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1.
Bioresour Technol ; 302: 122829, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028147

RESUMO

The existence of CO2 in biogas will affect its practicality, so the methanation of CO2 is of great significance. Carrier materials play a key role in bioconversion of CO2 to methane during biogas upgrading. Herein, different materials were used to evaluate the bioconversion process of CO2 to methane, which consisted of black ceramsite (BC) and biochars prepared from corn straw and digestate. The results showed that after adding the carrier materials, the methane production rate increased by more than 20%, and the corn straw biochar (CSB) group even increased by more than 70%. This may be attributed to the large specific surface area and more functional groups in corn straw biochar which was suitable for the immobilization of hydrogenotrophic methanogens (HMs). Therefore, corn straw biochar is a good carrier material for the accelerated bioconversion of CO2 to methane.

2.
Chemosphere ; 248: 126015, 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032874

RESUMO

Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a sediment core from Dianchi Lake, southwest China, were analysed. The influence of changes in China's energy structure for 2-6 ringed PAHs was investigated to assess sources and the impact of socioeconomic development on temporal changes in concentrations. The concentration of the ΣPAH16 ranged from 746 to 2293 ng g-1. Prior to the 1960s relatively low concentrations of the ΣPAH16 and a larger proportion of 2-3-ring PAHs indicated that biomass combustion was the main source of PAHs. A rapid increase in the concentrations of 2-3 ring PAHs between 1975 and 2004 was attributed to population growth and coal consumption. A declining trend since 2004 was interpreted as being due to local changes in household energy usage. Increased concentrations of 4-ring PAH between 1975-2005 and 5-6-ring PAHs between the 1980s to 2004 showed correlations with increased coal consumption and the number of motor vehicles, respectively. These were caused by rapid urbanization and industrialization in the Dianchi watershed following the implementation of the Reform and Open Policy in 1978. A subsequent decline in the concentrations of 4-ring and 5-6-ring PAHs may have been due to decreased coal consumption and improvements in emission standards, respectively. Source apportionment by a PMF model revealed that coal combustion (29.2%), vehicle emissions (24.2%), petrogenic sources (21.8%), and biomass combustion (24.9%) were the sources of PAHs in the lake sediment core, and that coal combustion was the most important regional source of PAHs pollution.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016340

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We investigated the impact of level 4 (L4) lymph node dissection (LND) on overall survival (OS) in left-side resectable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), with the aim of guiding lymphadenectomy. METHODS: A total of 1929 patients with left-side NSCLC who underwent R0 resection between 2001 and 2014 were included in the study. The patients were divided into a group with L4 LND (L4 LND+) and a group without L4 LND (L4 LND-). Propensity score matching was applied to minimize selection bias. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards model were used to assess the impact of L4 LND on OS. RESULTS: A total of 317 pairs were matched. Of the cohort of patients, 20.3% (391/1929) had L4 LND. Of these patients, 11.8% (46/391) presented with L4 lymph node metastasis. L4 lymph node metastasis was not associated with the primary tumour lobes (P = 0.61). Before propensity score matching, the 5-year OS was comparable between the L4 LND+ and L4 LND- groups (69.0% vs 65.2%, P = 0.091). However, after propensity score matching, the 5-year OS of the L4 LND+ group was much improved compared to that of the L4 LND- group (72.9% vs 62.3%, P = 0.002) and L4 LND was an independent factor favouring OS (hazard ratio 0.678, 95% confidence interval 0.513-0.897; P = 0.006). Subgroup analysis suggested that L4 LND was an independent factor favouring OS in left upper lobe tumours. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with left-side operable NSCLC, L4 lymph node metastasis was not rare and L4 LND should be routinely performed.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960246

