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1.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33184740

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to assess the contamination levels of arsenic (As), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), and cadmium (Cd) in raw milk and the subsequent potential health risk to local consumers close to leather-processing plants in China. The As and Pb concentrations in milk from contaminated areas were 0.43 ± 0.21 and 2.86 ± 0.96 µg/L, respectively, which were significantly higher than in milk from unpolluted farm, with values of 0.20 ± 0.05 and 2.32 ± 0.78 µg/L, respectively. The Cr and Cd levels in milk from contaminated areas were 1.21 ± 1.57 and 0.15 ± 0.04 µg/L, respectively, which were slightly higher than in milk from unpolluted farm, with values of 0.87 ± 0.61 and 0.13 ± 0.04 µg/L, respectively, (P > 0.05). Target hazard quotient (THQ) and hazard index (HI) values for As, Pb, Cr, and Cd from milk consumption were calculated for individuals aged 3 to 69. The THQ followed a descending order of As > Pb > Cr > Cd, with values of 0.0066-0.0441, 0.0033-0.0220, 0.0019-0.0124, and 0.0007-0.0046, respectively. The HI values (0.0124-0.0832) were far below the threshold of 1.

2.
J Anim Sci Biotechnol ; 11: 79, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32789013

RESUMO

The current review is designed with aims to highlight the impact of heat stress (HS) on calves and heifers and to suggest methods for HS alleviation. HS occurs in animals when heat gain from environment and metabolism surpasses heat loss by radiation, convection, evaporation and conduction. Although calves and heifers are comparatively heat resistant due to less production of metabolic heat and more heat dissipation efficiency, they still suffer from HS to some degree. Dry matter intake and growth performance of calves and heifers are reduced during HS because of redistributing energy to heat regulation through a series of physiological and metabolic responses, such as elevated blood insulin and protein catabolism. Enhanced respiration rate and panting during HS accelerate the loss of CO2, resulting in altered blood acid-base chemistry and respiratory alkalosis. HS-induced alteration in rumen motility and microbiota affects the feed digestibility and rumen fermentation. Decreased luteinizing hormone, estradiol and gonadotrophins due to HS disturb the normal estrus cyclicity, depress follicular development, hence the drop in conception rate. Prenatal HS not only suppresses the embryonic development by the impaired placenta, which results in hypoxia and malnutrition, but also retards the growth, immunity and future milk production of newborn calves. Based on the above challenges, we attempted to describe the possible impacts of HS on growth, health, digestibility and reproduction of calves and heifers. Likewise, we also proposed three primary strategies for ameliorating HS consequences. Genetic development and reproductive measures, such as gene selection and embryo transfers, are more likely long-term approaches to enhance heat tolerance. While physical modification of the environment, such as shades and sprinkle systems, is the most common and easily implemented measure to alleviate HS. Additionally, nutritional management is another key approach which could help calves and heifers maintain homeostasis and prevent nutrient deficiencies because of HS.

3.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234378, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520963

RESUMO

The tolerance of ruminants to gossypol, a natural phenolic compound derived from the cotton plant, is greater than that of monogastric animals, partially because of the gossypol-degrading bacteria in the rumen of the ruminants. In this study, we aimed to examine the effect of gossypol supplementation on fermentation characteristics, bacterial α-diversity and community structure in the rumen fluid of sheep to analyse the change of bacterial in response to gossypol. 8 sheep with permanent fistula were randomly divided into 2 groups, a control and gossypol acetate supplementation groups. Sheep in the latter group were supplemented with gossypol acetate at the levels of 600 mg and 1,200 mg/animal per day during the first (S1, days 1 to 27) and subsequent (S2, days 28 to 47) stages. Gossypol supplementation significantly increased the molar proportion of acetate, and decreased the molar proportion of isobutyric acid, butyric acid, and isovaleric acid in the rumen fluid. Gossypol supplementation have no significant effect on bacterial diversity in the rumen fluid. At the phylum level, gossypol had no effect on bacterial community. At the genus level, gossypol supplementation significantly increased the relative abundance of Treponema_2. However, there were no significant differences in the relative abundance of dominant bacterial genera. In conclusion, gossypol supplementation had an effect on molar proportion of acetate, isobutyric acid, butyric acid, and isovaleric acid, but had no significant effect on the bacterial diversity and relative abundance of dominant bacteria in rumen fluid of sheep.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Gossipol/metabolismo , Ovinos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Fermentação , Gossipol/farmacologia , Rúmen/microbiologia
4.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 21(6): 495-508, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32478495

