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1.
Food Chem ; 303: 125394, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473455

RESUMO

A simple and effective vesicle based ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) method was developed for extraction of active compounds in functional food. The target analytes were determined by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detector. Surfactant vesicle was adopted as extraction solvent. Different operating conditions including the type and concentration of vesicle, extraction time and solid to liquid ratio were investigated by single-factor experiments and response surface methodology. Optimized experimental conditions were 1% (w/v) of DTAB/SDS vesicle, 20 min of extraction time and 160 mg/mL of solid to liquid ratio. The proposed method provided good linearity in the linear range of 10-1000 µg/mL with regression coefficients larger than 0.999, low limits of detection of 27.64-55.67 ng/mL, good precision with relative standard deviations below 0.35%, and satisfactory recoveries of 83.84-90.92% for tested saponins. Consequently, the proposed vesicle based UAE method was well suited for the extraction of saponins in Panax notoginseng.


Assuntos
Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Panax notoginseng/química , Saponinas/isolamento & purificação , Ultrassom , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Saponinas/análise
2.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 20(6): 3496-3503, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748043

RESUMO

We present here a facile synthesis of SO2-4/ZrO2 solid superacid by impregnating the biscuit-like mesoporous ZrO2 nanoparticles prepared by an emulsion combustion method directly into H2SO4 solution. The obtained solid acid catalyst was characterized by means of X-ray powder diffraction, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetry, Brunner-Emmet-Teller measurement, and infrared analysis. Its catalytic performance was examined by alkylation of o-xylene with styrene. The optimal catalytic formulation, obtained from the investigation of experimental conditions, was determined to be 5 wt% of catalyst loading with initial o-xylene/styrene molar ratio of 5 under reaction temperature at 120 °C for 120 min, achieving a 100% styrene conversion and a 93.3% 1-phenyl-1-xylyl ethane selectivity. The biscuit-like SO2-4/ZrO2 solid acid exhibited high catalytic activity and selectivity and excellent structural stability. This synthetic strategy for preparing the mesoporous SO2-4 promoted ZrO2 solid superacid catalyst is generalized and expected to be applied to other metal oxides.

3.
Gene ; 722: 144058, 2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494240

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are attractive biological agents in regenerative medicine. To optimize cell therapies, it is necessary to determine the most effective delivery method for MSCs. Therefore, we evaluated the biological properties of MSCs after exposure to various temperatures to define optimal storage conditions prior to therapeutic delivery of MSCs. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Adherent and non-adherent MSCs were incubated at multiple temperatures (i.e., 4, 23 and 37 °C) in Lactated Ringers (LR) solution lacking essential cell growth ingredients, or in culture media which is optimized for cell growth. Cells were assessed either after the temperature changes (4 h) or after recovery (24 h). Metabolic activity of MSCs, cell number and expression of representative mRNA biomarkers were evaluated to assess the biological effects of temperature. We monitored changes in mRNAs expression related to cytoprotective- or stress-related responses (e.g., FOS, JUN, ATF1, ATF4, EGR1, EGR2, MYC), proliferation (e.g., HIST2H4, CCNB2), and extracellular matrix production (ECM; e.g., COL3A1, COL1A1) by quantitative real time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis. RESULTS: Our study demonstrates that storing MSCs in Lactated Ringers (LR) solution for 4 h decreases cell number and metabolic activity. The number of viable MSCs decreased significantly when cultured at physiological temperature (37 °C) and severe hypothermia (4 °C), while cells grown at ambient temperature (23 °C) exhibited the least detrimental effects. There were no appreciable biological differences in mRNA markers for proliferation or ECM deposition at any of the temperatures. However, biomarkers related to cytoprotective- or stress-responses were selectively elevated depending on temperature or media type (i.e., LR versus standard media). CONCLUSION: The biological impact of nutrient-free media and temperature changes after 4 h exposure persists after a 24 h recovery period. Hence, storage temperature and media conditions should be optimized to improve effective dosing of MSCs.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Temperatura Baixa , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Sobrevivência Celular , Meios de Cultura , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Nutrientes , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Temperatura Ambiente
4.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783712

RESUMO

Sequence-dependent interactions between DNA and single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are shown to provide resolution for the atomic-structure-based sorting of DNA-wrapped SWCNTs. Previous studies have demonstrated that aqueous two-phase (ATP) systems are very effective for sorting DNA-wrapped SWCNTs (DNA-SWCNTs). However, most separations have been carried out with a polyethylene glycol (PEG)/polyacrylamide (PAM) ATP system, which shows severe interfacial trapping for many DNA-SWCNT dispersions, resulting in significant material loss and limiting multi-stage extraction. Here, we report a study of several new ATP systems for sorting DNA-SWCNTs. We have developed a convenient method to explore these systems without knowledge of the corresponding phase diagram. We further show that molecular weight of polymer strongly affects the partition behavior and separation results for DNA-SWCNTs in PEG/dextran (DX) ATP systems. This leads to the identification of PEG1.5kDa/DX250kDa ATP system as an effective vehicle for the chirality separation of DNA-SWCNTs. Additionally, this ATP system exhibits greatly reduced interfacial trapping, enabling for the first time continuous multi-step sorting of four species of SWCNTs from a single dispersion. Enhanced stability of DNA-SWCNTs in the PEG1.5kDa/DX250kDa ATP system also allows us to investigate pH dependent sorting of SWCNTs wrapped by C-rich sequences. Our observations suggest that hydrogen bonding may form between the DNA bases at lower pH, enabling a more ordered wrapping structure on the SWCNTs and improvement in sorting (11,0). Together, these findings reveal that the new ATP system is suitable for searching DNA sequences leading towards more complete resolution of DNA-SWCNTs. A new concept of "resolving sequences", evolved from the old notion of "recognition sequences", is proposed to describe a broader range of behaviors of DNA/SWCNT interactions and sorting.

