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1.
Adv Mater ; : e1903448, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682043

RESUMO

The emergence of cesium lead iodide (CsPbI3 ) perovskite solar cells (PSCs) has generated enormous interest in the photovoltaic research community. However, in general they exhibit low power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) because of the existence of defects. A new all-inorganic perovskite material, CsPbI3 :Br:InI3 , is prepared by defect engineering of CsPbI3 . This new perovskite retains the same bandgap as CsPbI3 , while the intrinsic defect concentration is largely suppressed. Moreover, it can be prepared in an extremely high humidity atmosphere and thus a glovebox is not required. By completely eliminating the labile and expensive components in traditional PSCs, the all-inorganic PSCs based on CsPbI3 :Br:InI3 and carbon electrode exhibit PCE and open-circuit voltage as high as 12.04% and 1.20 V, respectively. More importantly, they demonstrate excellent stability in air for more than two months, while those based on CsPbI3 can survive only a few days in air. The progress reported represents a major leap for all-inorganic PSCs and paves the way for their further exploration in order to achieve higher performance.

2.
Mar Drugs ; 17(11)2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683521

RESUMO

Echinochrome A (Ech A), a natural pigment extracted from sea urchins, is the active ingredient of a marine-derived pharmaceutical called 'histochrome'. Since it exhibits several biological activities including anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects, it has been applied to the management of cardiac injury and ocular degenerative disorders in Russia and its protective role has been studied for other pathologic conditions. In the present study, we sought to investigate the therapeutic potential of Ech A for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) using a murine model of experimental colitis. We found that intravenous injection of Ech A significantly prevented body weight loss and subsequent lethality in colitis-induced mice. Interestingly, T cell proliferation was significantly inhibited upon Ech A treatment in vitro. During the helper T (Th) cell differentiation process, Ech A stimulated the generation regulatory T (Treg) cells that modulate the inflammatory response and immune homeostasis. Moreover, Ech A treatment suppressed the in vitro activation of pro-inflammatory M1 type macrophages, while inducing the production of M2 type macrophages that promote the resolution of inflammation and initiate tissue repair. Based on these results, we suggest that Ech A could provide a beneficial impact on IBD by correcting the imbalance in the intestinal immune system.

3.
Int J Cardiol ; 2019 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is often considered as a risk factor of cardiovascular events, but recent researches showed conflicting results regarding to the effect of body weight on prognosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and clinical outcomes of CAD in Asian population. METHODS: A total of 4315 patients from the FOCUS registry were enrolled into this analysis. Patients were divided into 4 groups according to BMI: lean group (BMI<18.5 kg/m2), normal group (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m2), overweight group (BMI 25-30 kg/m2) and obesity group (BMI>30 kg/m2). Follow-up was continued to 3 years to evaluate clinical outcomes, and the primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause death and myocardial infarction (MI). RESULTS: Patients with higher BMI were more likely to be associated with cardiovascular risk factors like hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes, but not smoking. At the end of the follow-up period, however, the incidence of a composite endpoint of all-cause death and MI was significantly lower in the higher BMI (overweight and obese) subsets, as compared with the lower BMI group (5.2% vs. 8.0%, p < 0.001). So did the cumulative rates of all-cause death (p < 0.001), cardiovascular death (p < 0.001), and a combined endpoint of cardiovascular death and MI (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In Asian patients with CAD, an inverse association between BMI and long-term prognosis was observed. Although overweight or obese patients were associated with more metabolism-associated comorbidities, they had significantly lower adverse events at 3-year follow up after percutaneous coronary intervention.

