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1.
J Infect Dis ; 2021 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Post-discharge immunity and its correlation with clinical features among patients recovered from COVID-19 are poorly described. This prospective cross-sectional study explored the inflammatory profiles and clinical recovery of COVID-19 patients at 3 months post-discharge. METHODS: COVID-19 patients discharged from four hospitals in Wuhan, recovered asymptomatic patients (APs) from an isolation hotel, and uninfected healthy controls (HCs) were recruited. Viral nucleic acid and antibody detection, laboratory examination, computed tomography, pulmonary function assessment, multiplex cytokine assay, and flow cytometry were performed. RESULTS: The 72 age-, sex- and body mass index-matched participants included 19 severe/critical patients (SPs), 20 mild/moderate patients (MPs), 16 APs, and 17 HCs. At 3 months after discharge, levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and factors related to vascular injury/repair in recovered COVID-19 patients had not returned to those of the HCs, especially among recovered SPs compared to recovered MPs and APs. These cytokines were significantly correlated with impaired pulmonary function and chest CT abnormalities. However, levels of immune cells had returned to nearly normal levels and were not significantly correlated with abnormal clinical features. CONCLUSION: Vascular injury, inflammation, and chemotaxis persisted in COVID-19 patients and were correlated with abnormal clinical features 3 months after discharge, especially in recovered SPs.

2.
High Educ (Dordr) ; : 1-25, 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840818

RESUMO

This paper presents new evidence on how enrollment expansion affects higher education access and production with a focus on social inequality and institutional stratification. From 1999 to 2012, the world's largest higher education expansion happened in China that annual college enrollment dramatically increased from 1,083,600 to 6,888,300. We evaluate this exogenous, unprecedented policy using nationally representative student-level survey data and newly available confidential institution-level data. Enrollment expansion, which reduced per-student resources, negatively impacted college quality as measured by value-added on graduates' employment and earnings. The inequality in access between high- and low-SES students and the stratified production between college institutional tiers persisted during expansion.

3.
J Environ Manage ; 288: 112441, 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823454

RESUMO

The pollution in soils and groundwater caused by the tannery have attracted public attention. However, few studies have been done on the migration and species distribution of Cr and coexisting ions produced by tanning in the vadose zone. In this paper, an in-production tannery and a suspended tannery were selected to compare the migration of Cr and other inorganic ions from tanneries in the vadose zone. Results showed that the sewage treatment station and the temporary waste storage site had the highest concentration of pollutants. Cr exhibited a cumulative effect in the middle soil layer (100-300 cm) in the suspended tannery. However, in the in-production tannery, the cumulative effect occurred only at the temporary waste storage site. The distribution of pollutants in the soils at different depths was fixed in the suspended tannery field. But in the in-production tannery field, it was closely related to daily production. Visual MINTEQ showed that the saturation index of a species of Cr was positive or negative simultaneously in the two sites, indicating that (1) the change of saturation index of Cr had no relationship with operation of tannery. (2) the influence of Cr precipitation or dissolution was related to the source strength, the coexisting ions, and pH. This study contributed to understanding the migration of characteristic pollutants caused by tanneries in the vadose zone under different external environments, and provided a reference for the quantification calculation of the source load of pollutants caused by industrial infiltration into the groundwater.

4.
Chemosphere ; 278: 130322, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831684

RESUMO

The residual ozone played an important role in enhancing the organics removal by stimulate subsequent biological processes. However, how the residual ozone affects the biological process is not well studied. In this work, a pilot scale integrated O3-BAF, ordinary BAF and separated O3-BAF were compared in advanced treatment of real bio-treated petrochemical wastewater. Results showed that residual ozone with 0.05-0.10 mg L-1 in the BAF demonstrated relatively high chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of 48.4%, which was 1.5-fold higher than that obtained by separated O3-BAF and 3-fold higher than that obtained by ordinary BAF. The stimulative effect of low dosage of O3 on biological treatment additionally donated 33.9% of the COD removal in the BAF. The COD removal amount per dosage of ozone reached 5.30 mg-COD/mg-O3. The biofilm thickness in the integrated O3-BAF was reduced by 30-50% while the dehydrogenase activity (DHA) was improved by 500%, indicating the stimulate effect on the bioactivity. Additionally, Illumina HiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons demonstrated significant microbial diversity decreasing. Specially, Gemmatimonadetes and Bacteroidetes are the dominate microorganism in the integrated O3-BAF, having a positive correlation with the proper residual ozone, and increased by 5.4% and 4.2% in comparison with the separated O3-BAF, respectively. The residual ozone higher than 0.22 mg L-1 showed inhibition effect on the bioactivity. In summary, the control of residual ozone introduced to BAF was crucial for stimulative effects and manager the microbial community in the integrated O3-BAF, which still need further detail research.