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to identify some biomarkers for predicting lymph node metastasis and prognosis of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her-2)-positive breast cancer (BC). We analyzed correlations between microRNAs (miRNAs) and the prognosis of patients with BC based on data collected from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. The expression levels of miR-455, miR-143, and miR-99a were measured in clinical samples of Her-2-positive BC patients with different degrees of lymph node metastasis. We investigated the impacts of overexpressed miR-455 on the proliferation and invasiveness of MDA-MB-453 cells and measured its effects on the expression of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The expression of miR-455 was significantly and positively correlated to the prognosis and overall survival (OS) of the BC (P=0.028), according to TCGA information. The expression level of miR-455 was positively correlated with OS and relapse-free survival (RFS) of patients with Her-2-positive BC, and was negatively correlated with the number of metastatic lymph nodes (P<0.05). Transwell assay suggested that MDA-MB-453 cells became much less invasive (P<0.01) after being transfected with miR-455 mimics. During the qRT-PCR, the expression level of MALAT1 declined significantly after transfection (P<0.01). Overexpressed miR-455 significantly inhibited the proliferation and migration of MDA-MB-453 cells and the expression of MALAT1. We conclude that miR-455 may be a useful potential biomarker for forecasting lymph node metastasis and the prognosis of Her-2-positive BC patients. miR-455 may play an important role in lymph node metastasis of BC by interacting with MALAT1.

5.
Animals (Basel) ; 10(6)2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32545612

RESUMO

The domestic donkey is a unique equid species with specific nutritional requirements; however, limited feeding studies have been addressed so far to understand nutrient digestion and metabolism in donkeys. In the present study, six adult female Xinjiang donkeys (180 ± 10 kg live weight) were applied in a 3 × 3 Latin square design to investigate the effect of the forage/concentrate ratio (F/C) in three experimental diets on N and energy balance within 12 weeks. Rice straw and alfalfa hay were chosen as forage ingredients, and the diets included the following: (1) a high-fiber (HF) ration (F/C = 80:20), (2) a medium-fiber (MF) ration (F/C = 55:45), and (3) a low-fiber (LF) ration (35:45). After the fixed amount of diets were daily allowed to the animals, total feces and urine were collected to determine total tract digestibility, N and energy balance. As a result, dry matter intake did not differ among the three diet groups. Decreasing the dietary F/C significantly promoted protein digestibility and decreased fiber digestibility. The N and energy balance analysis showed that increasing the F/C remarkably (p < 0.01) decreased N retention through the increase in N excretion in urine, and the highest N loss relative to N intake was observed in MF. Meanwhile, decreasing the F/C linearly increased the conversion efficiency of digestible energy to metabolizable energy. Taken together, the results obtained in the present study implicated that the dietary forage level should not be less than 55% to maintain greater N and energy utilization in feeding practice, otherwise, a donkey's N utilization might be highly discounted.

