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1.
Exp Hematol Oncol ; 10(1): 52, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758872

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: MET amplification plays an important role in the development of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) either de novo or in resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine-kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) settings. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is the standard method for MET amplification. With more and more discoveries of oncogenic driver genes, next-generation sequencing (NGS) plays a significant role in precision oncology. Meanwhile, the role of NGS in MET amplification remains uncertain. METHODS: Forty patients diagnosed with advanced NSCLC were included. FISH and NGS were conducted prior to MET inhibitors treatment. MET amplification by FISH was defined as a MET/CEP7 ratio of > 2.0 and/or copy number (CN) > 5. MET amplification by NGS was defined as gene copy number (GCN) ≥ 5. RESULTS: The concordance rate among FISH and NGS was 62.5% (25/40). MET amplification identified by FISH showed the optimal predictive value. The partial response (PR) rate was 68.0% (17/25 with MET amplification) vs. 6.7% (1/15 without MET amplification); the median progression-free survival (PFS) was 5.4 months versus 1.0 months (P < 0.001). MET amplification identified by NGS failed to distinguish significant clinical outcomes. The PR rate was 60.0% (6/10, with MET GCN ≥ 5) vs. 40.0% (12/30, with MET GCN < 5); the median PFS was 4.8 months vs. 2.2 months (P = 0.357). The PR rate was 68.8% (11/16) and the median PFS was 4.8 months in patients with focal amplification by NGS. CONCLUSIONS: MET amplification identified by FISH remains the optimal biomarker to identify suitable candidates for MET-TKI therapy. In comparison, amplification identified by NGS seems not as robust to be effective predictive biomarker. Further exploration is needed regarding the focal amplification by NGS in predicting the efficacy.

2.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740925

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To establish RP2D in Phase 1 and evaluate safety and efficacy of abivertinib in EGFR T790M+ NSCLC patients with disease progression from prior EGFR inhibitors in Phase 2. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This multicenter, open-label study included 367 adult Chinese patients. Abivertinib at doses of 50mg BID to 350 mg BID was evaluated in Phase 1 in continual 28-day cycles, and the RP2D of 300 mg BID was used in Phase 2 in continual 21-day cycles. Primary endpoints include RP2D in phase 1 and objective response rate (ORR) at RP2D in phase 2. RESULTS: The RP2D of 300 mg BID for abivertinib was established based on pharmacokinetics, efficacy and safety profiles across doses in Phase 1. In Phase 2, 227 patients received RP2D for a median treatment duration of 24.6 weeks (0.43-129). Among 209 response evaluable patients, confirmed ORR was 52.2% (109/209; 95% CI: 45.2%, 59.1%). Disease control rate (DCR) was 88.0% (184/209, 95% CI: 82.9%, 92.1%). The median duration of response (DoR) and progression-free survival (PFS) was 8.5 months (95% CI: 6.1, 9.2) and 7.5 months (95% CI: 6.0, 8.8), respectively. The median OS was 24.9 months (95% CI: 22.4, NR). All (227/227) patients reported at least 1 AE, with 96.9% (220/227) of treatment-related AE. Treatment-related serious AEs were reported in 13.7% (31/227) of patients. Death was reported in 4.4% (10/227) of patients, and none was deemed as treatment related. CONCLUSION: Abivertinib of 300 mg BID demonstrated favorable clinical efficacy with manageable side-effects in patients with EGFR T790M+NSCLC.

3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6450, 2021 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34750392

RESUMO

The ADJUVANT study reported the comparative superiority of adjuvant gefitinib over chemotherapy in disease-free survival of resected EGFR-mutant stage II-IIIA non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, not all patients experienced favorable clinical outcomes with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), raising the necessity for further biomarker assessment. In this work, by comprehensive genomic profiling of 171 tumor tissues from the ADJUVANT trial, five predictive biomarkers are identified (TP53 exon4/5 mutations, RB1 alterations, and copy number gains of NKX2-1, CDK4, and MYC). Then we integrate them into the Multiple-gene INdex to Evaluate the Relative benefit of Various Adjuvant therapies (MINERVA) score, which categorizes patients into three subgroups with relative disease-free survival and overall survival benefits from either adjuvant gefitinib or chemotherapy (Highly TKI-Preferable, TKI-Preferable, and Chemotherapy-Preferable groups). This study demonstrates that predictive genomic signatures could potentially stratify resected EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients and provide precise guidance towards future personalized adjuvant therapy.

