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1.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 56(6)2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32604775

RESUMO

Background and objective: Despite medical advances, we are facing the unprecedented disaster of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic without available treatments and effective vaccines. As the COVID-19 pandemic has approached its culmination, desperate efforts have been made to seek proper treatments and response strategies, and the number of clinical trials has been rapidly increasing. In this time of the pandemic, it is believed that learning lessons from it would be meaningful in preparing for future pandemics. Thus, this study aims at providing a comprehensive landscape of COVID-19 related clinical trials based on the ClinicalTrials.gov database. Materials and methods: Up to 30 March 2020, we identified a total of 147 eligible clinical trials and reviewed the overview of the studies. Results: Until then, the most clinical trials were set up in China. Treatment approaches are the most frequent purpose of the registered studies. Chloroquine, interferon, and antiviral agents such as remdesivir, lopinavir, and ritonavir are agents under investigation in these trials. Conclusions: In this study, we introduced the promising therapeutic options that many researchers and clinicians are interested in, and to address the hidden issues behind clinical trials in this COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Pandemias
2.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(6_Supple_A): 3-9, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32475278

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine if a three-month course of microorganism-directed oral antibiotics reduces the rate of failure due to further infection following two-stage revision for chronic prosthetic joint infection (PJI) of the hip and knee. METHODS: A total of 185 patients undergoing a two-stage revision in seven different centres were prospectively enrolled. Of these patients, 93 were randomized to receive microorganism-directed oral antibiotics for three months following reimplantation; 88 were randomized to receive no antibiotics, and four were withdrawn before randomization. Of the 181 randomized patients, 28 were lost to follow-up, six died before two years follow-up, and five with culture negative infections were excluded. The remaining 142 patients were followed for a mean of 3.3 years (2.0 to 7.6) with failure due to a further infection as the primary endpoint. Patients who were treated with antibiotics were also assessed for their adherence to the medication regime and for side effects to antibiotics. RESULTS: Nine of 72 patients (12.5%) who received antibiotics failed due to further infection compared with 20 of 70 patients (28.6%) who did not receive antibiotics (p = 0.012). Five patients (6.9%) in the treatment group experienced adverse effects related to the administered antibiotics severe enough to warrant discontinuation. CONCLUSION: This multicentre randomized controlled trial showed that a three-month course of microorganism-directed, oral antibiotics significantly reduced the rate of failure due to further infection following a two-stage revision of total hip or knee arthroplasty for chronic PJI. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(6 Supple A):3-9.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Artroplastia de Quadril , Artroplastia do Joelho , Prótese de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Prótese do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Falha de Prótese , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/etiologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/prevenção & controle , Reoperação , Administração Oral , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Falha de Prótese/etiologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/cirurgia , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(6_Supple_A): 138-144, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32475286

RESUMO

AIMS: In patients with a "dry" aspiration during the investigation of prosthetic joint infection (PJI), saline lavage is commonly used to obtain a sample for analysis. The aim of this study was to investigate prospectively the impact of saline lavage on synovial fluid analysis in revision arthroplasty. METHODS: Patients undergoing revision hip (THA) or knee arthroplasty (TKA) for any septic or aseptic indication were enrolled. Intraoperatively, prior to arthrotomy, the maximum amount of fluid possible was aspirated to simulate a dry tap (pre-lavage) followed by the injection with 20 ml of normal saline and re-aspiration (post-lavage). Pre- and post-lavage synovial white blood cell (WBC) count, percent polymorphonuclear cells (%PMN), and cultures were compared. RESULTS: A total of 78 patients had data available for analysis; 17 underwent revision THA and 61 underwent revision TKA. A total of 16 patients met modified Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS) criteria for PJI. Pre- and post-lavage %PMNs were similar in septic patients (87% vs 85%) and aseptic patients (35% vs 39%). Pre- and post-lavage synovial fluid WBC count were far more disparate in septic (53,553 vs 8,275 WBCs) and aseptic (1,103 vs 268 WBCs) cohorts. At a cutoff of 80% PMN, the post-lavage aspirate had a sensitivity of 75% and specificity of 95%. At a cutoff of 3,000 WBCs, the post-lavage aspirate had a sensitivity of 63% and specificity of 98%. As the post-lavage synovial WBC count increased, the difference between pre- and post-lavage %PMN decreased (mean difference of 5% PMN in WBC < 3,000 vs mean difference 2% PMN in WBC > 3,000, p = 0.013). Of ten positive pre-lavage fluid cultures, only six remained positive post-lavage. CONCLUSION: While saline lavage aspiration significantly lowered the synovial WBC count, the %PMN remained similar, particularly at WBC counts of > 3,000. These findings suggest that in patients with a dry-tap, the %PMN of a saline lavage aspiration has reasonable sensitivity (75%) for the detection of PJI. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(6 Supple A):138-144.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril , Artroplastia do Joelho , Prótese de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Prótese do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/diagnóstico , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/etiologia , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Líquido Sinovial/citologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutrófilos , Estudos Prospectivos , Reoperação , Solução Salina , Irrigação Terapêutica/métodos
4.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 8109, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415140