6.
Animals (Basel) ; 10(6)2020 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32575777

RESUMO

The domestic donkey is a unique equid species with specific nutritional requirements, however, limited laboratory evidences are available to address the digestibility contribution of the prececum in relation to the total digestive tract. In the present study, six caecum-fistulated adult female Xinjiang donkeys served as the experimental animals in a 3 × 3 Latin square design, and mobile nylon bag technique was applied to determine the effect of dietary F:C ratio on pre-caececum and total digestive tract digestibility of rice straw, alfalfa hay, corn meal, and soybean meal. The dietary treatments included: (1) HF, a high-fiber ration (F:C = 80:20), (2) MF, a medium-fiber ration (F:C = 55:45), and (3), LF, a low-fiber ration (F:C = 35:65). The experiment consisted of three consecutive Latin square periods, and each period lasted 25 days. In each period, the animals were administrated naso-gastrically nylon bags (38 µm pore size) containing aforementioned feeds. After 1.5 h intubation, the bags were checked once an hour and collected at the ileo-caecal junction (small intestine bag, D1) and in the feces (fecal bag, D2). Regardless whatever feeds were introduced, the percentage of bag collected (BC) was quadratically (HF) or linearly (MF and LF) increased against different fixed bag collection time. The highest BC occurred in MF (73.8%), but no significant difference was observed between HF (62.3%) and LF (50.8%). The lowest mean bag retention time was observed in HF (2.7 h), and no significant difference occurred between MF (4.6 h) and LF (5.0 h) diets. For each feed, D1 and D2 digestibility for DM, CP, NDF, and ADF did not differ among three dietary treatments (p > 0.05). Regardless of whatever diets were fed to the donkeys, D2 digestibility for DM and CP among the feeds ranked as: soybean meal > corn meal > alfalfa hay > rice straw (p < 0.01). D1 digestibility for DM among the feeds ranked as: corn meal > soybean meal > alfalfa hay > rice straw (p < 0.01). D1 digestibility for CP among the feeds ranked as: soybean meal > corn meal > alfalfa hay > rice straw (p < 0.01). In summary, dietary forage: concentrate ratio did not affect pre-caecal or total tract nutrient digestibility. The fiber level in feeds was the main limiting factor to affect the digestibility contribution of the pre-caecum in relation to the total digestive tract.

7.
Clin Breast Cancer ; 20(4): 275-282, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414649

RESUMO

Breast cancer, as the foremost cause of women's death in the world, is highly metastatic and mutable. Resistance to drugs for chemotherapies, endocrine therapies, and targeted therapies is an important factor that impacts the prognosis of breast cancer. Long non-coding ribonucleic acids (LncRNAs) are crucial regulators of intracellular gene expressions. Some researchers have suggested that expression level of several types of LncRNAs were closely related to the prognosis of patients with breast cancer. LncRNAs significantly impact biological processes such as drug transport, detoxication, apoptosis, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), and autophagy by regulating intracellular signaling pathways such as multi-drug resistance gene 1 (MDR1), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß), BRCA1/2, and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB). This paper will summarize research progress on correlations between LncRNA and drug resistance of breast cancer. It will particularly expound molecular mechanisms through which LncRNAs regulate drug resistance of breast cancer. It will further discuss the feasibility as molecular markers for forecasting drug resistance of breast cancer and may be becoming new targets for treating breast cancer in the future.

8.
Cancer Biol Ther ; 21(8): 675-687, 2020 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32420815

RESUMO

Patients' responses to breast cancer neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) differ because of heterogeneous tumor characteristics. Reports about NACT progression are sporadic. Here we enrolled 1187 patients who received NACT in our cancer center between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2016. We analyzed the characteristics and treatments of patients with progressive disease (PD) or non-PD or pathological complete response (pCR). In total, 45 (3.8%) patients had PD. PD patients were associated with a significantly worse disease-free survival (DFS) (hazard ratio (HR) = 3.77; 95% CI, 1.77 to 8.00; P =.001) and overall survival (OS) (HR = 3.85; 95% CI, 1.77 to 8.35; P =.001). For the PD patients, 28 (62.2%) patients received mastectomy immediately after PD, and 17 (37.8%) changed to chemotherapy. DFS and OS exhibited no significant differences between these two salvage therapies. After a change to second chemotherapy, 58.8% (10/17) patients had PD or SD. With the exception of tumor size, pretreatment T stage, and histology type, no other significant differences were noted between PD and pCR patients. Our results demonstrated that PD patients were associated with a significantly worse prognosis. Based on these results, we suggest to give the addition of trastuzumab to HER-2 positive patients instead of changing the chemotherapy regimen and proceeding to surgery instead of further chemotherapy once patients have PD during NACT. Given that some similar characteristics exist between PD and pCR patients, more studies to identify novel molecular markers to predict disease response to NACT should be performed.