RESUMO

Tetramethyl thiuram disulfide (thiram) is widely used in agricultural production as an insecticide and fungicide, which can also lead to tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) in poultry. TD is characterized by leg disorders and growth performance retardation, and no targeted drugs have been found to treat TD until now. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to explore the ameliorative effect of traditional Chinese medicine naringin on thiram-induced TD chickens. A total of 180 one-day-old Arbor Acres (AA) broiler chickens were randomly divided into three equal groups (n = 60): control group (standard diet), thiram-induced group (thiram 50 mg/kg from day 3 to day 7), and naringin-treated group (naringin 30 mg/kg from day 8 to day 18). During the 18-day experiment, the growth performance, tibial bone parameters, antioxidant property of liver, serum biochemical changes and clinical symptoms were recorded to evaluate the protective effect of naringin in thiram-induced TD broiler chickens. Additionally, mRNA expressions and protein levels of Ihh and PTHrP genes were determined via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot. Administration of naringin showed significant results by alleviating lameness, increased growth performance, recuperated growth plate (GP) width, and improved functions and antioxidant enzyme level of liver in broilers affected by TD. Moreover, naringin treatment restored the development of damaged tibia bone via downregulating Ihh and upregulating PTHrP mRNA and protein expressions. In conclusion, our study determines naringin could be used as an effective medicine to treat TD.

5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 541, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992713

RESUMO

The fast development of high-resolution electron microscopy (EM) demands a background-noise-free substrate to support the specimens, where atomically thin graphene membranes can serve as an ideal candidate. Yet the preparation of robust and ultraclean graphene EM grids remains challenging. Here we present a polymer- and transfer-free direct-etching method for batch fabrication of robust ultraclean graphene grids through membrane tension modulation. Loading samples on such graphene grids enables the detection of single metal atoms and atomic-resolution imaging of the iron core of ferritin molecules at both room- and cryo-temperature. The same kind of hydrophilic graphene grid allows the formation of ultrathin vitrified ice layer embedded most protein particles at the graphene-water interface, which facilitates cryo-EM 3D reconstruction of archaea 20S proteasomes at a record high resolution of ~2.36 Å. Our results demonstrate the significant improvements in image quality using the graphene grids and expand the scope of EM imaging.

6.
Bosn J Basic Med Sci ; 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999940

RESUMO

The diagnostic performance of the Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) in differentiating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from other hepatic malignancies has not been investigated in Chinese patients with chronic liver disease from hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the LI-RADS version 2018 in differentiating HCC, intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICCA), and combined HCC-cholangiocarcinoma (cHCC-CCA) in Chinese patients with HBV infection. Seventy consecutive HBV-infected patients with ICCA (n = 48) or cHCC-CCA (n = 22) who underwent contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) between 2006 and 2017 were enrolled along with a comparison cohort of 70 patients with HCC and CE-MRI-matched for tumor size (10-19 mm, 20-30 mm, 31-50 mm, and >50 mm). Imaging feature frequencies for each tumor type were compared using Fisher's exact test. The classification accuracy of LR-5 and LR-M was estimated for HCC versus non-HCC (ICCA and cHCC-CCA). The interobserver agreement was good for LI-RADS categories of HCC, and moderate for non-HCC. After consensus read, 66 of 70 (94%) HCCs were categorized LR-5 (including tumor in vein [TIV] with LR-5), while 42 of 48 (88%) ICCAs and 13 of 22 (59%) cHCC-CCAs were categorized LR-M (including TIV with LR-M) (p < 0.001). Thus, assignment of LR-5 provided 94% sensitivity and 81% specificity for HCC. LR-M provided 79% sensitivity and 97% specificity for non-HCC (ICCA and cHCC-CCA); and the sensitivity and accuracy were lower in differentiating HCC from non-HCC (tumor size <20 mm). LI-RADS v2018 category 5 and M reliably differentiated HBV-related HCC from ICCA. However, a substantial proportion of cHCC-CCAs were categorized LR-5 rather than LR-M. While management is controversial for these combined tumors, accurate prospective differentiation is desired for optimal treatment.