RESUMO

Kidney transplantations using expanded criteria donors (ECD) are being increasingly adopted, but no consensus tools are available to evaluate donor kidney status. Beta-2 microglobulin (B2MG) is a marker of kidney function, and herein, we evaluate the usefulness of assessing B2MG to evaluate donor kidney status. Fifty-seven kidney transplantations were performed from March 2017 to April 2019. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed, and relationships between clinical and laboratory variables and transplant outcomes were investigated. Thirty-eight patients received a standard criteria donor kidney and 19 patients an ECD kidney. Ten patients experienced delayed graft function (DGF), but no patient experienced primary nonfunction. Of the parameters studied, only donor renal replacement therapy (RRT) [odds ratio (OR) 24.162; p = 0.018] and donor serum B2MG (OR 22.685; p = 0.022) significantly predicted DGF. The presence of either of these two risk factors can better reflect the condition of the donor than previous classification. However, on their last follow-up creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate values in those with or without these risk factors were not significantly different. For an ECD with a B2MG level of <7.18 and no history of RRT, kidney transplantation can be undertaken without considering the possibility of kidney discard.

5.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(5): 349-358, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32390358

RESUMO

Globally and in Africa specifically, female sex workers (FSWs) are at an extraordinarily high risk of contracting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has emerged as an effective and ethical method with which to prevent HIV infection among FSWs. PrEP efficacy is, however, closely linked to adherence, and adherence to PrEP among FSWs is a complex and interrelated process that has been shown to be of importance to public health policies and HIV control and intervention programs. This comprehensive review categorizes barriers to and facilitators of adherence to HIV PrEP for FSWs, and describes five strategies for promoting PrEP adherence among FSWs. These strategies encompass 1) a long-term educational effort to decrease the stigma associated with sex work and PrEP use, 2) education on how PrEP works, 3) lifestyle modification, 4) research on next-generation PrEP products to address the inconvenience of taking daily pills, and 5) integration of PrEP into existing services, such as social services and routine primary care visits, to reduce the economic burden of seeking the medication. Our review is expected to be useful for the design of future PrEP intervention programs. Multidisciplinary intervention should be considered to promote PrEP adherence among FSWs in order to help control the HIV epidemic.


Assuntos
Adesão à Medicação , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Profissionais do Sexo , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Fatores de Risco
6.
J Bone Joint Surg Am ; 102(11): 953-960, 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unused opioid pills are a danger to patients and their loved ones as they may be diverted for abuse or misuse. The purpose of this study was to determine the baseline rate of proper disposal of unused opioids among patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty and to determine how education impacts disposal rates. METHODS: In this study, 563 patients undergoing primary total joint arthroplasty (183 patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty, 293 patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty, and 87 patients undergoing unicompartmental knee arthroplasty) were cluster-randomized to groups that received no education, educational pamphlets, or educational pamphlets plus text messages. Patients were randomized by education class and were blinded to participation to avoid behavioral modifications. Patients were surveyed at 6 weeks postoperatively to determine if they disposed of their unused opioid pills using a U.S. Food and Drug Administration-recommended method, which was the primary outcome. Assuming a 15% difference in opioid disposal rates as clinically relevant, power analysis determined that 76 patients with unused opioids were required per group (228 total). An as-treated analysis was conducted with the Fisher exact text and analysis of variance with alpha = 0.05. RESULTS: A total of 539 patients (95.7%) completed the survey, and 342 patients (63.5%) had unused opioid pills at 6 weeks postoperatively: 89 patients in the no education group, 128 patients in the pamphlet group, and 125 patients in the pamphlet and text message group. Of these 342 patients, 9.0% of patients in the no education group, 32.8% of patients in the pamphlet group, and 38.4% of patients in the pamphlet and text message group properly disposed of their unused opioids (p = 0.001 for each educational intervention compared with no education). Unused opioid pills were kept by 82.0% of patients in the no education group, 64.1% of patients in the pamphlet group, and 54.4% of patients in the pamphlet and text message group (p < 0.001 for the no education group compared with either educational strategy group). Patients who underwent total hip arthroplasty were more likely to properly dispose of their unused opioids compared with those who underwent total knee arthroplasty (odds ratio, 2.1; p = 0.005). There were no demographic differences between groups, including inpatient opioid use, refills, and preoperative opioid use, other than sex (41.5% male patients in the no education group, 55.0% male patients in the pamphlet group, and 37.4% male patients in the pamphlet and text message group; p = 0.001), suggesting appropriate randomization. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of opioid disposal is very low after total joint arthroplasty. Education on opioid disposal more than triples opioid disposal rates compared with no education. To help to prevent diversion of unused opioid pills, all patients who undergo total joint arthroplasty should be educated on the proper disposal of unused opioids.