9.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(11): 4282-4291, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32378205

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficient utilization of fiber-rich co-products is important for optimizing feed resource utilization and animal health. This study was conducted to evaluate the fermentation characteristics of fiber-rich co-products, which had equal quantities of total dietary fiber (TDF), at different time points using batch in vitro methods. It considered their gas production, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production, and microbial composition. RESULTS: The fermentation of wheat bran (WB) and oat bran (OB) showed higher and faster (P < 0.05) gas and SCFA production than corn bran (CB), sugar beet pulp (SBP), and soybean hulls (SH). The α-diversity was higher in the CB, SBP, and SH groups than in the WB and OB groups (P < 0.05). At the phylum level, OB and WB fermentation showed lower (P < 0.05) relative abundance of Actinobacteria than the CB, SBP, and SH groups. At the genus level, OB and WB fermentation increased the Enterococcus population in comparison with the CB, SBP, and SH groups, whereas CB and SBP fermentation improved the relative abundance of the Christensenellaceae R-7 group more than the WB, OB, and SH groups (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Overall, WB and OB were rapidly fermented by fecal microbiota, in contrast with SBP, SH, and CB. Fermentation of different fiber-rich co-products with an equal TDF content gives different responses in terms of microbial composition and SCFA production due to variations in their physicochemical properties and molecular structure. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.

10.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0234058, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470093

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) is typically the initial treatment for non-early breast cancer patients. We thereby conducted a meta-analysis to explore whether dose-dense neoadjuvant chemotherapy (ddNCT) improved the long-term prognosis of patients compared to the standard NCT regimen. METHODS: We compared the differences in efficacy and prognosis between patients receiving standard NCT and ddNCT. We also calculated the pooled odds ratio (OR) of pathological complete response (pCR) and the pooled hazard ratio (HR) of overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). RESULTS: Nine randomized controlled trials involving 3,724 patients from 10 published studies were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled OR for ddNCT was 1.18 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.83-1.67, P = 0.356). A subgroup analysis in the cases with low hormone receptor expression levels showed the pCR in patients undergoing ddNCT was significantly higher than the pCR in patients undergoing standard NCT (OR = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.09‒1.69, P = 0.007). There was no significant difference in DFS and OS between ddNCT and standard NCT (DFS: HR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.79‒1.02, P = 0.095; OS; HR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.81‒1.04, P = 0.160), regardless of hormone receptor expression levels. These data suggested the higher pCR rate in patients receiving ddNCT did not result in a survival benefit. CONCLUSIONS: The meta-analysis demonstrated that ddNCT can significantly improve the pCR rate in patients with low hormone receptor expression levels, although patient survival was not significantly improved. The ddNCT can increase the breast-conserving rate and reduced pre-operative waiting time without increasing adverse reactions. This regimen can be considered when developing an NCT plan.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Razão de Chances , Prognóstico , Viés de Publicação , Risco
11.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231895, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298374

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate whether estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and Ki-67 expression discordance before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) correlates with prognosis and treatment of breast cancer patients. METHODS: The study cohort included 482 breast cancer patients at the Zhejiang Cancer Hospital from January 1, 2008, to December 31, 2018. Core needle biopsies and excised tissue biopsies pre- and post-NAC were obtained. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine ER, PR and Ki-67 status. The relationship between biomarker discordance before and after NAC and clinicopathological features was compared retrospectively. RESULTS: ER (n = 482), PR (n = 482) and Ki-67 (n = 448) expression was assessed in the same lesion pre- and post-NAC. Discordance in the three markers pre- and post-NAC was observed in 50 (10.4%), 82 (17.0%) and 373 (77.4%) cases, respectively. Positive-to-negative PR expression changes were the most common type of discordance observed. The risk of death in patients with a PR positive-to-negative conversion was 6.58 times greater than for patients with stable PR expression. The risk of death in patients with increased Ki-67 expression following NAC treatment was 2.05 times greater than for patients with stable Ki-67 expression. CONCLUSION: Breast cancer patients showed changes in ER, PR and/or Ki-67 status throughout NAC, and these changes possibly influenced disease-free survival and overall survival. A switch to negative hormone receptor expression with increased Ki-67 expression following NAC could be indicators of a worse prognosis. Biomarker expression investigations following NAC may potentially improve patient management and survival.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Antígeno Ki-67/metabolismo , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Animals (Basel) ; 10(3)2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32182983