7.
Biotechnol Lett ; 42(3): 493-504, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894425

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Propofol, an extensively used intravenous anesthetic agents during cancer resection surgery, has been confirmed to execute anti-tumor effect on multiple cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Although the role of propofol in CRC has been previously reported, its action mechanism remains poorly understood. This study further explored the biological function and underlying mechanism of propofol in CRC cells. METHODS: The cell proliferation, migration and invasion were assessed by methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, wound healing assay and transwell assay, respectively. The expression levels microRNA-124-3p.1 (miR-124-3p.1) and AKT serine/threonine kinase 3 (AKT3) was analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Western blot assay was employed to measure the protein expression of MMP-9, Vimentin and Cyclin D1. The interaction between miR-124-3p.1 and AKT3 was predicted by TargetScan and confirmed by dual-luciferase reporter assay. RESULTS: Propofol inhibited CRC cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Knockdown of miR-124-3p.1 or AKT3 upregulation reversed the inhibitory effects of propofol on CRC cell proliferation and metastasis. Besides, AKT3 was a direct target of miR-124-3p.1 and its overexpression abated the anti-tumor effect of miR-124-3p.1 on CRC cell proliferation and metastasis. CONCLUSION: Propofol inhibited CRC cell proliferation, migration and invasion by upregulating miR-124-3p.1 and downregulating AKT3, providing a new sight for propofol treatment of CRC.

8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 500, 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31949218

RESUMO

The issue of laser-induced damage of transparent dielectric optics has severely limited the development of high-power laser systems. Exploring the transient dynamic behaviors of laser damage on KDP surface by developing multi-physics coupling dynamics model is an important way to reveal the mechanism of nanosecond laser damage. In this work, KDP crystals are taken as an example to explore the mechanism of laser-induced surface damage. Based on the theories of electromagnetic field, heat conduction and fluid dynamics, a multi-physics coupling dynamics model is established for describing the evolution of nanosecond damage processes. The dynamics of laser energy transmission, thermal field distribution and damage morphology during nanosecond laser irradiation are simulated with this model. It is found that the enhancement of light intensity caused by surface defect plays an important role in the initial energy deposition and damage initiation of the laser irradiation area. The evolution of temperature field and crater morphology during subsequent laser irradiation is helpful to understand the laser damage process. The feasibility of this model is verified by the morphology information of typical defect-induced laser damage. This work provides further insights in explaining the laser-induced damage by surface defects on KDP crystals. The model can be also applied to investigate the laser damage mechanisms of other transparent dielectric optics.

9.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(2): 103, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915995

RESUMO

Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation exhibits a significant degradation for dissolved organic matter (DOM) in natural water ecosystems. However, research on photodegradation process of terrestrial components (e.g., humic-like substances) of DOM are limited due to drastic water dilution and rapid degradation. Here, photochemical degradation of terrestrial soil DOM with abundant humic-like substances from different land use were investigated by utilizing spectral technologies. Simulated UV radiation caused obvious losses on concentration, component structures, and fluorescence characteristic of soil DOM samples. The correlations between absorption specific parameters (a280, SUVA254, and SR) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were especially pronounced (p < 0.05), which could be used as valid indicators to determine changes in DOM composition and molecular size during photobleaching process. The decreases of DOM fluorescence intensity were corresponded to first-order kinetic and half-life reactions. The greatest reduction on fluorescence intensity (31.56-81.97%) belonged to peak C (i.e., humic-like substances). Overall, DOM from forest and grass soil ecosystems was more easily photochemical degraded than anthropogenic soil DOM. Enhancive contribution of fresh DOM formed by photodegradation increased autochthonous characteristic and bioavailable nutrition by increasing biological index (BIX) values and ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N) concentration. The slight microbial decomposition effects on DOM happened in unsterilized dark condition. Our findings provided insights for understanding the rapid photodegradation processes of composition and structure of terrestrial DOM. Graphical abstract.