5.
Radiother Oncol ; 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839205

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Curative radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) can lead to acquired nasal cavity stenosis and atresia (ANCSA). As the first study to investigate risk factors of ANCSA in a large cohort of NPC patients, this article aims to develop and validate a multivariate normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model to predict the development of ANCSA and to establish a nomogram for clinical use. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The retrospective cohort was comprised of 548 NPC patients treated with radical radiotherapy. The cohort was randomly divided into training and validation groups. Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression was performed for variable selection from the clinical and dosimetric characteristics in the training group. A multivariate NTCP model and a nomogram were established for the prediction of ANCSA development. Discrimination and calibration were tested using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and calibration tests, respectively, for both groups. RESULTS: ANCSA was observed in 132 (24.1%) of 548 patients with NPC who underwent radical radiotherapy. The median time to ANCSA detection after treatment was 2.8 months (range, 0.0-57.7 months). Five potential predictors, including choanal invasion, low white blood cell count, high C-reactive protein level, high serum amyloid A level, and high V70Gy of the nasal cavity, were selected to develop the NTCP model based on 365 patients in the training group. The model had a fairly good discriminative power according to the ROC analysis in both the training (area under ROC curve=0.79, 95%CI: 0.73-0.84) and validation (0.73, 0.64-0.82) groups. The calibration power was tested using the calibration test in the training (E-max=0.069, E-avg=0.015, p=0.977) and validation (E-max=0.057, E-avg=0.032, p=0.747) groups. CONCLUSIONS: We developed and successfully validated an NTCP model for early prediction of ANCSA in patients with NPC after radical radiotherapy. This could help clinicians assess the risk of ANCSA before the initiation of follow-ups and ensure appropriate and timely management of this complication.

6.
Chemosphere ; 278: 130432, 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839389

RESUMO

Fluorine (F) is widely dispersed in the environment and frequently used in industry and agriculture with a high migration ability. Thus, it is essential to understand the leaching characteristic of F in soil from industry and agriculture sources. Several sources of F pollutants in soil, including fertilizers, pesticides, phosphogypsum, and atmospheric deposition, were selected to investigate leaching characteristics of F in soil by leaching experiments. The addition of phosphate fertilizer and compound fertilizer (N:P:K = 20:10:15) enhanced the leachability of F in soil and the proportion of F leached out from soil treated by these fertilizers were 0.25% and 0.24%, respectively. However, unanticipated lower leachability of F appeared in compound fertilizer (N:P:K = 17:17:17), nitrogen fertilizer, dipterex, fluoroglycofen, fluopimomide, simulative dry deposition (YF3), and phosphogypsum loaded soils compared with additive-absent treatment. Although phosphogysum had a high F concentration, minimum proportion of F released (0.18%) was observed in phosphogypsum-coverd soil. The amounts of F leaching-out from surface soils (0-25 cm) treated with nitrogen fertilizer decreased 1.03 kg ha-1 comparing with blank control. Soil with phosphate fertilizer leached 5.47 kg F ha-1 a year, having the highest environment risk to deeper soil and groundwater. However, phosphogypsum and dry deposition of airbone F chemical had few effects on F leaching in soil. F-containing materials from agricultural process may leach more F from surface soils than industrial sources.

7.
Urol J ; 2021 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840084

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To explore the efficacy of 5-ARIs in PCa Methods:  Searching through the major medical databases such as PubMed, Science Citation Index, EMBASE, Medline, Web of Science, Cochrane Library for all published studies in English until 2018. The following search terms were used: "Finasteride", "dutasteride", "5α reductase inhibitors", "5-ARIs", "prostate cancer", "prostate neoplasm" and the additional related studies were manually searched. Newcasle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) assessed the qualities of studies, and the outcome measures were observed by RR or OR with 95% CIs. RESULTS: we conducted 9 eligible studies for analyses from 2011 to 2017. We found that 5-ARIs group may have fewer progression ( OR =0.48 95%CI: 0.37-0.61; P<.00001, I2=4%, P=.39) and lower pathological progression (OR=0.46; 95%CI: 0.29-0.73; P=.001, I2=0%  P=.45 ) ,compared with control groups. However, the OS did not show significant difference between two groups (OR=1.10; 95%CI:0.90-1.35; P=.35,I2=93% P<.00001 ). CONCLUSION: The use of 5-ARIs could prevent progression in Pca patients both in clinical and pathological.