RESUMO

Nitroethane (NE), 2-nitroethanol (NEOH), and 2-nitro-1-propanol (NPOH) were comparatively examined to determine their inhibitory actions on rumen fermentation and methanogenesis in vitro. Fermentation characteristics, CH4 and total gas production, and coenzyme contents were determined at 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h incubation time, and the populations of ruminal microbiota were analyzed by real-time PCR at 72 h incubation time. The addition of NE, NEOH, and NPOH slowed down in vitro rumen fermentation and reduced the proportion of molar CH4 by 96.7%, 96.7%, and 41.7%, respectively (p < 0.01). The content of coenzymes F420 and F430 and the relative expression of the mcrA gene declined with the supplementation of NE, NEOH, and NPOH in comparison with the control (p < 0.01). The addition of NE, NEOH, and NPOH decreased total volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and acetate (p < 0.05), but had no effect on propionate concentration (p > 0.05). Real-time PCR results showed that the relative abundance of total methanogens, Methanobacteriales, Methanococcales, and Fibrobacter succinogenes were reduced by NE, NEOH, and NPOH (p < 0.05). In addition, the nitro-degradation rates in culture fluids were ranked as NEOH (-0.088) > NE (-0.069) > NPOH (-0.054). In brief, the results firstly provided evidence that NE, NEOH, and NPOH were able to decrease methanogen abundance and dramatically decrease mcrA gene expression and coenzyme F420 and F430 contents with different magnitudes to reduce ruminal CH4 production.

14.
JAMA Oncol ; 6(3): e193692, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647503

RESUMO

Importance: Prospective assessment of treatments known to benefit patients in global clinical trials in specific racial groups is essential. Objective: To compare the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of adding pertuzumab to trastuzumab and docetaxel vs placebo, trastuzumab, and docetaxel in Asian patients with ERBB2-positive early or locally advanced breast cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial enrolled 329 women with ERBB2-positive early (T2-3, N0-1, M0) or locally advanced breast cancer (T2-3, N2 or N3, M0; T4, any N, M0) and primary tumor larger than 2 cm from March 14, 2016, to March 13, 2017. Analysis of the primary end point was performed on an intention-to-treat basis. Interventions: Before surgery, patients received 4 cycles of intravenous pertuzumab (840-mg loading dose and 420-mg maintenance doses), trastuzumab (8-mg/kg loading dose and 6-mg/kg maintenance doses), and docetaxel (75 mg/m2) or intravenous placebo, trastuzumab, and docetaxel every 3 weeks. After surgery, patients received 3 cycles of intravenous fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide followed by 13 cycles of the same intravenous anti-ERBB2 therapy (pertuzumab and trastuzumab or placebo and trastuzumab) for up to 1 year. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was independent review committee-assessed total pathologic complete response rate. The 2-sided Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test, stratified by disease category and hormone receptor status, was used to compare rates between treatment groups. Results: In total, 329 female patients were randomized (pertuzumab, 219; and placebo, 110; mean [SD] age, 48.8 [9.5] years). In the intention-to-treat population, total pathologic complete response rates were 39.3% (86 of 219) in the pertuzumab group and 21.8% (24 of 110) in the placebo group (difference, 17.5% [95% CI, 6.9%-28.0%]; P = .001). Of the most common grade 3 or higher adverse events, there was a higher incidence of neutropenia in the pertuzumab group (83 of 218 [38.1%] vs 36 of 110 [32.7%]). Serious adverse events were reported in 10.1% of patients (22 of 218) in the pertuzumab group and 8.2% of patients (9 of 110) in the placebo group. Conclusions and Relevance: Treatment with pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and docetaxel resulted in a statistically significant improvement in the total pathologic complete response rate vs placebo, trastuzumab, and docetaxel for the neoadjuvant treatment of ERBB2-positive early or locally advanced breast cancer in Asian patients. Safety data were in line with the known pertuzumab safety profile and generally comparable between treatment groups. The PEONY trial adds to the totality of data showing the benefit of the pertuzumab regimen. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02586025.