10.
J Mater Chem B ; 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31934712

RESUMO

Programmed biosensors with tunable quantification range and sensitivity would greatly broaden their application in medical diagnosis, food safety and environmental analysis. Herein, we proposed a graphene-nucleic acid biointerface-engineered biosensor, allowing target molecules to be detected with adjustable dynamic ranges and sensitivities. The biosensors were programmed by simply tuning the poly A tail of aptamer probes. The tuning of the poly A tail would allow the interaction between aptamer probes and graphene oxide (GO) to be modulated, in turn programing the competitive binding processes of aptamer probes to target molecules and GO. The biosensors, termed affinity-tunable aptasensors (atAptasensors) could be easily tuned with different dynamic ranges by using aptamer probes with different tail lengths, and the dynamic range could be extended to be over 3 orders by a combined use of multiple aptamer probes. Remarkably, the specificity of aptamer probes could be increased by increasing the interaction between aptamer probes and GO. Reliability of atAptasensor for ATP detection was tested in serum and milk samples, and we also applied atAptasensor for culture-independent analysis of microorganism pollution.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940562

RESUMO

This article addresses the distributed optimal fault-tolerant control (FTC) issue by using the two-level game approach for a class of nonlinear interconnected systems, in which each subsystem couples with its neighbors through not only the states but also the inputs. At the first level, the FTC problem for each subsystem is formulated as a zero-sum differential game, in which the controller and the fault are regarded as two players with opposite interests. At the second level, the whole interconnected system is formulated as a graphical game, in which each subsystem is a player to achieve the global Nash equilibrium for the overall system. The rigorous proof of the stability of the interconnected system is given by means of the cyclic-small-gain theorem, and the relationship between the local optimality and the global optimality is analyzed. Moreover, based on the adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) technology, a distributed optimal FTC learning scheme is proposed, in which a group of critic neural networks (NNs) are established to approximate the cost functions. Finally, an example is taken to illustrate the efficiency and applicability of the obtained theoretical results.

12.
Apoptosis ; 25(1-2): 105-119, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894448

RESUMO

Liver fibrosis usually progresses to liver cirrhosis and even hepatocellular carcinoma. Since activated hepatic stellate cells (aHSCs) are responsible for liver fibrosis, reducing the quantity of aHSCs was considered the essential strategy for clinical antihepatofibrotic therapy. Due to the overexpression of TRAIL receptor 2 (DR5) in aHSCs, human TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (hTRAIL) that could induce aHSCs apoptosis might be feasible for antihepatofibrotic therapy. However, the in vivo aHSCs-apoptosis-induction of hTRAIL is limited by its poor cell-targeting and a short half-life. In this study, we found that platelet-derived growth factor receptor ß (PDGFRß) was co-expressed with DR5 in aHSCs. And the ZPDGFRß affibody with high affinity for PDGFRß could bind aHSCs and, thus, accumulate in the fibrotic liver. ZPDGFRß was fused to hTRAIL to produce the fusion protein Z-hTRAIL. Compared to hTRAIL, Z-hTRAIL showed greater in vitro cell binding and apoptosis-induction in aHSCs. In addition, Z-hTRAIL induced apoptosis of aHSCs but spared other normal liver cells. In vivo, Z-hTRAIL accumulated preferentially in fibrotic livers and exerted greater effects than hTRAIL in inducing aHSCs apoptosis and reducing extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. These results demonstrated that the antihepatofibrotic effect of hTRAIL was improved by PDGFRß-targeted delivery. To enhance its pharmacokinetics, Z-hTRAIL was modified with 10 kDa polyethylene glycol (PEG), which significantly (30-40 times) prolonged its half-life. The PEGylated long-acting Z-hTRAIL was more potent than the native Z-hTRAIL in regressing liver fibrosis. These results suggest that the aHSC-targeting and long-acting Z-hTRAIL might serve as a novel tool for antihepatofibrotic therapy.