8.
Mar Drugs ; 19(3)2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802820

RESUMO

Six new prenylated indole diketopiperazine alkaloids, asperthrins A-F (1-6), along with eight known analogues (7-14), were isolated from the marine-derived endophytic fungus Aspergillus sp. YJ191021. Their planar structures and absolute configurations were elucidated by HR-ESI-MS, 1D/2D NMR data, and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT)/ECD calculation. The isolated compounds were assayed for their inhibition against three agricultural pathogenic fungi, four fish pathogenic bacteria, and two agricultural pathogenic bacteria. Compound 1 exhibited moderate antifungal and antibacterial activities against Vibrioanguillarum, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzicola, and Rhizoctoniasolani with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 8, 12.5, and 25 µg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, 1 displayed notable anti-inflammatory activity with IC50 value of 1.46 ± 0.21 µM in Propionibacteriumacnes induced human monocyte cell line (THP-1).

9.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831517

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mycotic aortic aneurysm constitutes a potentially devastating disease that necessitates prompt suspicion and diagnosis. There is no exact consensus for treatment, but removal of infected tissues and prolonged use of antimicrobials based on the identified causative microorganisms seem widely acceptable and have been similarly practiced worldwide. However, some patients still show no identified microorganisms. In this study, we sought to determine whether there is any clinical significance or differences of note in culture-negative mycotic aortic aneurysms. METHODS: Between October 2003 and August 2018, 71 patients were identified as treated for mycotic aortic aneurysms at a single tertiary institution. Review of medical records and imaging studies were completed to collect the following information: demographics, previous medical/surgical history regarding potential infection sources, laboratory and radiologic findings, clinical presentations, treatment method, and morbidity and mortality rates. For analysis, patients were categorized into two groups: the blood and/or tissue culture-positive (CP) group and the blood and/or tissue culture-negative (CN) group. The latter was further divided as CN with identified microorganism by molecular biologic methods [CN(+)] and CN with no identified microorganism [CN(-)]. RESULTS: More patients in the CP group were symptomatic than were in the CN(+) group (100% vs. 80%; P = .034). However, identification of causative microorganisms did not result in a difference in symptom status upon comparing the [CP + CN(+)] and [CN(-)] groups. Inflammatory markers were the most elevated in the CP group and least elevated in the CN(-) group. The aneurysm growth rate seemed slower in the CN(-) group than in the CN(+) and CP groups (1.3 vs. 3.4 vs. 9 mm/month respectively). Aneurysm rupture at initial presentation was more prevalent in the CP group (33.3%). 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography showed increased uptake regardless of whether or not the microorganisms were identified. Early mortality and disease-specific mortality rates during the follow-up period were higher in the CP group but without statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with the CP group, the CN groups appeared clinically less severe, and also exhibited a relatively less devastating course as exhibited by the slower aneurysm expansion rate and smaller number of ruptured aneurysms at the initial presentation.

10.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33834367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frailty has been suggested as a possible risk factor for postoperative delirium (POD). However, results of previous studies were not consistent. We performed a meta-analysis of cohort study to evaluate the above association. METHODS: Relevant studies were obtained via systematic search of PubMed, Embase, SCOPUS, and Web of Science databases. Only studies with multivariate analysis were included. A random-effect model incorporating the potential heterogeneity was used to combine the results. RESULTS: Fifteen cohort studies including 3250 adult patients who underwent surgery were included, and the prevalence of frailty was 27.1% (880/3250) before surgeries. Overall, POD occurred in 513 patients (15.8%). Pooled results showed that frailty was associated with a higher risk of POD (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 3.23, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.56-4.07, P < 0.001) without significant heterogeneity (P for Cochrane's Q test = 0.25, I2 = 18%). Subgroup analyses showed a more remarkable association between frailty and POD in prospective cohort studies (OR: 3.64, 95% CI: 2.95-4.49, P < 0.001) than that in retrospective cohort studies (OR: 2.32, 95% CI: 1.60-3.35, P < 0.001; P for subgroup difference = 0.04). Moreover, the association was not affected by country of the study, age group of the patient, elective or emergency surgeries, cardiac and non-cardiac surgeries, evaluation instruments for frailty, diagnostic methods for POD, or quality score of the study (P for subgroup difference all > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Frailty may be associated with a higher risk of POD in adult population.