4.
Int Immunopharmacol ; : 105968, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704290

RESUMO

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune inflammatory and vascular disorder leading to progressive tissue fibrosis. Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA) is a phytochemical extracted from the Chinese herb Salvia miltiorrhiza that exhibits diverse activities. In this study, we attempted to evaluate the potential impact of Tan IIA on the skin fibrosis-related endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) and investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms. EndoMT-related indexes including morphological characteristics, functional changes, histological parameters, expression levels of extracellular matrix associated genes, and changes in the expression of related biomarkers in dermal fibrosis were assessed. Tan IIA had a strong anti-fibrotic effect through amelioration of skin thickness and collagen deposition. Moreover, Tan IIA partially reversed bleomycin-induced EndoMT both in vivo and in vitro. Additionally, Tan IIA mitigated the diminution of tube formation in endothelial cells induced by bleomycin. Furthermore, mechanistically, the activation of the Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway was found to be involved in bleomycin-treated SSc mouse model, which was alleviated by Tan IIA. In summary, these data suggest that Tan IIA alleviates SSc-related dermal fibrosis and EndoMT and that the Akt/mTOR/p70S6K signaling pathway is involved in this regulation, thus supporting the potential of Tan IIA as a disease-modifying candidate agent for treating the vascular damage of SSc.

5.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 828, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The merging of two divergent genomes during hybridization can result in the remodeling of parental gene expression in hybrids. A molecular basis underling expression change in hybrid is regulatory divergence, which may change with the parental genetic divergence. However, there still no unanimous conclusion for this hypothesis. RESULTS: Three species of Camellia with a range of genetic divergence and their F1 hybrids were used to study the effect of parental genetic divergence on gene expression and regulatory patterns in hybrids by RNA-sequencing and allelic expression analysis. We found that though the proportion of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the hybrids and their parents did not increase, a greater proportion of DEGs would be non-additively (especially transgressively) expressed in the hybrids as genomes between the parents become more divergent. In addition, the proportion of genes with significant evidence of cis-regulatory divergence increased, whereas with trans-regulatory divergence decreased with parental genetic divergence. CONCLUSIONS: The discordance within hybrid would intensify as the parents become more divergent, manifesting as more DEGs would be non-additively expressed. Trans-regulatory divergence contributed more to the additively inherited genes than cis, however, its contribution to expression difference would be weakened as cis mutations accumulated over time; and this might be an important reason for that the more divergent the parents are, the greater proportion of DEGs would be non-additively expressed in hybrid.

6.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 19(1): 209, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Crouzon syndrome (CS), which results from fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 mutations, is associated with craniosynostosis, exophthalmos, and other symptoms. Herein, we report the genetic abnormalities detected in a Chinese family with autosomal dominant CS, combined with luxation of the eyeball. This luxation was a consequence of the trauma to the shallow orbits. CASE PRESENTATION: The proband was a 4-year-old boy. He accidentally fell, following which luxation of the bulbus oculi occurred immediately. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging clearly revealed ocular proptosis. Upon physical examination, the proband, his father, and grandfather had ocular proptosis, shallow orbits, and mid-face hypoplasia. However, their hands and feet were clinically normal. Genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood through a polymerase chain reaction performed for the target sequence. Genetic assessments revealed a heterozygous missense mutation (c.1012G > C, p.G338R) in exon 10 of the human FGFR2, cosegregated with the disease phenotype in this family. These findings confirmed the diagnosis of CS. DISCUSSION: CS is usually caused by FGFR2 mutations. While there are a few reports of luxation of the bulbus oculi in Chinese families with CS, the ocular proptosis, shallow orbits, combined with luxation of eyeball after trauma observed in this patient were particularly interesting. Our findings enhance the current knowledge of traumatic luxation concomitant with CS.

7.
J Vet Med Sci ; 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582601

RESUMO

The paracrine function of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) during transplantation has been recently studied due to its poor differentiation ratio. Dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG) has been used to promote angiogenesis in experimental animal models, however, comparable approaches for canine MSCs are not sufficient. In the present study, we assessed whether DMOG improves angiogenesis in canine adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (cAT-MSCs). cAT-MSCs were treated with DMOG and their effect on angiogenesis was investigated by cell proliferation assay, western blotting, and tube formation assay. Dimethyloxalylglycine preconditioning enhanced the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) among pro-angiogenic factors in cAT-MSCs via hypoxia-inducible factor-1α stabilization. Dimethyloxalylglycine primed-cAT-MSC-conditioned media increased angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. These results suggest that DMOG conditioning of cAT-MSCs augmented the secretion of VEGF, which acted as a prominent pro-angiogenic factor during angiogenesis. DMOG-primed cAT-MSCs may have the potential to induce beneficial effects in ischemic diseases in clinical trials.