4.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pleural effusion (PE) has been one of the promising sources of liquid biopsy in advanced lung cancer patients. However, its clinical utility is not widely accepted due to the lack of full estimation of its potential versus routine clinical samples. METHOD: A total of 164 advanced lung cancer patients were enrolled with 164 matched tumor tissue and PE-cfDNA, 153 accompanied plasma and 63 1PE-sDNA. RESULT: PE-cfDNA displayed significantly higher median mutant allele frequency and an overall mutation concordance rate of 65% to tissue, which was higher than PE-sDNA (43%) and plasma-cfDNA (43%). The discrepancies between PE-cfDNA and tumor tissue were high in several genes, including SMARCA4, PIK3CA, ERBB2, KM T2A, ALK and NF1. For clinically actionable mutations, the concordance rate between PE-cfDNA and tumor tissue is 87%. Eleven patients were identified with actionable mutations in PE-cfDNA and four patients benefited from PE-cfDNA-guided targeted. Meanwhile, PE-cfDNA recapitulated mutations of diverse tissue origins and provided more mutational information under the circumstance that tumor tissue or tumor tissue of different origins were unavailable. The combination of tumor tissue and PE-cfDNA profiling increased positive detection rates of patients compared to tumor tissue alone. Our finding highlighted the importance of PE-cfDNA in the optimal selection of patients for targeted therapy. CONCLUSION: The PE-cfDNA-based liquid biopsy displays better performance in the characterization of gene alterations than PE-sDNA and plasma-cfDNA. PE-cfDNA together with tumor tissue profiling optimizes comprehensively genomic profiling of lung cancer patients, which might be important for selecting patients for better treatment management.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34687488

RESUMO

Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) respond well to ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), and echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-ALK-rearranged NSCLC accounts for the majority of those patients. However, few studies have evaluated ALK-TKIs treatment for patients with huntingtin-interacting protein 1 (HIP1)-ALK fusions. This retrospective study evaluated the clinicopathological characteristics, genomic features, response to ALK-TKIs, and resistance mechanisms in 11 cases with HIP1-ALK fusions from five Chinese centers. Patients who received crizotinib at the Chinese centers had an objective response rate of 90% [9/10 cases, 95% confident index (CI): 54.1%-99.5%], median progression-free survival of 17.9 months (95% CI: 5.8-NA months), and median overall survival of 58.8 months (95% CI: 24.7-NA months). One patient who received first-line lorlatinib treatment achieved partial response for > 26.5 months. Despite the small sample size, HIP1-ALK (H21:A20) variant was the most common variant (four of 11 cases, 36.4%) and associated with better outcomes. Among the 11 cases, there were eight patients having available specimens for genetic testing before ALK-TKIs treatment and four patients undergoing biopsy after ALK-TKIs failure. The most common coexisting gene was TP53 among 11 patients and two of four patients after crizotinib failure harbored acquired ALK mutations (e.g., L1152V/Q1146K and L1196M). Brigatinib treatment appeared to be effective for a patient who failed crizotinib treatment because of the L1152V/Q1146K mutations, which might be related to increased binding affinity to these mutants. Although HIP1-ALK-rearranged NSCLC appears to initially respond well to ALK-TKIs, crizotinib resistance may be correlated with the AKAP9-BRAF fusion, ALK compound mutations (L1152V/Q1146K), and the ALK L1196M mutation. Larger studies are needed to evaluate the significance of HIP1-ALK-rearranged NSCLC.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This phase II study evaluated camrelizumab in different PD-L1 expression cohorts of patients with previously treated advanced/metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC; NCT03085069, registered March 21, 2017). METHODS: Patients who progressed during/after chemotherapy were enrolled and divided into four cohorts based on PD-L1 tumor proportion score (TPS). Patients with EGFR/ALK alterations and PD-L1 TPS ≥ 50% were also eligible. All enrolled patients received camrelizumab at 200 mg IV Q2W. The primary endpoint was objective response rate. RESULTS: A total of 146 patients were enrolled. As of data cutoff on Aug 20, 2020, the median follow-up was 29.5 months (95% CI 27.4-30.8). Objective response rate was 17.8% (95% CI 12.0-25.0) and improved with the increasing PD-L1 TPS (TPS < 1%, 12.2% [95% CI 5.7-21.8]; ≥ 1-< 25%, 19.4% [95% CI 7.5-37.5]; ≥ 25-< 50%, 36.4% [95% CI 10.9-69.2]; ≥ 50%, 23.3% [95% CI 9.9-42.3]). No response was observed in the five patients harboring EGFR mutations. Median progression-free survival was 3.2 months (95% CI 2.0-3.4), and patients with positive PD-L1 TPS had longer progression-free survival. Median overall survival was 14.8 months (95% CI 10.2-18.7). Treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs) of any grade occurred in 87.7% of patients, and 21.2% had grade ≥ 3 TRAEs. CONCLUSION: Camrelizumab showed improved efficacy compared with historical data of the second-line chemotherapy in pre-treated advanced/metastatic NSCLC. Patients with positive PD-L1 expression derived greater benefit from camrelizumab. Camrelizumab has a manageable safety profile.