11.
Breast Cancer ; 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837508

RESUMO

Breast cancer is a commonly diagnosed female cancer in the world. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most dangerous and biologically aggressive subtype in breast cancer which has a high mortality, high rates of relapse and poor prognosis, representing approximately 15-20% of breast cancers. TNBC has unique and special biological molecular characteristics and higher immunogenicity than other breast cancer types. On the basis of molecular features, TNBC is divided into different subtypes and gets various treatments. Especially, immunotherapy becomes a promising and effective treatment to TNBC. However, not all of the TNBC patients are sensitive to immunotherapy, the need of selecting the patients suitable for immunotherapy is imperative. In this review, we discussed recent discoveries about the immune-related factors of TNBC, including tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), programmed death-ligand protein-1 (PD-L1), immune gene signatures, some other emerging biomarkers for immunotherapy effectivity and promising biomarkers for immunotherapy resistance. In addition, we summarized the features of these biomarkers contributing to predict the prognosis and effect of immunotherapy. We hope we can provide some helps or evidences to clinical immunotherapy and combined treatment for TNBC patients.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33817860

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the protective effects and underlying mechanism of seaweed polysaccharide (SWP) on intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction induced by E. coli in an IPEC-J2 model. A preliminary study was done to screen optimum SWP concentrations by cell viability, cytotoxicity, apoptosis and proliferation evaluation. The regular study was conducted to evaluate the protective effects of SWP against E. coli challenge via the analysis of transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), tight junction proteins, NF-κB signalling pathway, proinflammatory cytokines and the E. coli adhesion and invasion. Our results show that 4 h E. coli challenge down-regulated tight junction proteins expression, decreased TEER, activated NF-κB signalling pathway and increased proinflammatory response, which indicates that the E. coli infection model was well-established. Pre-treatment with 240 µg/ml SWP for 24 h alleviated the 4 h E. coli -induced intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction, as evidenced by the up-regulated expression of Occludin, Claudin-1 and ZO-1 at both mRNA and protein level and the increased TEER of IPEC-J2 cells. Pre-incubation with 240 µg/ml SWP for 24 h inhibited the activation of the NF-κB signalling pathway by 4 h E. coli challenge, including the decreased mRNA expression of TLR-4, MyD88, IκBα, p-65, as well as the reduced ratio of protein expression of p-p65/p65. Also, pre-treatment with 240 µg/ml SWP for 24 h decreased proinflammatory response (IL-6 and TNF-α) induced by 4 h E. coli challenge and decreased the E. coli adhesion and invasion. In conclusion, SWP mitigated intestinal barrier dysfunction caused by E. coli through NF-κB pathway in IPEC-J2 cells and 240 µg/ml SWP exhibited better effect. Our results also provide a fundamental basis for SWP in reducing post-weaning diarrhoea of weaned piglets, especially under E. coli -infected or in-feed antibiotic-free conditions.

13.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(7)2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810366

RESUMO

For accurate object vehicle estimation using radar, there are two fundamental problems: measurement uncertainties in calculating an object's position with a virtual polygon box and latency due to commercial radar tracking algorithms. We present a data-driven object vehicle estimation scheme to solve measurement uncertainty and latency problems in radar systems. A radar accuracy model and latency coordination are proposed to reduce the tracking error. We first design data-driven radar accuracy models to improve the accuracy of estimation determined by the object vehicle's position. The proposed model solves the measurement uncertainty problem within a feasible set for error covariance. The latency coordination is developed by analyzing the position error according to the relative velocity. The position error by latency is stored in a feasible set for relative velocity, and the solution is calculated from the given relative velocity. Removing the measurement uncertainty and latency of the radar system allows for a weighted interpolation to be applied to estimate the position of the object vehicle. Our method is tested by a scenario-based estimation experiment to validate the usefulness of the proposed data-driven object vehicle estimation scheme. We confirm that the proposed estimation method produces improved performance over the conventional radar estimation and previous methods.