8.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4502, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582740

RESUMO

The cytosolic antibody receptor TRIM21 possesses unique ubiquitination activity that drives broad-spectrum anti-pathogen targeting and underpins the protein depletion technology Trim-Away. This activity is dependent on formation of self-anchored, K63-linked ubiquitin chains by the heterodimeric E2 enzyme Ube2N/Ube2V2. Here we reveal how TRIM21 facilitates ubiquitin transfer and differentiates this E2 from other closely related enzymes. A tri-ionic motif provides optimally distributed anchor points that allow TRIM21 to wrap an Ube2N~Ub complex around its RING domain, locking the closed conformation and promoting ubiquitin discharge. Mutation of these anchor points inhibits ubiquitination with Ube2N/Ube2V2, viral neutralization and immune signalling. We show that the same mechanism is employed by the anti-HIV restriction factor TRIM5 and identify spatially conserved ionic anchor points in other Ube2N-recruiting RING E3s. The tri-ionic motif is exclusively required for Ube2N but not Ube2D1 activity and provides a generic E2-specific catalysis mechanism for RING E3s.

9.
J Exp Bot ; 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639183

RESUMO

The plastid genomes (plastomes) of non-photosynthetic plants generally undergoes gene loss and pseudogenization. Despite massive plastomes reported in different parasitism types of the broomrape family (Orobanchaceae), more plastomes representing different degradation patterns in a single genus are expected to be explored. Here, we sequenced and assembled the complete plastomes of three holoparasitic Cistanche species (C. salsa, C. tubulosa and C. sinensis) and compared them with the available plastomes of Orobanchaceae. We identified that the diverse degradation trajectories under purifying selection existed among three Cistanche clades, showing obvious size differences on entire plastome, long single copy region and non-coding region, and different patterns of the retention/loss of functional genes. With few exception of putatively functional genes, massive plastid fragments which have been lost and transferred into the mitochondrial or nuclear genomes are nonfunctional. In contrast with the equivalents of the Orobanche species, some plastid-derived genes with diverse genomic locations are found in Cistanche. The early and initially diverged clades in different genera such as Cistanche and Aphyllon possess obvious patterns of plastome degradation, suggesting that such key lineages should be considered prior to comparative analysis of plastome evolution, especially in the same genus.

10.
J Dermatol ; 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642108

RESUMO

Medicolegal disputes are increasing in practical medicine. Medications or procedures related to acne could lead to medical malpractice. This study analyzed medical litigation associated with acne in South Korea. Acne-related judgments were searched using the Supreme Court of Korea's Written Judgment Management System based on the keyword "acne". Eleven cases were selected; eight cases were related to acne scar and three cases were related to acne. Treatment modalities such as peeling, laser treatment, photodynamic therapy and antibiotics resulted in lawsuits. Claimed sequelae of the treatments were hyperpigmentation, scar worsening, erythema, skin bumps and liver transplant. Eight cases were awarded to the plaintiff, and the others were dismissed. This study shows that various treatments for acne can cause medical disputes.