13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(1): 1009-1023, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31820240

RESUMO

A sustainable human-machine interface design has been highlighted for shared cars which is environmentally friendly. To improve people's perceptual, psychological, and behavioral experience in shared cars, this study revealed the relationship between modeling forms of the instrument panel and interaction performance. Modeling forms include the panel layout and the central screen installation type. After classifying existing panel layout designs into four kinds, this study relied on System Usability Scale (n = 182) to score them and clarify the usability of each kind. The one with the best usability (the symmetrical driver-oriented layout) was identified and ANOVA was used to judge the significance of the difference. Then, three central screen installation types were analyzed and sorted by means of analytic hierarchy process. Based on the above analysis for perceptual preference, behavioral experiments were carried out (n = 60) in intelligent vehicles equipped with the two advantageous screens (all-in-one type and semi-detached type) to analyze electrocardiograph data and workload of typical interaction behaviors. The logit model showed that when interacting with the SD-AIO panel (the panel of symmetrical driver-oriented layout with an all-in-one type screen), tension level was often lower in both driving and secondary tasks. Besides, we explored how the heart rate of specific tasks influenced the total completion time. The conclusion confirmed the advantages of SD-AIO panel, which could contribute to a sustainable interaction with high traffic efficiency.

14.
Dalton Trans ; 49(3): 588-592, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825037

RESUMO

A novel flame-assisted deposition (FAD) method was used to generate and immobilize cobalt oxide (CoOx) on the surface of fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and TiO2 modified hematite (TiO2/Fe2O3) for electrochemical and photoelectrochemical (PEC) water oxidation, respectively, with significant performance.

15.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 202: 111718, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790883

RESUMO

Metallic nanoparticles were extensively examined to explore their impending exploitations over pharmaceutical purposes. Current work attempting to explores the cytotoxic capacity of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles besides to human melanoma cell line (A375). Viability of cells was resoluted, and the promising cytotoxicity potential was exhibited by zinc oxide nanoparticles. Cellular adhesion and morphology was determined by propidium iodide assay. Characterization studies like UV-Spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) investigation, transmission electron microscope (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) Spec, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) examination confirms the accessibility of measurement, form and volume. The mRNA expression of apoptotic genes like caspase 3, 8 and 9 was elevated followed by the exposure to ZnO nanoparticles and it was narrowly proved that ZnO nanoparticles stimulates the apoptotic cell necrosis at the transcriptional stage. Cardiospermum halicacabum down regulated the apoptotic gene expressions. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation was augmented at concentration reliant mode, that changed normalize numerous indicator pathways and manipulate the kinetic cellular actions. ZnO nanoparticle synthesized Cardiospermum halicacabum might persuades programmed cell necrosis via elevated ROS levels in cells. CH-ZnONPs was further stimulates the markers of apoptosis and aggravates necrosis of cancerous cells, toxicity to cells, and accretion of ROS. With sourced on above whole data, this might accomplished that CH-ZnONPs amalgamated Cardiospermum halicacabum appreciably possessed a toxicity to human melanoma cells (A375) via provoking the apoptotic cell necrosis, entailed feasible efficacy of CH-ZnONPs besides malignancy management.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Apoptose , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Sapindaceae/química , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Química Verde , Humanos , Melanoma/metabolismo , Melanoma/patologia , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Sapindaceae/metabolismo , Óxido de Zinco/química
16.
Environ Pollut ; 257: 113641, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767230

RESUMO

Cadmium, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations and distribution in soil, wheat, and the potential for human heavy metal accumulation near a Pb smelting affected area were investigated. Farm land soil, wheat grain and scalp hair samples were collected from three villages (named QD, GF and BS) with increasing distance from a large Pb smelter in China. Soil Cd and Pb concentrations exceeded national standards 46-100% of the time, depending on location. Soil and wheat grain Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations increased as distance to the smelter decreased. Similarly, greater Cd, Cu and Pb concentrations were present in human scalp hair for those residents living closest to the smelter. Decreasing trends existed for hair-to-wheat grain ratios for Cd and Pb as distance to the smelter increased. Results suggest that as distance to the smelter decreases, human heavy metal absorption via the consumption of metal-contaminated food products (e.g., wheat) increases.