7.
J Korean Med Sci ; 34(48): e313, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833267

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mental health problems are a growing issue among customer-facing workers. This study aimed to investigate the workers' symptoms of anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbance caused by customer complaints and the suppression of one's emotions at work. METHODS: This study used the data from the fifth Korean Working Conditions Survey 2017 database. The subjects comprised 23,128 workers (men, 11,007; women, 12,121). The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using multiple logistic regression models, to determine the effect of the exposure level of engaging with angry clients and suppressing one's emotions at work on mental health. RESULTS: Among the workers engaging with angry customers, compared to the "Rarely" group as a reference point, the "Always" group showed elevated OR values (at [95% CI]) of 1.52 (1.10-2.10), 1.86 (1.05-3.27), 4.43 (3.11-6.33), 3.74 (2.51-5.55), 3.89 (2.65-5.70) for men workers; and 2.86 (1.94-4.22), 2.55 (1.73-3.75), 3.75 (2.82-4.98), 3.81 (2.84-5.09), 3.84 (2.88-5.12) for women workers, for depression, anxiety, difficulty falling asleep, waking up during sleep, and extreme fatigue after waking up, respectively. For suppressing one's emotions at work, the OR values of the "Always" group were 2.32 (1.53-3.51), 2.46 (1.73-3.50), 2.54 (1.88-3.43), 2.64 (1.92-3.64), 2.42 (1.81-3.24) for men workers; and 2.23 (1.53-3.25), 2.31 (1.61-3.33), 2.26 (1.72-2.96), 1.53 (1.19-1.97), 2.15 (1.62-2.85) for women workers, for depression, anxiety, and difficulty falling asleep, waking up during sleep, and extreme fatigue after waking up, respectively. CONCLUSION: The emotional labor demanded from customer-facing workers, incurred by facing customer complaints and suppressing one's emotions at work, was found to be significantly associated with the development of depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbance symptoms among the Korean working population.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Depressão/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/diagnóstico , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Local de Trabalho
8.
Nutrients ; 11(12)2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775231

RESUMO

Early detection and regular monitoring of the nutritional status of patients with diabetic chronic kidney disease (DMCKD) with reliable tools are necessary. We aimed to determine the clinical significance of the phase angle (PhA) in patients with DMCKD stage 5 not undergoing dialysis. A total of 219 patients (non-diabetic CKD stage 5 [nDMCKD5], n = 84; diabetic CKD stage 5 [DMCKD5], n = 135) were analyzed. The nDMCKD5 group had a significantly higher PhA (p = 0.001), intracellular water/body weight (p = 0.001), and albumin level (p = 0.010) than the DMCKD5 group. The DMCKD5 group experienced significantly more overhydration (p < 0.001). The PhA was positively associated with the lean tissue index (LTI) (r = 0.332; p < 0.001), hemoglobin level (r = 0.223; p = 0.010), albumin level (r = 0.524; p < 0.001), and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; r = 0.204; p = 0.018) in the DMCKD5 group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed the eGFR (odds ratio [OR]: 0.824, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.698-0.974); p = 0.023), LTI (OR: 0.771, 95% CI: 0.642-0.926; p = 0.005), and albumin level (OR: 0.131, 95% CI: 0.051-0.338; p < 0.001) were significantly associated with undernutrition (PhA < 4.17°) in the DMCKD5 group. Our observations suggest that the PhA could be used as a marker to reflect the nutritional status in patients with DMCKD5.