11.
FASEB J ; : fj201900115RR, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665609

RESUMO

Nε-(carboxymethyl) lysine (CML), the major member of advanced glycation end products, was widely studied in diabetic complications and aging-associated diseases. However, the impact of CML on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury (MI/RI) was rarely reported. In the present study, CML was increased in both patients with acute myocardial infarction (53.4 ± 7.8 vs. 28.1 ± 4.4 ng; P = 0.017), and mice underwent MI/RI (16.4 ± 1.4 vs. 10.8 ± 0.9 ng; P = 0.006). Depletion of neutrophils reduced CML (17.8 ± 1.0 vs. 9.9 ± 0.3 ng; P < 0.001), indicating neutrophils were the major cells contributing to CML formation during MI/RI. CML treatment exacerbated MI/RI by elevating myocardial injury marker (274.3 ± 18.0 vs. 477.2 ± 34.3 pg; P < 0.001), enlarging myocardial infarct size (32.9 ± 3.6 vs. 45.2 ± 3.8%; P = 0.03), increasing myocardial fibrosis (17.5 ± 1.6 vs. 29.7 ± 2.2%; P < 0.001) and impairing cardiac function (59.4 ± 2.4% vs. 46.0 ± 1.3%; P = 0.001). Further study revealed that CML increased the phosphorylation of receptor interacting protein (RIP) 3, an important initiator of necroptosis, and its downstream proteins. Receptor for advanced glycation end product (RAGE) deficiency effectively blocked RIP3 phosphorylation induced by CML and rescued CML-mediated MI/RI, indicating CML promoted RIP3-mediated necroptosis through RAGE. In addition, glyoxalase-1 overexpression could effectively attenuate MI/RI by reducing CML formation, providing a potential therapeutic target for MI/RI.-Yang, J., Zhang, F., Shi, H., Gao, Y., Dong, Z., Ma, L., Sun, X., Li, X., Chang, S., Wang, Z., Qu, Y., Li, H., Hu, K., Sun, A., Ge, J. Neutrophil-derived advanced glycation end products-Nε-(carboxymethyl) lysine promotes RIP3-mediated myocardial necroptosis via RAGE and exacerbates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury.

12.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(11): 164, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637528

RESUMO

Odd-chain fatty acids (OCFAs) have been reported to possess pharmacological activity and have been used in the manufacture of agricultural and industrial chemicals. We here provided a new method to increase the OCFAs content in oil produced by Rhodococcus opacus PD630 through addition of 1-propanol to the fermentation media. The OCFAs in oil of R. opacus PD630 are primarily pentadecanoic acid (C15:0), heptadecanoic acid (C17:0) and heptadecenoic acid (C17:1). After adding 0.5-1.5% (v/v) 1-propanol, the production of oil increased from 1.27 g/L to 1.31-1.61 g/L, and the OCFAs content in oil increased by 46.7-55.1%. Metabolic intermediates determination and transcriptome analysis revealed that R. opacus assimilated 1-propanol through methylmalonyl-CoA pathway. When the nitrogen source was limited, propionyl-CoA was converted to propionyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) which could be used as primer during the elongation of fatty acid synthesis. Then OCFAs were produced when odd number of propionyl-ACP was incorporated in the cycles of fatty acid synthesis.

13.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(10)2019 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581648

RESUMO

Rubus boninensis is a rare endemic species found on the Bonin Islands with a very restricted distribution. It is morphologically most closely related to Rubus trifidus, occurring widely in the southern Korean peninsula and Japan. This species pair provides a good example of anagenetic speciation on an oceanic island in the northwestern Pacific Ocean-R. trifidus as a continental progenitor and R. boninensis as an insular derivative species. In this study, we firstly characterized the complete plastome of R. boninensis and R. trifidus and compared this species pair to another anagenetically derived species pair (R. takesimensis-R. crataegifolius). The complete plastome of R. trifidus was 155,823 base pairs (bp) long, slightly longer (16 bp) than that of R. boninensis (155,807 bp). No structural or content rearrangements were found between the species pair. Eleven hotspot regions, including trnH/psbA, were identified between R. trifidus and R. boninensis. Phylogenetic analysis of 19 representative plastomes within the family Rosaceae suggested sister relationships between R. trifidus and R. boninensis, and between R. crataegifolius and R. takesimensis. The plastome resources generated by the present study will help elucidate plastome evolution and resolve phylogenetic relationships within highly complex and reticulated lineages of the genus Rubus.