14.
Brain Behav ; : e02112, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792194

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated disruption of the white matter (WM) network related with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Lewy body disease (LBD), which includes Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. METHODS: We consecutively recruited 37 controls and 77 patients with AD-related cognitive impairment (ADCI) and/or LBD-related cognitive impairment (LBCI). Diagnoses of ADCI and LBCI were supported by amyloid PET and dopamine transporter PET, respectively. There were 22 patients with ADCI, 19 patients with LBCI, and 36 patients with mixed ADCI/LBCI. We investigated the relationship between ADCI, LBCI, graph theory-based network measures on diffusion tensor images, and cognitive dysfunction using general linear models after controlling for age, sex, education, deep WM hyperintensities (WMH), periventricular WMH, and intracranial volume. RESULTS: LBCI, especially mixed with ADCI, was associated with increased normalized path length and decreased normalized global efficiency. LBCI was related to the decreased nodal degree of left caudate, which was further associated with broad cognitive dysfunction. Decreased left caudate nodal degree was associated with decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) in the brain regions vulnerable to LBD. Compared with the control group, the LBCI group had an increased betweenness centrality in the occipital nodes, which was associated with decreased FA in the WM adjacent to the striatum and visuospatial dysfunction. CONCLUSION: Concomitant ADCI and LBCI are associated with the accentuation of LBCI-related WM network disruption centered in the left caudate nucleus. The increase of occipital betweenness centrality could be a characteristic biologic change associated with visuospatial dysfunction in LBCI.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677664

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate the potential safety hazards and provide reference for improving the medical waste disposal procedure in SARS-CoV-2 testing laboratory. Our SARS-CoV-2 testing group detected the RNA residue on the surface of medical waste with Droplet Digital PCR, and held a meeting to discuss the risks in the laboratory medical waste disposal process. After effective autoclaving, SARS-CoV-2 contaminated on the surface of medical waste bags was killed, but the average concentration of viral RNA residues was still 0.85 copies/cm2. It would not pose a health risk, but might contaminate the laboratory and affect the test results. When the sterilized medical waste bags were transferred directly by the operators without hand disinfection, re-contamination would happen, which might cause the virus to leak out of the laboratory. Furthermore, we found that sterilization effect monitoring and cooperation among operators were also very important. In summary, we investigated and analyzed the potential safety hazards during the medical waste disposal process in SARS-CoV-2 testing laboratory, and provided reasonable suggestions to ensure the safety of medical waste disposal.

16.
Elife ; 102021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33704064

RESUMO

Hydrolysis of nucleoside triphosphates releases similar amounts of energy. However, ATP hydrolysis is typically used for energy-intensive reactions, whereas GTP hydrolysis typically functions as a switch. SpoIVA is a bacterial cytoskeletal protein that hydrolyzes ATP to polymerize irreversibly during Bacillus subtilis sporulation. SpoIVA evolved from a TRAFAC class of P-loop GTPases, but the evolutionary pressure that drove this change in nucleotide specificity is unclear. We therefore reengineered the nucleotide-binding pocket of SpoIVA to mimic its ancestral GTPase activity. SpoIVAGTPase functioned properly as a GTPase but failed to polymerize because it did not form an NDP-bound intermediate that we report is required for polymerization. Further, incubation of SpoIVAGTPase with limiting ATP did not promote efficient polymerization. This approach revealed that the nucleotide base, in addition to the energy released from hydrolysis, can be critical in specific biological functions. We also present data suggesting that increased levels of ATP relative to GTP at the end of sporulation was the evolutionary pressure that drove the change in nucleotide preference in SpoIVA.

17.
Physiol Plant ; 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33786839

RESUMO

Salicylic acid (SA) is a plant hormone involved in a series of growth, development, and stress responses in plants. Nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related genes 1 (NPR1) is the core regulatory gene in the process of SA-mediated systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Whether NPR1 is involved in pollen tube growth mediated by SA and its derivative MeSA (methyl salicylate) remains to be explored. Here, we found that the contents of endogenous SA and MeSA in self- or cross-pollinated pistils changed significantly, and exogenous SA and MeSA significantly promoted pollen germination and pollen tube elongation of Camellia oleifera at lower concentrations. CoNPR1, CoNPR3.1, CoNPR3.2, and CoNPR5 were identified, and they were all located in the nucleus. A high level of consistency was observed across the phylogenetic relationships, gene structures, and functional domains, indicating a clear division of function, as observed in other species. The expression levels of CoNPR1, CoNPR3.1, CoNPR3.2, and CoNPR5 in self- and cross-pollinated pistils had certain regularity. Furthermore, they exhibited tissue-specific expression pattern. CoNPR1 and CoNPR3.1 were expressed in pollen tubes, whose expression was regulated by SA or MeSA, and their expression patterns were basically consistent with the trend of pollen germination. These results indicate that SA and MeSA are involved in the pollen tube growth of C. oleifera, and CoNPRs may play an important role therein.