9.
Ann Occup Environ Med ; 31: e17, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31620294

RESUMO

Background: No tool is available for the multidimensional measurement of workplace well-being among Korean workers. In this study, the Workplace Positive emotion, Engagement, Relationships, Meaning, and Accomplishment (PERMA)-Profiler, a multidimensional workplace well-being measure, was translated into Korean, and its validity and reliability were assessed. Methods: The Workplace PERMA-Profiler, including the positive emotion, engagement, relationships, meaning, and accomplishment domains, was translated according to international guidelines. The questionnaires included the Workplace PERMA-Profiler, Mental Health Continuum-Short Form, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, Psychosocial Well-being Index-Short Form, and Korean Occupational Stress Scale-Short Form. A total of 316 Korean workers completed a web-based survey with adequate response. Cronbach's alpha values were calculated to assess scale reliability, and correlational and confirmatory factor analyses were used to assess validity. Results: Cronbach's alpha values for the Korean Workplace PERMA-Profiler ranged from 0.70 to 0.95. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the 5-factor model had a marginally acceptable fit [χ2(80) = 383.04, comparative fit index = 0.909, Tucker-Lewis index = 0.881, root mean square error of approximation = 0.110, and standardized root mean square residual = 0.054]. The 5-factor PERMA domains were correlated positively with work engagement and mental well-being in life, and negatively with burnout, occupational stressors, and stress responses. These results showed that the Workplace PERMA-Profiler has good convergent and divergent validity. Conclusions: The Korean version of the Workplace PERMA-Profiler had good reliability and validity. It might be used as an indicator or evaluation tool for positive mental health interventions in the workplace.

10.
Transplant Proc ; 51(8): 2671-2675, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477419

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Delta neutrophil index (DNI), representing an elevated fraction of circulating immature granulocyte in acute infection, has been reported as a useful, predictable marker for mortality in patients with sepsis. We have hypothesized that an increased recipient DNI is associated with poor prognosis in cadaver donor kidney transplantation. METHODS: We investigated patients undergoing kidney transplantation from cadaver donors from March 2013 to January 2018. Rejection was diagnosed by kidney biopsy with Banff classification and excluded subclinical rejection. RESULTS: In a total of 73 patients undergoing cadaver kidney transplantation, 25 (34.2%) patients were diagnosed with rejection based on the Banff classification. Among them, 11 patients were diagnosed with early rejection. The recipients' postoperative DNI (%) was different between patients with early rejection and patients without rejection (0.18 vs 1.21, P < .001). In the univariate logistic regression analysis, cold ischemic time, donor preoperative last creatinine level, postoperative DNI level, and perioperative infection were predictive of early rejection. However, in a multivariate adjusted logistic regression test, only a high level of DNI (odds ratio 12.307, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22-129.82) was associated with early rejection. The C-statistic was 0.777 (95% CI 0.604-0.951, P = .004) for DNI. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, the donor's last creatinine level (hazard ratio 2.25, 95% CI 1.26-4.13) and preoperative DNI (hazard ratio 14.02 95% CI 2.62-75.26) were predictors of renal survival. CONCLUSIONS: Increased DNI in cadaver donor kidney transplantation recipients might be one of the predictive values of early kidney rejection and prognosis.


Assuntos
Rejeição de Enxerto/sangue , Transplante de Rim , Neutrófilos/citologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Adulto , Cadáver , Feminino , Rejeição de Enxerto/imunologia , Humanos , Transplante de Rim/métodos , Transplante de Rim/mortalidade , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doadores de Tecidos
11.
Emerg Med J ; 36(9): 520-528, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31320332