17.
Water Res ; 169: 115216, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675610

RESUMO

Biohythane production from wastewater via anaerobic fermentation currently relies on two-stage physically separated biohydrogen and biomethane reactors, which requires closed monitoring, the implementation of a control system, and cost-intensive, complex operation. Herein, an innovative multistage anaerobic hythane reactor (MAHR) was reported via integrating two-stage fermentation into one reactor. MAHR was constructed using an internal down-flow packed bed reactor and an external up-flow sludge blanket to enhance microbial enrichment and thermodynamic feasibility of the associated bioreactions. The performance of MAHR was investigated for 160 d based on biogas production, metabolic flux and microbial structure in comparison to a typical anaerobic high-rate reactor (up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB)). A biohythane production with an optimized hydrogen volume ratio (10-20%) and a high methane content (75-80%) was achieved in the hythane zone (MH) and methane zone (MM) in MAHR, respectively. In addition, MAHR showed a stronger capability to accommodate a high organic loading rate (120 g COD/L/d), and it enhanced the conversion of organics leading to a methane production rate 66% higher than UASB. Thermodynamic analysis suggested that hydrogen extraction in MH significantly decreased the hydrogen partial pressure (<0.1% vol) which favored acetogenesis in MM. Metabolic flux and microbial function analysis further supported the superior performance of MAHR over UASB, which was primarily attributed to enhanced acetogenesis and acetoclastic methanogenesis.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Esgotos , Anaerobiose , Metano , Termodinâmica
18.
J Eval Clin Pract ; 26(1): 290-298, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31115960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) and laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) are widely performed to cure obesity and obesity-related diseases. Our aim was to compare these two procedures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An electronic literature search was performed from inception to December 2018. The clinical outcomes between LSG and LRYGB were pooled using software RevMan5.3. RESULTS: A total of 1076 patients from 11 studies were analysed. LSG had shorter operation time (mean difference [MD] = -33.81; 95% confidence interval [CI], -46.04 to -21.57; P < .00001) and less early complications rate (risk ratio [RR] = 0.55; 95% CI, 0.36-0.84; P = .005) compared with LRYGB. There were no significant difference about the readmission rate (RR = 0.57; 95% CI, 0.21-1.54; P = .27) and re-operation rate (RR = 0.43; 95% CI, 0.14-1.27; P = .13) between LSG and LRYGB. The conversion to open rate and mortality rate within 30 days was low in both LSG and LRYGB. Mean hospital stay in LSG group (0.3-5.2 d) seems shorter than that in the LRYGB group (2.3-6.6 d). As to the effect of LSG and LRYGB on the percentage of excess weight loss (EWL), there was no significant difference between these two surgeries in EWL (MD = -4.05; 95% CI, -8.89 to 0.80; P = .10). LSG was equal to LRYGB on remission of T2DM (RR = 0.94; 95% CI, 0.84-1.06; P = .31). CONCLUSIONS: Both LSG and LRYGB can be performed with very low conversion to open rate and mortality rate. The readmission rate and re-operation rate are comparable between these two surgeries. The efficacy of these two surgeries on EWL and T2DM is equivalent, but LSG has an advantage over LRYGB in operation time and early complications rate.