15.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 27(5): 1653-1658, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early breast cancer with one or two sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) may omit axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) if followed by radiotherapy. However, only less than one-third of the patients have positive non-SLNs and can truly benefit from radiotherapy. Before any regional treatment decision, the risk of non-SLN metastasis must be identified. The authors previously developed a predictive model for non-SLN involvement using CK19 mRNA and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) score in a training set. They designed a further study to evaluate the predictive effect using the model prospectively in a validation set of one or two involved SLNs. METHODS: This study identified early breast cancer patients at Zhejiang Cancer Hospital from July 2017 to June 2018. The CK19 mRNA tested by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and CEUS scores were collected before surgery. Patients with one or two involved SLNs were enrolled and underwent ALND. The estimated percentage of non-SLN involvement was calculated by the authors' model formula and the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) nomogram. The false-negative rates, predictive accuracy, and area under curve (AUC) were compared between two predictive models. RESULTS: The study enrolled 235 patients, and 35.36% (83/235) of them had non-SLN involvement. The authors' model had a false-negative rate of 6% and an accuracy of 94.9%. The AUC was 0.952 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.922-0.982), which was significantly higher than that of the MSKCC model at all three cutoff value levels. CONCLUSION: The authors' model, using CK19 mRNA and the CEUS score, showed the potential predictive value of non-SLNs before surgery for early breast cancer patients. CLINICALTRIALS REGISTRY: NCT02992067, NCT03280134.

16.
Metabolites ; 10(1)2019 Dec 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881649

RESUMO

A class of aliphatic short chain nitrocompounds have been reported as being capable of CH4 reduction both in vitro and in vivo. However, the laboratory evidence associated with the metabolic fate of nitrocompounds in the rumen has not been well documented. The present study was conducted to compare in vitro degradation and metabolism of nitroethane (NE), 2-nitroethanol (NEOH), and 2-nitro-1-propanol (NPOH) incubated with mixed rumen microorganisms of dairy cows. After 10 mM supplementation of nitrocompounds, a serious of batch cultures were carried out for 120 h under the presence of two substrates differing in the ratio of maize meal to alfalfa hay (HF, 1:4; LF, 4:1). Compared to the control, methane production was reduced by 59% in NPOH and by >97% in both NE and NEOH, and such antimethanogenic effects were more pronounced in the LF than the HF group. Although NE, NEOH, and NPOH addition did not alter total VFA production, the rumen fermentation pattern shifted toward increasing propionate and butyrate and decreasing acetate production. The kinetic disappearance of each nitrocompound was well fitted to the one-compartment model, and the disappearance rate (k, %/h) of NE was 2.6 to 5.2 times greater than those of NEOH and NPOH. Higher intermediates of nitrite occurred in NEOH in comparison with NPOH and NE while ammonia N production was lowest in NEOH. Consequently, a stepwise accumulation of bacterial crude protein (BCP) in response to the nitrocompound addition was observed in both the HF and LF group. In brief, both NE and NEOH in comparison with NPOH presented greater antimethanogenic activity via the shift of rumen fermentation. In addition, the present study provided the first direct evidence that rumen microbes were able to cleave these nitrocompounds into nitrite, and the subsequent metabolism of nitrite into ammonia N may enhance the growth of rumen microbes or promote microbial activities.

17.
Oncol Lett ; 18(6): 6690-6696, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31807179

RESUMO

The 2010 American Society of Clinical Oncology guidelines have reduced the immunohistochemistry cut-off value for determining estrogen receptor b positivity from 10 to 1% of stained cells in breast cancer. In clinical practice, low-hormone receptor positive (low HR+) tumors are classified in the luminal subtype, although they exhibit aggressive features and poor prognosis. Information regarding the prognosis of patients with breast cancer following treatment with optimal endocrine therapy and neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is currently lacking. In the present study, the differences in clinical characteristics and survival of patients with breast cancer were compared among those with low and high HR+ breast cancer who received NAC. Furthermore, the effects of different types of endocrine therapies on the prognosis of patients with breast cancer were compared. The study population comprised patients with primary breast cancer who were treated at the Zhejiang Cancer Hospital between January, 2007 and December, 2017. Patients were divided into three groups based on the results of immunohistochemistry: HR+ (positive staining >10%), HR- (positive staining <1%) and low HR+ (positive staining 1-10%). The low HR+ group was further divided into three subgroups according to the different endocrine therapies administered: Tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitor or no treatment. Among the 570 patients included in the present study, 60 (10.53%) patients had low HR+ tumors. With a median follow-up of 48.98 months, patients with low HR+ tumors had reduced survival rates compared with those with HR+ tumors. Furthermore, the pathologic complete response rate (pCR) of patients with low HR+ was comprised between pCR from patients with HR+ and pCR from patients with HR- following NAC treatment. In addition, no significant difference in the overall prognosis was observed among patients with low HR+ following treatment with different endocrine therapies. Subsequently, patients in the low HR+ group were more likely to benefit from NAC compared with patients in the HR+ group. Intensive endocrine therapy may therefore improve the prognosis of patients with breast cancer and low HR+; however, further investigation is required.