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intubation is an essential, life-saving skill but associated with a high risk for adverse outcomes. Intubation protocols have been implemented to increase success and reduce complications, but the impact of protocol conformance is not known. Our study aimed to determine association between conformance with an intubation process model and outcomes. METHODS: An interdisciplinary expert panel developed a process model of tasks and sequencing deemed necessary for successful intubation. The model was then retrospectively used to review videos of intubations from 1 February, 2014, to 31 January, 2016, in a paediatric emergency department at a time when no process model or protocol was in existence. RESULTS: We evaluated 113 patients, 77 (68%) were successfully intubated on first attempt. Model conformance was associated with a higher likelihood of first attempt success when using direct laryngoscopy (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.18). The use of video laryngoscopy was associated with an overall higher likelihood of success on first attempt (OR 2.54, 95% CI 1.10 to 5.88). Thirty-seven patients (33%) experienced adverse events. Model conformance was the only factor associated with a lower odds of adverse events (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.88 to 0.99). CONCLUSIONS: Conformance with a task-based expert-derived process model for emergency intubation was associated with a higher rate of success on first intubation attempt when using direct laryngoscopy and a lower odds of associated adverse events. Further evaluation of the impact of human factors, such as teamwork and decision-making, on intubation process conformance and success and outcomes is needed.


Assuntos
Protocolos Clínicos/normas , Estado Terminal/terapia , Intubação Intratraqueal/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Ressuscitação/normas , Adolescente , Bradicardia/epidemiologia , Bradicardia/etiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Hipóxia/epidemiologia , Hipóxia/etiologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos , Intubação Intratraqueal/instrumentação , Laringoscópios/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Ressuscitação/efeitos adversos , Ressuscitação/instrumentação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Gravação em Vídeo , Adulto Jovem
12.
Electrolyte Blood Press ; 17(1): 7-15, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31338109

RESUMO

Background: Alcoholic ketoacidosis (AKA) is known as a benign disease, but the related mortality reported in Korea is high. Acidosis and alcohol change the immunity profile, and these changes can be identified early using the delta neutrophil index (DNI). We aimed to evaluate the use of DNI and other standard laboratory parameters as predictors of prognosis in AKA patients. Methods: One hundred eighteen males with AKA were evaluated at the Wonju Severance Christian hospital between 2009 and 2014. We performed a retrospective analysis of demographic, clinical, and laboratory parameters data. Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) and multivariate Cox regression was used to identify renal survival and mortality. Results: Survival patients had lower initial DNI levels than non-survival patients (4.8±6.4 vs 11.4±12.5, p<0.001). In multivariate-adjusted Cox regression analysis, higher initial increased DNI (HR 1.044, 95% CI 1.003-1.086, p=0.035), and lower initial pH (HR 0.044, 95% CI 0.004-0.452, p=0.008) were risk factors for dialysis during hospitalization. Further, higher initial DNI level (HR 1.037; 95% CI 1.006-1.069; p=0.018), lower initial pH (HR 0.049; 95% CI 0.008-0.312; p=0.001) and lower initial glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (HR 0.981; 95% CI 0.964-0.999; p=0.033) were predictors of mortality. A DNI value of 4.5% was selected as the cut-off value for poor prognosis and Kaplan-Meier plots showed that AKA patients with an initial level DNI ≥4.5% had lower cumulative survival rates than AKA patients with an initial DNI <4.5%. Conclusion: Increased initial serum DNI levels may help to predict renal survival and prognosis in male AKA patients.

13.
J Clin Med ; 8(6)2019 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208104

RESUMO

Steroid sensitive nephrotic syndrome is one of the most common pediatric glomerular diseases. Unfortunately, it follows a relapsing and remitting course in the majority of cases, with 50% of all cases relapsing once or even more often. Most children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome respond initially to steroid therapy, nevertheless repeated courses for patients with relapses induce significant steroid toxicity. Patients with frequent relapses or steroid dependency thus require alternative treatment, such as cyclophosphamide, cyclosporine, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, levamisole, or rituximab. To reduce the relapse rate, several drugs have been used. Among these, levamisole has been considered the least toxic and least expensive therapy. Several randomized controlled trials (RCT) showed that levamisole is effective in reducing the relapse risk in steroid sensitive forms of nephrotic syndrome with a low frequency of side effects. Levamisole is a synthetic imidazothiazole derivative with immune-modulatory properties. In this article, we review recent data from randomized trials and observational studies to assess the efficacy of levamisole in frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome and steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome.