14.
Nature ; 574(7780): 722-725, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645759

RESUMO

The enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) catalyses a light-dependent step in chlorophyll biosynthesis that is essential to photosynthesis and, ultimately, all life on Earth1-3. POR, which is one of three known light-dependent enzymes4,5, catalyses reduction of the photosensitizer and substrate protochlorophyllide to form the pigment chlorophyllide. Despite its biological importance, the structural basis for POR photocatalysis has remained unknown. Here we report crystal structures of cyanobacterial PORs from Thermosynechococcus elongatus and Synechocystis sp. in their free forms, and in complex with the nicotinamide coenzyme. Our structural models and simulations of the ternary protochlorophyllide-NADPH-POR complex identify multiple interactions in the POR active site that are important for protochlorophyllide binding, photosensitization and photochemical conversion to chlorophyllide. We demonstrate the importance of active-site architecture and protochlorophyllide structure in driving POR photochemistry in experiments using POR variants and protochlorophyllide analogues. These studies reveal how the POR active site facilitates light-driven reduction of protochlorophyllide by localized hydride transfer from NADPH and long-range proton transfer along structurally defined proton-transfer pathways.

15.
Nat Mater ; 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659290
16.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(38): 34895-34903, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479240

RESUMO

Separators are key safety components for electrochemical energy storage systems. However, the intrinsic poor wettability with electrolyte and low thermal stability of commercial polyolefin separators cannot meet the requirements of the ever-expanding market for high-power, high-energy, and high-safety power systems, such as lithium-metal, lithium-sulfur, and lithium-ion batteries. In this study, scalable bendable networks built with ultralong silica nanowires (SNs) are developed as stable separators for both high-safety and high-power lithium-metal batteries. The three-dimensional porous nature (porosity of 73%) and the polar surface of the obtained SNs separators endue a much better electrolyte wettability, larger electrolyte uptake ratio (325%), higher electrolyte retention ratio (63%), and ∼7 times higher ionic conductivity than that of commercial polypropylene (PP) separators. Moreover, the pore-rich structure of the SNs separator can aid in evenly distributing lithium and, in turn, suppress the uncontrollable growth of lithium dendrites to a certain degree. Furthermore, the pure inorganic structure endows the SNs separators with excellent chemical and electrochemical stabilities even at elevated temperatures, as well as excellent thermal stability up to 700 °C. This work underpins the utilization of SNs separators as a rational choice for developing high-performance batteries with a metallic lithium anode.

17.
Aerosp Med Hum Perform ; 90(10): 841-850, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558192

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In the present study, an Adaptive Ground Control System for Multiple-UAV Operator Workload Decrement (AGCS) has been developed and the effectiveness of the system has been analyzed using eye-tracking and task performance data. The AGCS contained four more functions than the conventional GCS (CGCS) functions. The functions were based on real-time operator gaze information, multiple UAV operational state, and mission state information to help safe and efficient multiple UAV operation.METHODS: A total of 30 volunteers participated in the human-in-the-loop experiment to compare the performances of the newly developed AGCS and CGCS while executing reconnaissance and strike missions by operating multiple UAVs.RESULTS: According to the results, the AGCS demonstrates a statistically significant increase in mission performance, such as the mission completion rate (M = 97.3 vs. M = 95.4; SD = 3.1 vs. SD = 4.9) and mission success rate (M = 90.4 vs. M = 88.4; SD = 5.7 vs. SD = 5.6). In addition, the subjects' pupil diameter and gaze indicator show significant differences in the direction of workload reduction (α = 0.05). The subjects expressed positive opinions about using the AGCS.DISCUSSION: The originally developed AGCS showed a promising future extension based on the experimental data. After completion of the experiment, domain experts were interviewed and the next version will reflect their opinion.Lim H-J, Choi S-H, Oh J, Kim BS, Kim S, Yang JH. Adaptive ground control system of muliple-UAV operators in a simulated environment. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2019; 90(10):841-850.