18.
Animals (Basel) ; 9(10)2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614547

RESUMO

This study was conducted to determine the dietary supplemental effects of nitroethanol (NEOH) in comparison with monensin on growth performance and estimated methane (CH4) production in feedlotting lambs. Sixty male, small-tailed Chinese Han lambs were arranged at random into three dietary treatment groups: (1) a basal control diet (CTR), (2) the basal diet added with 40 mg/kg monensin (MON), (3) the basal diet added with 277 mg/kg nitroethanol (NEOH). During the 32-day lamb feeding, monensin and nitroethanol were added in period 1 (day 0-16) and then withdrawn in the subsequent period 2 (day 17-32) to determine their withdrawal effects. The average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion rate in the whole period ranked: NEOH > MON > CTR (p < 0.01), suggesting that the dietary addition of NEOH in comparison with monensin presented a more lasting beneficial effect on feed efficiency. Methane emission was estimated with rumen VFA production and gross energy intake. Both monensin and NEOH addition in comparison with the control remarkably decreased CH4 emission estimate (24.0% vs. 26.4% decrease; p < 0.01) as well as CH4 emission per kg ADG (8.7% vs. 14.0% decrease; p < 0.01), but the NEOH group presented obvious lasting methanogenesis inhibition when they were withdrawn in period 2. Moreover, the in vitro methanogenic activity of rumen fluids was also decreased with monensin or NEOH addition (12.7% vs. 30.5% decrease; p < 0.01). In summary, the dietary addition of NEOH in comparison with monensin presented a greater promoting effect on growth performance in feedlotting lambs by inhibiting rumen methanogenesis more efficiently and persistently.

19.
ACS Omega ; 4(12): 15158-15167, 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31552361

RESUMO

This study was conducted to explore the in vitro fermentation characteristics for different ratios of soluble to insoluble dietary fiber in pig fecal microbiota. The fermentation substrates consisted of inulin and a non-starch polysaccharide mixture and were divided into five groups according to different soluble dietary fiber (SDF) to insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) ratios (SDF 25, 50, 75, and 100%). With the increased SDF ratio, the total gas production increased, and the pH in the substrate decreased as the fermentation proceeded. The concentrations of lactic acid, formic acid, and acetic acid increased in the high SDF ratio group, whereas the concentrations of propionic acid and butyric acid increased in the low SDF ratio group. The genera Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1, Ruminococcaceae_NK4A214_group, Christensenellaceae_R-7_group, and Rikenellaceae_RC9_gut_group were enriched in the high SDF ratio group. Correlation analysis indicated that these differential bacteria had the potential to degrade polysaccharides. These results revealed that high SDF ratios could stimulate the proliferation of fibrolytic bacteria, which in turn degrade fibers to produce organic acids and monosaccharides. Collectively, these findings add to our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for interaction between SDF and intestinal microbiota and provide new ideas for the rational use of dietary fiber.

20.
Biosci Rep ; 39(9)2019 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387972

RESUMO

Breast cancer (BC) is a malignancy with the highest incidence in women. Great progress has been made in research related to traditional precision medicine for BC. However, many reports have suggested that patients with BC have not benefited a lot from such progress. Thus, we analyze traditional precision medicine strategies for BC, sum up their limitations and challenges, and preliminarily propose future orientations of precision medicine strategies based on a database on drug reaction of patients with BC. According to related research, traditional precision medicine strategies for BC, which are based on molecular subtypes, perform pertinent treatments, new drug research and development according to molecular typing results. Nevertheless, these strategies still have some deficiencies. First, there are very few patients with each molecular subtype, the match ratio of drugs is low. Second, these strategies can not solve the problem of poor drug sensitivity resulting from heterogeneity. The main strategy we put forward in the present paper is based on patients' varying drug reactions. Focusing on treating existing patients and maximizing the utilization of existing drugs, it is expected to not have deficiencies of traditional precision medicine for BC, including low match rate and poor therapeutic efficacy arising from tumor heterogeneity of BC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética
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