7.
Transl Oncol ; 15(1): 101254, 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34715621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment by immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) provides a remarkable survival benefit for multiple cancer types. However, disease aggravation occurs in a proportion of patients after the first couple of treatment cycles. METHODS: RNA sequencing data was retrospectively collected. 6 tumour-immune related features were extracted and combined to build a lung cancer-specific predictive model to distinguish responses as progression disease (PD) or non-PD. This model was trained by 3 public pan-cancer datasets and a lung cancer cohort from our institute, and generated a lung cancer-specific integrated gene expression score, which we call LITES. It was finally tested in another lung cancer dataset. RESULTS: LITES is a promising predictor for checkpoint blockade (area under the curve [AUC]=0.86), superior to traditional biomarkers. It is independent of PD-L1 expression and tumour mutation burden. The sensitivity and specificity of LITES was 85.7% and 70.6%, respectively. Progression free survival (PFS) was longer in high-score group than in low-score group (median PFS: 6.0 vs. 2.4 months, hazard ratio=0.45, P=0.01). The mean AUC of 6 features was 0.70 (range=0.61-0.75), lower than in LITES, indicating that the combination of features had synergistic effects. Among the genes identified in the features, patients with high expression of NRAS and PDPK1 tended to have a PD response (P=0.001 and 0.01, respectively). Our model also functioned well for patients with advanced melanoma and was specific for ICB therapy. CONCLUSIONS: LITES is a promising biomarker for predicting an impaired response in lung cancer patients and for clarifying the biological mechanism underlying ICB therapy.

8.
Thorac Cancer ; 12(19): 2564-2573, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase 2 (SHP2) is a novel target for Kirsten rat sarcoma oncogene (KRAS) mutant cancer. We retrospectively studied the significance of SHP2 in KRAS mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with immunotherapy and its relationship with tumor microenvironment (TME). METHODS: Sixty-one advanced KRAS mutant NSCLC patients who underwent immunotherapy were enrolled. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) was used to profile mutation status. The expression of SHP2, phospho-SHP2 (pSHP2), and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) were analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Quantitative multiplexed immunofluorescence cytochemistry (mIFC) analysis was conducted to describe the TME. RESULTS: SHP2 was heterogeneously expressed in 32 samples in both tumor cells and immune cells and highly expressed (H-score >10) in 25 (78.1%) samples. The expression levels of SHP2 and pSHP2 were positively correlated. Stromal SHP2 (s-SHP2) was higher in tumors with PD-L1 ≥50% versus PD-L1 <50% (p = 0.039). By quantitative mIFC analysis, the expression of s-SHP2 had positive correlation with CD8, CD4, CD68, and PD-L1 levels in stromal area. Patients with high SHP2 expression made up 100.0% of the partial respond (PR) and 80.0% of the stable disease (SD), whereas 50.0% of the progress disease (PD). High SHP2 expression was associated with longer progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) (p < 0.001, p = 0.013). Patients with high expression of both SHP2 and PD-L1 had longer PFS (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: High SHP2 expression could predict the efficacy of immunotherapy and better survival in advanced KRAS mutant NSCLC. SHP2 may function in both tumor cells and immune cells, warranting further study on the potential diverse effects of SHP2 inhibition in TME.