14.
J Immunol Res ; 2019: 5679518, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31089477

RESUMO

Introduction: The soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) has been found to be elevated in primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (pFSGS). However, its usefulness as a biomarker for FSGS remains controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis aiming at investigating the significance of suPAR in diagnosing pFSGS. Methods: Electronic databases (PubMed and EMBASE) were searched to identify studies comparing suPAR levels in FSGS patients and controls, from the earliest available date to May 1, 2018. A random-effects model with standardized mean difference (SMD) was used for meta-analyses. Risk of bias was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale. Results: A total of 187 articles were screened, and the final analysis included 13 articles. In comparison to healthy controls, serum suPAR levels were significantly increased in pFSGS patients (SMD, 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.65 to 1.48; participants = 814; studies = 9, I 2 = 85%). Higher suPAR levels were also found in patients with pFSGS compared to those with minimal change disease (SMD 0.53, 95% CI 0.22 to 0.84). Of note, such a difference was not found in pediatric groups (SMD 0.42, 95% CI -0.13 to 0.96) while it was more evidently noted in adult patients (SMD 1.32, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.74). Serum suPAR levels did not differ between pFSGS patients in remission compared to those in active proteinuric state (SMD 0.29, 95% CI -0.30 to 0.88). Comparison with membranous nephropathy and IgA nephropathy showed no significant difference. Conclusions: Our meta-analysis demonstrated that, in comparison to both healthy controls and controls with minimal change disease, suPAR levels were significantly higher in adult patients with pFSGS. suPAR levels did not differ between pFSGS patients during the initial period of diagnosis and those in remission.


Assuntos
Glomerulosclerose Segmentar e Focal/sangue , Glomerulosclerose Segmentar e Focal/diagnóstico , Receptores de Ativador de Plasminogênio Tipo Uroquinase/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais
15.
Korean J Intern Med ; 34(3): 480-491, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048658

RESUMO

The metabolic burden caused by hyperglycemia can result in direct and immediate metabolic injuries, such as oxidative stress and tissue inflammation, in the kidney. Furthermore, chronic hyperglycemia can lead to substantial structural changes such as formation of advanced glycation end-products, glomerular and tubular hypertrophy, and tissue fibrosis. Glomerular hypertrophy renders podocytes vulnerable to increased glomerular filtration, leading to podocyte instability and loss. Thus, prevention of glomerular hypertrophy and attenuation of glomerular hyperfiltration may have therapeutic potential for diabetic nephropathy (DN). Adiponectin is an adipokine that improves insulin sensitivity in obesity-related metabolic disorders, including diabetes, but its efficacy is unknown. Moreover, the recently developed adiponectin receptor agonist, AdipoRon, shows therapeutic potential for DN. In this review, we focus on the role of glomerular hypertrophy in the pathogenesis of DN and discuss the role of adiponectin in its prevention.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/uso terapêutico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Glomérulos Renais/efeitos dos fármacos , Adiponectina/metabolismo , Adiponectina/farmacologia , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Nefropatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipertrofia/prevenção & controle , Insulina/deficiência , Resistência à Insulina , Transdução de Sinais
16.
Addict Behav ; 95: 189-196, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30954888

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The tobacco industry has previously targeted sexual/gender and racial/ethnic minorities with focused campaigns in traditional, offline marketing. We assess whether these populations report more engagement with online tobacco marketing compared with heterosexual and non-Hispanic white youth. METHODS: Data were from 8015 adolescents sampled between 2014 and 2015 in the nationally-representative Population Assessment for Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study. Engagement with online tobacco marketing within the past year was assessed through eight forms of engagement. A weighted logistic regression model was fit with engagement as outcome and socio-demographic and psychosocial characteristics, internet-related and substance use behavior, tobacco-related risk factors, tobacco use status, and prior engagement with online tobacco marketing as covariates. RESULTS: Accounting for other covariates including tobacco use status and prior engagement with online tobacco marketing, the odds of past-year engagement were higher for sexual minority males (aOR = 1.57; 95% CI: 1.05-2.35) compared to straight males and higher for sexual minority females (aOR = 1.45; 95% CI: 1.13-1.87) compared to straight females. The odds of past-year engagement were also higher for Hispanics (aOR = 1.31; 95% CI: 1.11-1.56) and non-Hispanic Blacks (aOR = 1.42; 95% CI: 1.14-1.77) compared to non-Hispanic Whites. CONCLUSIONS: Sexual/gender and and racial/ethnic minority youth reported higher engagement with online tobacco marketing than their heterosexual and non-Hispanic white peers, respectively.