18.
Indoor Air ; 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33772878

RESUMO

Due to the high health risks associated with indoor air pollutants and long-term exposure, indoor air quality has received increasing attention. In this study, we put emphasis on the molecular composition, source emissions, and chemical aging of air pollutants in a residence with designed activities mimicking ordinary Hong Kong homes. More than 150 air pollutants were detected at molecular level, 87 of which were quantified at a time resolution of not less than 1 hour. The indoor-to-outdoor ratios were higher than 1 for most of the primary air pollutants, due to emissions of indoor activities and indoor backgrounds (especially for aldehydes). In contrast, many secondary air pollutants exhibited higher concentrations in outdoor air. Painting ranked first in aldehyde emissions, which also caused great enhancement of aromatics. Incense burning had the highest emissions of particle-phase organics, with vanillic acid and syringic acid as markers. The other noteworthy fingerprints enabled by online measurements included linoleic acid, cholesterol, and oleic acid for cooking, 2,5-dimethylfuran, stigmasterol, iso-/anteiso-alkanes, and fructose isomers for smoking, C28 -C34 even n-alkanes for candle burning, and monoterpenes for the use of air freshener, cleaning agents, and camphor oil. We showed clear evidence of chemical aging of cooking emissions, giving a hint of indoor heterogeneous chemistry. This study highlights the value of organic molecules measured at high time resolutions in enhancing our knowledge on indoor air quality.

19.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 593: 41-50, 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33744549

RESUMO

The efficient use of abundant renewable bamboo as high value-added decoration and building materials is of great significance for mitigating carbon dioxide emissions and maintaining sustainable development. The key challenge is to explore efficient and gentle methods to improve the undesirable surface properties of bamboo. Herein, a colorful and superhydrophobic bamboo is gently fabricated by a facile in-situ growth and conversion method based on metal-organic framework (for constructing micro-nano composite structures) and subsequent coating of sodium laurate (for reducing surface energy) at room temperature. The resulting sodium laurate-coated cobalt-nickel double hydroxide layer (CoNi-DH-La) is demonstrated as an efficient superhydrophobic layer to exhibit excellent chemical and mechanical stability. Impressively, the as-obtained CoNi-DH-La-coated bamboo sheet (BS-CoNi-DH-La) shows positive performances in terms of mildew resistance, flame retardancy, and self-cleaning. More importantly, this gentle method can endow bamboo with multiple unfading colors by changing the type of inorganic salts during the preparation process and display good potential for large-scale production.

20.
Int J Oral Sci ; 13(1): 12, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33762576

RESUMO

As an important component of the tumor microenvironment, cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) secrete energy metabolites to supply energy for tumor progression. Abnormal regulation of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) is thought to contribute to glucose metabolism, but the role of lncRNAs in glycolysis in oral CAFs has not been systematically examined. In the present study, by using RNA sequencing and bioinformatics analysis, we analyzed the lncRNA/mRNA profiles of normal fibroblasts (NFs) derived from normal tissues and CAFs derived from patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). LncRNA H19 was identified as a key lncRNA in oral CAFs and was synchronously upregulated in both oral cancer cell lines and CAFs. Using small interfering RNA (siRNA) strategies, we determined that lncRNA H19 knockdown affected proliferation, migration, and glycolysis in oral CAFs. We found that knockdown of lncRNA H19 by siRNA suppressed the MAPK signaling pathway, 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-biphosphatase 3 (PFKFB3) and miR-675-5p. Furthermore, the lncRNA H19/miR-675-5p/PFKFB3 axis was involved in promoting the glycolysis pathway in oral CAFs, as demonstrated by a luciferase reporter system assay and treatment with a miRNA-specific inhibitor. Our study presents a new way to understand glucose metabolism in oral CAFs, theoretically providing a novel biomarker for OSCC molecular diagnosis and a new target for antitumor therapy.

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