9.
Transl Lung Cancer Res ; 10(8): 3594-3607, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34584859

RESUMO

Background: Currently, there is no standard context that conforms to the Chinese national framework for evaluating medical decisions regarding the treatment of lung cancer. Methods: This draft was formulated after a systematic review and a focus group discussion among 20 experts, who were senior physicians with extensive clinical experience from the Chinese Thoracic Oncology Group (CTONG) task force. Subsequently, a draft and a five-point Likert scale were sent to 300 CTONG working group members. These were modified according to feedback from a four-round modified Delphi approach. Hence, the first version of the 'Therapeutic option of lung cancer: CTONG scoring system' was formulated. Afterward, a corresponding questionnaire was designed to collect opinions on the weight allocation of various indicators. This was issued through the WeChat platform, "Oncology News" application and e-mails from October 23, 2020, to November 25, 2020. Participants from numerous occupations in cancer-related fields from various regions of China were included in the study. Overall and subgroup analyses regarding weight allocations were performed. The differences between participant-allocated and reference weights were considered to adjust the framework. Results: The framework contained four aspects and six indicators, including efficacy [progression-free survival (PFS)/overall survival (OS) and subsequent treatment], safety [treatment-related severe adverse event (SAE), dose adjustment], quality of life (Qol), and compensation. The reference weights were 50%, 5%, 10%, 5%, 10%, and 20% for each indicator. By November 25, 2020, 1,043 valid questionnaires had been obtained. The majority of the questionnaires were completed by physicians (86.5%). Subgroup analysis among the various groups showed an overall consistent trend. Besides, significant differences between the participant-allocated and reference weights were found among PFS/OS (difference: -11.5%), compensation (difference: -10.1%), and subsequent treatment (difference: 9.7%) indicators. After discussion, the final weight allocations were set at 45%, 10%, 15%, 5%, 10%, and 15% for PFS/OS, subsequent treatment, treatment-related SAE, dose adjustment, Qol, and compensation, respectively. Conclusions: The CTONG scoring system, as an objective evaluation model that involves multiple parameters, is a breakthrough method for evaluating the therapeutic value of lung cancer treatment options in China, which is worthy of further verification in future clinical practice.

10.
Cancer Cell ; 39(9): 1279-1291.e3, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388377

RESUMO

Dual inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathways may delay therapeutic resistance in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This phase 3 study investigated the efficacy and safety of an erlotinib plus bevacizumab regimen in untreated patients with advanced NSCLC. In total, 311 patients received bevacizumab plus erlotinib (n = 157) or erlotinib only (n = 154). Progression-free survival (PFS) was 17.9 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.2-19.9) for bevacizumab plus erlotinib and 11.2 months (95% CI, 9.7-13.8) for erlotinib only (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.55; 95% CI, 0.41-0.73; p < 0.001). A brain metastases subgroup treated with bevacizumab plus erlotinib also showed improved PFS (HR = 0.48; 95% CI, 0.27-0.84; p = 0.008). Grade ≥3 treatment-related adverse events occurred in 86 (54.8%) and 40 (26.1%) patients, respectively. Bevacizumab plus erlotinib significantly improved PFS in patients with untreated metastatic EGFR-mutated NSCLC, including those with brain metastases at baseline.