19.
Neurobiol Dis ; 136: 104723, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887353

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported that exercise could improve the plasticity of hippocampal synapses. However, the effects of exercise on synapses in the hippocampus in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are not completely known. METHODS: In this study, thirty 12-month-old male APP/PS1 double transgenic mice were randomly divided into a sedentary group (n = 15) and a running group (n = 15). Fifteen 12-month-old male wild-type littermates were assigned to the control group (n = 15). While running mice were assigned to treadmill running for four months, the control mice and sedentary mice did not run during the study period. After Morris water maze testing, five mice in each group were randomly selected for a stereological assessment of spinophilin-immunoreactive puncta in the CA1, CA2-3 and dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus. RESULTS: Morris water maze testing revealed that while the learning and memory abilities in sedentary APP/PS1 mice were significantly worse than those in wild-type control mice, the learning and memory abilities in running APP/PS1 mice were significantly better than those in sedentary APP/PS1 mice. The stereological results showed that the spinophilin-immunoreactive puncta numbers of the CA1, CA2-3 and DG in the hippocampus of sedentary APP/PS1 mice were significantly lower than those of wild-type control mice and that the numbers of these spines in the CA1, CA2-3 and DG in the hippocampus of running APP/PS1 mice were significantly higher than those of sedentary APP/PS1 mice. Moreover, a running-induced improvement in spatial learning and memory abilities was significantly correlated with running-induced increases in the spinophilin-immunoreactive puncta numbers in the CA1 and DG of the hippocampus. CONCLUSIONS: Four-month treadmill exercise induced a significant improvement in spatial learning and memory abilities and a significant increase in the number of spinophilin-immunoreactive puncta of the CA1, CA2-3 and DG in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 mice. Running-induced improvements in spatial learning and memory abilities were significantly correlated with running-induced increases in the spinophilin-immunoreactive puncta numbers in the CA1 and DG of the hippocampus.

20.
Eur Radiol ; 30(1): 558-570, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444598

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To enhance clinician's decision-making by diagnosing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in cirrhotic patients with indeterminate liver nodules using quantitative imaging features extracted from triphasic CT scans. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 178 cirrhotic patients from 27 institutions, with biopsy-proven liver nodules classified as indeterminate using the European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) guidelines. Patients were randomly assigned to a discovery cohort (142 patients (pts.)) and a validation cohort (36 pts.). Each liver nodule was segmented on each phase of triphasic CT scans, and 13,920 quantitative imaging features (12 sets of 1160 features each reflecting the phenotype at one single phase or its change between two phases) were extracted. Using machine-learning techniques, the signature was trained and calibrated (discovery cohort), and validated (validation cohort) to classify liver nodules as HCC vs. non-HCC. Effects of segmentation and contrast enhancement quality were also evaluated. RESULTS: Patients were predominantly male (88%) and CHILD A (65%). Biopsy was positive for HCC in 77% of patients. LI-RADS scores were not different between HCC and non-HCC patients. The signature included a single radiomics feature quantifying changes between arterial and portal venous phases: DeltaV-A_DWT1_LL_Variance-2D and reached area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.70 (95%CI 0.61-0.80) and 0.66 (95%CI 0.64-0.84) in discovery and validation cohorts, respectively. The signature was influenced neither by segmentation nor by contrast enhancement. CONCLUSION: A signature using a single feature was validated in a multicenter retrospective cohort to diagnose HCC in cirrhotic patients with indeterminate liver nodules. Artificial intelligence could enhance clinicians' decision by identifying a subgroup of patients with high HCC risk. KEY POINTS: • In cirrhotic patients with visually indeterminate liver nodules, expert visual assessment using current guidelines cannot accurately differentiate HCC from differential diagnoses. Current clinical protocols do not entail biopsy due to procedural risks. Radiomics can be used to non-invasively diagnose HCC in cirrhotic patients with indeterminate liver nodules, which could be leveraged to optimize patient management. • Radiomics features contributing the most to a better characterization of visually indeterminate liver nodules include changes in nodule phenotype between arterial and portal venous phases: the "washout" pattern appraised visually using EASL and EASL guidelines. • A clinical decision algorithm using radiomics could be applied to reduce the rate of cirrhotic patients requiring liver biopsy (EASL guidelines) or wait-and-see strategy (AASLD guidelines) and therefore improve their management and outcome.

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