18.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222707, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536553

RESUMO

To determine the origin and genetic consequences of anagenesis in Rubus takesimensis on Ulleung Island, Korea, we compared the genetic diversity and population structure of R. takesimensis with those of its continental progenitor R. crataegifolius. We broadly sampled a total of 315 accessions in 35 populations and sequenced five noncoding regions of chloroplast DNA. Rubus takesimensis emerged as nonmonophyletic and several geographically diverse continental populations were likely responsible for the origin of R. takesimensis; the majority of R. takesimensis accessions were sisters to the clade containing accessions of R. crataegifolius, primarily from the Korean peninsula, while rare accessions from three populations shared common ancestors with the ones from the southern part of the Korean peninsula, Jeju Island, and Japan. A few accessions from the Chusan population originated independently from the Korean peninsula. Of 129 haplotypes, 81 and 48 were found exclusively in R. crataegifolius and R. takesimensis, respectively. We found unusually high genetic diversity in two regions on Ulleung Island and no geographic population structure. For R. crataegifolius, two major haplotype groups were found; one for the northern mainland Korean peninsula, and the other for the southern Korean peninsula and the Japanese archipelago. Compared with populations of R. crataegifolius sampled from Japan, much higher haplotype diversity was found in populations from the Korean peninsula. The patterns of genetic consequences in R. takesimensis need to be verified for other endemic species based on chloroplast DNA and independent nuclear markers to synthesize emerging patterns of anagenetic speciation on Ulleung Island.

19.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521467

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: A swine-origin influenza A/H1N1 virus (termed A/H1N1pdm) caused a pandemic in 2009 and has continuously circulated in the human population. To investigate its possible ecological effects on circulating influenza strains, the seasonal patterns of influenza viruses and the respective age distribution of infected patients were studies. METHODS: The data obtained from national influenza surveillance systems in Taiwan from July 2009 to June 2018 were analyzed. RESULTS: The A/H1N1pdm and A/H3N2 strains usually caused a higher ratio of severe to mild cases than influenza B. New variants of A/H1N1pdm and A/H3N2 emerged accompanied by a large epidemic peak. However, the new influenza B variants intended to circulate for several seasons before causing a large epidemic. The major group of outpatients affected by A/H1N1pdm were aged 13-23 years in the pandemic wave, and the age range of infected individuals gradually shifted to 24-49 and 0-6 years across seasons; A/H1N1pdm-infected inpatients were aged 24-49 years in 2009-2011, and the age range gradually switched to older groups aged 50-65 and >65 years. Individuals aged 0-6 or 24-49 years accounted for the majority of A/H3N2-infected outpatients across seasons, whereas most of the inpatients affected by A/H3N2 were aged >65 years. CONCLUSION: Understanding the effects of new variants and changes in dominant circulating viral strains on the age distribution of the affected human population, disease severity and epidemic levels is useful for the establishment of fine-tuned strategies for further improvement of influenza control.

20.
Clin Chim Acta ; 499: 134-141, 2019 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ectodysplasin A (EDA), a new hepatokine, may be involved in energy metabolism. This study aims to 1) investigate the role of EDA in hepatic steatosis in C57BL/6 mice and HepG2 cells; 2) evaluate serum EDA in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in human. METHODS: This study comprises an experimental study in vitro and in vivo and a hospital based case-control study. Western blotting, qPCR and ELISA were used to measure EDA levels. siRNA and shRNA were performed to knockdown EDA. An Adipokine Magnetic Bead Panel was performed to measure serum adipokines. RESULTS: Increased levels of hepatic and secreted EDA were detected in steatosis, in vivo and in vitro. Steatosis was ameliorated by EDA knockdown in vitro, while intrahepatic triglycerides content and liver enzymes were improved in vivo. Furthermore, knockdown of EDA upregulated lipolytic genes and suppressed lipogenic genes. Serum EDA in subjects with NAFLD was higher. Moreover, it reveals associations between circulating EDA and higher odds of NAFLD, while circulating EDA presented a practicable performance to identify NAFLD. Lastly, serum EDA level was dependent on BMI, TNF-α, T2DM and obesity. CONCLUSIONS: EDA aggravates steatosis by striking balance between lipid deposition and elimination. It was a potential biomarker of NAFLD.

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