11.
J Thorac Dis ; 13(7): 4125-4136, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34422342

RESUMO

Background: There is no standard procedure available to diagnose and treat with pregnancy-associated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The present study was to investigate the clinical and molecular features, and the proper intervention timing for this population. Methods: This is a retrospective, pooled analysis. Cases from Guangdong Lung Cancer Institute and other published cases were collected and reviewed. The overall survival (OS) was analyzed according to the diagnosis timing, the treatment timing and the molecular character. The safety profile during pregnancy was also evaluated. Results: Seventy-seven cases were collected including 11 patients from our center. The anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangement and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation rates were 47% and 32%, respectively. The OS of patients treated during pregnancy, after delivery, and those not treated differed significantly [12 months vs. not reached (NR) vs. 1 month; P<0.001]. However, the OS between patients treated during pregnancy and after delivery was similar (P=0.173). Patients with ALK or EGFR exhibited a significantly better OS than those with wild-type [NR vs. 22 months vs. 8 months; P<0.001; hazard ratio (HR) =0.02, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.00-0.22; HR =0.08, 95% CI: 0.01-0.76]. Fetal complications were observed in babies whose mothers were treated during pregnancy. Conclusions: The pregnancy-associated NSCLC population exhibited a high prevalence of driver genes and a promising effect of targeted therapy. No significant difference in the OS was observed between patients treated during pregnancy and patients treated after delivery.

13.
Eur J Cancer ; 150: 23-30, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33882375

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Leptomeningeal metastases (LM) occur in up to 5% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and often develop after previous systemic treatments. In this article, we explored whether immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) enhanced the dismal survival of patients with LM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data on NSCLC patients with LM prescribed ICIs were collected at the Guangdong Lung Cancer Institute. Furthermore, relevant literature was reviewed. RESULTS: A total of 255 NSCLC patients diagnosed with LM were screened from January 2015 to March 2020 at our institute. Cases reported by literature were also included. Finally, 32 NSCLC patients received ICIs after LM diagnosis; their median age was 55 years. Druggable genes were detected in 37.5% of all patients. The ICI regimens included nivolumab (n = 21), pembrolizumab (n = 9), and atezolizumab (n = 2). Ultimately, 62.5% of patients evidenced neurological symptom controlled. Two patients exhibited both intracranial and extracranial complete tumour response; one patient showed both intracranial and extracranial partial response (PR), one patient indicated intracranial PR and a systemic PR, and one patient showed central nervous system PR without extracranial response reported. The median progression-free survival (PFS) in the single-agent subgroup was 2.1 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4-2.9 months), and the median overall survival (OS) was 4.0 months (95% CI: 0.1-13.3 months). In the combined subgroup, the median PFS and OS were 3.0 months (95% CI: 1.1-4.9 months) and 5.4 months (95% CI: 0.5-10.3 months), respectively. Three patients exhibited remarkable PFS of over 20 months: all patients had ICI single agent, received cranial radiotherapy before ICI prescription, and took ICIs as second-line therapy, and two patients were EGFR/ALK wild type. Multivariate analysis showed that a better Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status (ECOG-PS) score was associated with prolonged PFS (P = 0.04). No difference in survival was seen between monotherapy and combination therapy groups. CONCLUSION: NSCLC patients with LM may benefit from ICIs of both monotherapy and combination with other therapies, especially those with good ECOG-PS scores. Further work in this regard is required.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinomatose Meníngea/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/secundário , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Carcinomatose Meníngea/imunologia , Carcinomatose Meníngea/mortalidade , Carcinomatose Meníngea/secundário , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
14.
J Thorac Oncol ; 16(2): 250-258, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33122107