18.
Orthop J Sports Med ; 7(3): 2325967119830139, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30886876

RESUMO

Background: Achilles tendon tears are potentially career-ending injuries for professional athletes. For players in the National Football League (NFL), return requires not only surgery and extensive rehabilitation but also the ability to compete in a market with limited positions that annually introduces new recruits. Purpose/Hypothesis: We authors sought to evaluate factors related to return to play (RTP) and changes in performance following a primary Achilles tear. Our hypothesis was that "skilled" position players and those drafted in later rounds would return at a lower rate as compared with "unskilled" position players and higher draft-round players. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: From a previously established database, 80 NFL players were identified as having primary Achilles tendon tears between the 2009 and 2014 seasons. RTP was defined as playing in a regular season or postseason game following injury. Probability of RTP was modeled as a function of time after injury in Kaplan-Meier analysis with demographic variables assessed via generalized linear models. Twelve players (15%) experienced a subsequent Achilles tendon tear during or after the study period and were included in the overall RTP rate but were excluded from performance analyses owing to the confounding effects of an ipsilateral retear or contralateral tear. Results: The overall RTP rate was 61.3%. Age, number of prior seasons, position type, or draft round status did not significantly affect RTP when evaluated with Kaplan-Meier analysis. In the season before their injury, players who did RTP played in a significantly greater number of regular season games (13.7) compared with players who did not RTP (8.71) (P = .011). Players who did not RTP exhibited a significant decrease in performance in the season preceding injury (12.7 regular season games played 2 seasons preinjury vs 8.71 regular season games played 1 season prior preinjury;, P = .019). Players who returned did not display a significant change in the number of games played or started in seasons following injury when >1 season after return was evaluated. Conclusion: Rate of RTP following primary Achilles tendon tears may be lower than previously published. However, for those able to return, performance only in the season immediately following injury appears to be affected; players return to preinjury levels if given the opportunity to play >1 season after injury.

19.
J Cancer Educ ; 2019 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852789

RESUMO

Computed tomography lung cancer screening reduces lung cancer mortality. However, screening is underutilized. This study assesses the extent to which providers discuss lung cancer screening with their patients, as a lack of discussion and counseling may serve as a potential cause of low utilization rates. Data from 1667 adults aged 55-80 years sampled in the 2017 Health Information National Trends Survey was utilized. A weighted multivariable logistic regression model was fit with past-year discussion about lung cancer screening with a provider as the outcome. The adjusted odds of discussion were higher for current cigarette smokers compared to non-cigarette smokers (adjusted odds ratio = 3.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.75 to 8.74). Despite higher odds, the absolute prevalence was low with only 18% (95% CI, 11.8 to 24.2%) of current adult smokers reporting a past-year discussion. Knowledge of screening from trusted sources of medical information, such as doctors, can increase screening rates and may ultimately reduce lung cancer mortality.

20.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 97: 55-66, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30678941

RESUMO

The chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). However, there are some constraints, the frequent exchange of the dialysate and limitation of outside activity, associated with CAPD remain to be solved. In this study, we designed the wearable artificial kidney (WAK) system for peritoneal dialysis (PD) using urease-immobilized silk fibroin (SF) membrane and polymer-based spherical carbonaceous adsorbent (PSCA). We evaluated this kit's removal abilities of uremic toxins such as urea, creatinine, uric acid, phosphorus, and ß2-microglobulin from the dialysate of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients in vitro. The uremic toxins including urea, creatinine, uric acid, and phosphorus were removed about 99% by immobilized SF membrane and PSCA filter after 24 h treatment. However, only 50% of ß2-microglobulin was removed by this filtering system after 24 h treatment. In vivo study result shows that our filtering system has more uremic toxins removal efficiency than exchanged dialysate at every 6 h. We suggest that recirculating PD system using urease-immobilized SF membrane with PSCA could be more efficient than traditional dialysate exchange system for a WAK for PD.


Assuntos
Membranas Artificiais , Diálise Peritoneal Ambulatorial Contínua/instrumentação , Urease/química , Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , Animais , Enzimas Imobilizadas/química , Desenho de Equipamento , Fibroínas/química , Filtração/instrumentação , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Diálise Peritoneal Ambulatorial Contínua/métodos , Fósforo/isolamento & purificação , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Toxinas Biológicas/química , Microglobulina beta-2/isolamento & purificação
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