms tumor 1 and calretinin staining and by strong membranous staining for cytokeratin CAM5.2. The results of staining for the epithelial markers carcinoembryonic antigen, thyroid transcription factor-1, MOC31, BerEP4, p63, p40, paired box 8, ER and PR were negative. BRCA1 associated protein 1 nuclear staining was lost in percentages similar to what has been reported for samples from Western countries. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that MM-especially in its pleural localization-is often misdiagnosed in eastern China. Identifying pitfalls and possible solutions in the pathological diagnosis of MM will affect both the standard of care and research in China.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Mesotelioma/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Peritoneais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pleurais/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Masculino , Mesotelioma/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Peritoneais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pleurais/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Adulto Jovem
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