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patients with NSCLC with leptomeningeal metastases (LM) presented dismal prognosis. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is suggested as a medium of liquid biopsy of LM. However, the clinical implications of CSF genotyping on treatment outcomes remained elusive. METHODS: Patients with EGFR-mutated advanced NSCLC with LM were included: cohort 1, patients with LM who were treated with osimertinib with CSF and plasma genotyping performed before the first dosing of osimertinib (baseline, n = 45); cohort 2, CSF genotyping on progression on osimertinib and development of LM (the progression event on osimertinib is the diagnosis of LM, n = 35). Circulating tumor DNA in CSF underwent next-generation sequencing. RESULTS: Sensitivity of CSF genotyping for EGFR-sensitizing mutations was 93.3% (42 of 45) and 97.1% (34 of 35) in cohorts 1 and 2, respectively. In cohort 1, patients with EGFR exon 19 deletion had higher median intracranial progression free survival (iPFS) than those with EGFR exon 21 L858R mutation (11.9 versus 2.8 mo; p = 0.02). Median iPFS was significantly longer in patients with T790M-positive CSF genotyping (15.6 mo) than T790M-negative CSF (7.0 mo, p = 0.04). Concurrent CDK4 (2.8 versus 11.6 mo, p = 0.002) and CDKN2A (2.5 versus 9.6 mo, p = 0.04) mutation with EGFR-sensitizing mutations indicated lower median iPFS. Patients with T790M-negative CSF, EGFR exon 21 L858R mutation, concurrent FGF3 alteration, and over first-line osimertinib had shortened iPFS. In cohort 2, possible EGFR-related and EGFR-independent resistance mechanisms were found including C797S mutation, MET dysregulation, and TP53 plus RB1 co-occurrence. Patients with loss of T790M in CSF had a shorter median iPFS (7.4 mo) compared with those with reserved T790M (13.6 mo, p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Genotyping of CSF indicated heterogeneous response to osimertinib and revealed the genetic characteristic of LM on osimertinib failure in patients with EGFR-mutated NSCLC diagnosed with LM.


Assuntos
Receptores ErbB , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Acrilamidas , Compostos de Anilina , Receptores ErbB/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Mutação , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases
15.
Invest New Drugs ; 39(2): 477-487, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052556

RESUMO

Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) are recommended first-line treatments in EGFR-mutated (EGFRm) non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, acquired resistance (e.g. MET amplification) is frequently observed. Savolitinib (volitinib, HMPL-504, AZD6094) is an oral, potent, and highly selective MET-TKI. In this phase Ib, open-label, multicenter study, we enrolled Chinese patients with EGFRm advanced NSCLC, whose disease progressed following prior EGFR-TKI treatment. In the safety run-in, patients received savolitinib 600 or 800 mg plus gefitinib 250 mg orally once daily, and dose-limiting toxicities were recorded. In the expansion phase, patients with MET amplification received savolitinib plus gefitinib. The primary endpoint was safety/tolerability. Secondary endpoints included antitumor activity. Thirteen patients were enrolled in the safety phase (median age 52 years, 46% female) and 51 enrolled in the expansion phase (median age 61 years, 67% female). No dose-limiting toxicities were reported in either dose group during the safety run-in. Adverse events of grade ≥ 3 in the safety run-in and expansion phases (n = 57) were reported in 21 (37%) patients. The most frequently reported adverse events (all grades) were: vomiting (n = 26, 46%), nausea (n = 23, 40%), increased aspartate aminotransferase (n = 22, 39%). Of four deaths, none were treatment-related. The objective response rates in EGFR T790M-negative, -positive, and -unknown patients were 52% (12/23), 9% (2/23), and 40% (2/5), respectively. Savolitinib 600 mg plus gefitinib 250 mg once daily had an acceptable safety profile and demonstrated promising antitumor activity in EGFRm, MET-amplified advanced NSCLC patients who had disease progression on EGFR-TKIs. NCT02374645, Date of registration: March 2nd 2015.

16.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 22(2): 100-109.e3, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33317922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in TP53 are commonly found in patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this study, we determined the predictive and prognostic potential of different subtypes of TP53 using data from a phase III randomized trial (CTONG 0901). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The trial enrolled 195 patients who had undergone next-generation sequencing of 168 genes before treatment with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Mutations in TP53 (exon 4 or 7, other mutations, and wild-type) were analyzed based on the therapeutic response and survival. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine the potential of the predictive and prognostic factors. RESULTS: All 195 patients harbored activating EGFR mutations: the most common concomitant mutations were TP53 (134/195, 68.7%), CTNNB1 (20/195, 10.3%), and RB1 (16/195, 8.2%). The genetic profiles between patient subgroups administered first-line (132, 67.7%) or later-line (63, 32.3%) treatments did not significantly differ. The median progression-free survival in patients with mutations in exon 4 or 7 of TP53, other TP53 mutations, and wild-type TP53 were 9.4, 11.0, and 14.5 months (P = .009), respectively. Overall survival times were 15.8, 20.0, and 26.1 months (P = .004), respectively. Mutations in exon 4 or 7 of TP53 served as independent prognostic factors for progression-free (P = .001) and overall survival (P = .004) in patients. CONCLUSION: Mutations in exon 4 and/or 7 in TP53 are promising predictive and prognostic indicators in EGFR-mutated NSCLC.

17.
J Clin Oncol ; 39(7): 713-722, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332190

RESUMO

PURPOSE: ADJUVANT-CTONG1104 (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01405079), a randomized phase III trial, showed that adjuvant gefitinib treatment significantly improved disease-free survival (DFS) versus vinorelbine plus cisplatin (VP) in patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation-positive resected stage II-IIIA (N1-N2) non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here, we report the final overall survival (OS) results. METHODS: From September 2011 to April 2014, 222 patients from 27 sites were randomly assigned 1:1 to adjuvant gefitinib (n = 111) or VP (n = 111). Patients with resected stage II-IIIA (N1-N2) NSCLC and EGFR-activating mutation were enrolled, receiving gefitinib for 24 months or VP every 3 weeks for four cycles. The primary end point was DFS (intention-to-treat [ITT] population). Secondary end points included OS, 3-, 5-year (y) DFS rates, and 5-year OS rate. Post hoc analysis was conducted for subsequent therapy data. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 80.0 months. Median OS (ITT) was 75.5 and 62.8 months with gefitinib and VP, respectively (hazard ratio [HR], 0.92; 95% CI, 0.62 to 1.36; P = .674); respective 5-year OS rates were 53.2% and 51.2% (P = .784). Subsequent therapy was administered upon progression in 68.4% and 73.6% of patients receiving gefitinib and VP, respectively. Subsequent targeted therapy contributed most to OS (HR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.14 to 0.38) compared with no subsequent therapy. Updated 3y DFS rates were 39.6% and 32. 5% with gefitinib and VP (P = .316) and 5y DFS rates were 22. 6% and 23.2% (P = .928), respectively. CONCLUSION: Adjuvant therapy with gefitinib in patients with early-stage NSCLC and EGFR mutation demonstrated improved DFS over standard of care chemotherapy. Although this DFS advantage did not translate to a significant OS difference, OS with adjuvant gefitinib was one of the longest observed in this patient group compared with historic data.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Gefitinibe/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Mutação , Vinorelbina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , China , Cisplatino/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Receptores ErbB/genética , Feminino , Gefitinibe/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Fatores de Tempo , Vinorelbina/efeitos adversos
18.
Front Oncol ; 10: 596937, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33363027

RESUMO

Background: Echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4) is the canonical anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion partner in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and ALK-positive patients showed promising responses to ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). However, studies that comprehensively investigate ALK TKI treatment in patients with different ALK fusion patterns are still lacking. Methods: Ninety-eight ALK-positive patients with advanced NSCLC were retrospectively studied for their response to crizotinib and subsequent treatments. Comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP) was conducted to divide patients into different groups based on their ALK fusion patterns. Non-canonical ALK fusions were validated using RNA-sequencing. Results: 54.1% of patients had pure canonical EML4-ALK fusions, 19.4% carried only non-canonical ALK fusions, and 26.5% harbored complex ALK fusions with coexisting canonical and non-canonical ALK fusions. The objective response rate and median progression-free survival to crizotinib treatment tended to be better in the complex ALK fusion group. Notably, patients with complex ALK fusions had significantly improved overall survival after crizotinib treatment (p = 0.012), especially when compared with the pure canonical EML4-ALK fusion group (p = 0.010). The complex ALK fusion group also tended to respond better to next-generation ALK TKIs, which were used as later-line therapies. Most identified non-canonical ALK fusions were likely to be expressed in tumors, and some of them formed canonical EML4-ALK transcripts during mRNA maturation. Conclusion: Our results suggest NSCLC patients with complex ALK fusions could potentially have better treatment outcomes to ALK TKIs therapy. Also, diagnosis using CGP is of great value to identify novel ALK fusions and predict prognosis.

19.
J Thorac Dis ; 12(10): 5822-5832, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33209414

RESUMO

Background: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) exon 20 insertion (EGFR ex20ins) is a common mutation in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients with EGFR ex20ins generally respond poor to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs). EGFR ex20ins are often co-occurring with EGFR amplification. However, the impact of EGFR amplification on the survival of patients with EGFR ex20ins mutations has not been determined. Methods: This is an observational longitudinal cohort study. A prospectively managed database included consecutive treatment-naïve adult patients with advanced NSCLC and EGFR ex20ins confirmed by next-generation sequencing (NGS) at Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital between November 2017 and February 2019. The participants were enrolled from the database and extracted their clinical characteristics, treatment and clinical outcomes. NGS was used to establish whether EGFR amplification was present in tumor tissue. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were compared between EGFR amplification and non-EGFR amplification groups using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. Subgroup analyses were performed based on the treatment used (EGFR-TKI or chemotherapy). Results: Fifteen different EGFR ex20ins mutation subtypes were identified in the 39 patients included in the analysis, and the most common subtypes were p.A767_D770dup (25.6%), p.S768_D770dup (23.1%) and p.N771_H773dup (10.3%). Among 31 patients with EGFR ex20ins mutations and NGS data for tumor tissue, EGFR amplification was identified in 12 patients (38.7%) and there were no significant differences in clinical characteristics. Among 26 patients, there were no significant differences between the EGFR amplification (n=11) and non-EGFR amplification (n=15) groups in median OS (715 vs. 452 days, P=0.912). Among 20 patients administered chemotherapy, there were no significant differences between the EGFR amplification and non-EGFR amplification groups in median PFS (206 vs. 112 days, P=0.425). Among 24 patients administered an EGFR-TKI, median PFS was longer in the non-EGFR amplification group than in the EGFR amplification group (110 vs. 31 days, P=0.030). Conclusions: There is a tendency that EGFR amplification might be a poor predictor in EGFR ex20ins-positive NSCLC patients treated with EGFR-TKIs.

20.
Lung Cancer ; 150: 97-106, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126092

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This single-center retrospective cohort study sought to investigate the impact of rebiopsy analysis after osimertinib progression in improving the survival outcomes. METHODS: Eighty-nine patients with EGFR T790M-positive advanced NSCLC who received second- or further-line osimertinib between January 2017 and July 2019 were included in this study. The co-primary study endpoints were post-progression progression-free survival (pPFS), defined as the time from osimertinib progression until progression from further-line treatment, and post-progression overall survival (pOS), defined as the time from osimertinib progression until death or the last follow-up date. RESULTS: Pairwise analysis revealed that receiving targeted therapy as further-line treatment after osimertinib progression did not statistically improve the pPFS (P = 0.285) or the pOS (P = 0.903) compared to chemotherapy. However, patients who submitted rebiopsy samples at osimertinib progression for histological and molecular analyses, particularly those who had actionable markers and received highly matched therapy, had significantly longer pPFS and pOS as compared to those who received low-level matched therapy (pPFS = 10.0 m vs. 4.1 m, P = 0.005; pOS = 19.4 m vs. 10.0 m, P = 0.023), unmatched therapy (pPFS = 10.0 m vs. 4.7 m, P = 0.009; pOS = 19.4 m vs. 7.0 m, P = 0.001), and those without rebiopsy data (Rebiopsy vs Non-rebiopsy; pPFS = 6.1 m vs. 3.3 m, P = 0.014; pOS = 11.7 m vs. 6.8 m, P = 0.011). CONCLUSION: Our real-world cohort study demonstrates that integrated histological and molecular analyses of rebiopsy specimens after osimertinib progression could provide more opportunities for individualized treatments to improve the post-progression survival of patients with advanced NSCLC. Our findings provide clinical evidence that supports the inclusion of NGS-based analysis of rebiopsy specimens as standard-of-care after osimertinib progression and warrants further prospective evaluation.


Assuntos
Receptores ErbB , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Acrilamidas , Compostos de Anilina , Estudos de Coortes , Receptores ErbB/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Mutação , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos
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