5.
Sci Total Environ ; : 135693, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791762

RESUMO

We investigated the occurrence and distribution of 24 selected corticosteroids (CSs) in the surface water of the Zhujiang River (ZR) system in Guangzhou, a highly urbanized river system receiving both treated and untreated municipal wastewater effluents. Twenty-two and sixteen CSs were detected in the tributaries and the main stream of the ZR system, and their concentrations ranged from less than the method quantification limit (fluticasone propionate) to 94 ng/L (clobetasone butyrate) and from 0.24 ng/L (cortisol) to 7.2 ng/L (clobetasone butyrate), respectively. We observed higher total CSs (∑CSs) concentrations in the tributaries (11-396 ng/L) relative to the main stream (5.5-33 ng/L) due to their proximity to densely populated residential areas. ∑CSs concentrations in the dry season were generally higher than those in the wet season due to low dilution from decreased river discharge. Principal component analysis and multiple linear regression analysis identified untreated domestic sewage to be the dominant source of CSs (t2, contribution rate: 42.7%) in the urban rivers. Additional source contributions were from naturally attenuated treated and/or raw sewage (t1, 21.5%) and effluents from wastewater treatment plants (t3, 26.7%). CSs contribution was dominated by t2 in the dry season, and the contributions from t1, t2, and t3 showed no significant difference in the wet season. Risk assessment inferred that the ZR system is at medium to high ecological risk from CSs and is therefore a potential threat to the health of aquatic ecosystems. To prevent CSs pollution, our results demonstrate the need to develop effective control strategies to minimize the discharge of untreated waste to nearby rivers and to improve the capacity of wastewater treatment plants in Guangzhou. Further, we demonstrate that the concentrations of cortisone and fludrocortisone acetate are effective chemical indicators to estimate the level of natural and synthetic CSs contamination in urban rivers.

6.
Environ Microbiol ; 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797523

RESUMO

Rice false smut has emerged as a serious grain disease in rice production worldwide. The disease is characterized by the transformation of individual rice florets into false smut balls, which is caused by the fungal pathogen Ustilaginoidea virens. To date, little is known about the host factors required for false smut ball formation by U. virens. In this study, we identified histological determinants for the formation of false smut balls by inoculating U. virens into rice floral mutants defective with respect to individual floral parts. The results showed that U. virens could form mature false smut balls in rice floral mutants with defective pistils, but failed to develop false smut balls in the superwoman mutant lacking stamens, identifying that U. virens requires rice stamens to complete its infection cycle. Comparative transcriptome analysis indicated a list of candidate host genes that may facilitate nutrient acquisition by U. virens from the rice stamens, such as SWEET11, SWEET14 and SUT5, and genes involved in the biosynthesis of trehalose and raffinose family sugars. These data pinpoint rice stamens as the key target organ of U. virens infection, and provide a valuable starting point for dissecting the molecular mechanism of false smut ball formation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given changes in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) incidence and the ethno-demographic landscape, we analyzed recent HCC incidence patterns and trends in California. METHODS: Using 47,992 primary, invasive HCC cases diagnosed 1988-2014 from the California Cancer Registry, we calculated age-adjusted incidence rates (IRs), annual percent change (APC), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), by sex, race/ethnicity, and nativity among Hispanics and Asian ethnic groups. RESULTS: Compared to non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs), all other racial/ethnic groups had higher HCC incidence. Vietnamese had the highest IRs (males: 47.4, 95% CI = 45.3 to 49.5, females: 14.1, 95% CI = 13.0 to 15.3). Foreign-born Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese had higher incidence than U.S.-born. The reverse was observed for Hispanic males while no differences by nativity was seen for Hispanic females. IRs increased most for NHWs. Among Asians, male and female Filipinos and Japanese males experienced rate increases, while male and female Koreans and Chinese males experienced rate decreases. U.S.-born male and female Hispanics and Japanese had higher APCs than foreign-born, as did Filipino males, while Chinese males had a reverse pattern. Annual increases in HCC incidence slowed down in recent years for U.S.-born Hispanic males and females and stabilized among male NHWs and non-Hispanic Blacks. For some Asian groups, early time periods exhibited increasing/stable APCs while later time periods showed decreasing APCs. CONCLUSIONS: We found significant racial/ethnic and nativity differences in HCC IRs and trends. IMPACT: With changing trends, closer surveillance of HCC incidence by disaggregated race/ethnicity and nativity is warranted among Hispanics and Asians.

8.
Electrophoresis ; 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674686

RESUMO

A novel micro matrix solid phase dispersion method was successfully used for the extraction of quaternary alkaloids in Phellodendri chinensis cortex. The elution of target compounds was accomplished with sodium hexanesulfonate as the eluent solvent. A neutral ion pair was formed between ion-pairing reagent and positively charged alkaloids in this process, which was beneficial for selectively extraction of polar alkaloids. Several parameters were optimized and the optimal conditions were listed as follows: silica gel as the sorbent, silica to sample mass ratio of 1:1, the grinding time of 1 min. The exhaustive elution of targets was achieved by 200 µL methanol/water (9:1) containing 150 mM sodium hexane sulfonate at pH 4.5. The method validation covered linearity, recovery, precision of intraday and interday, limits of detection, limits of quantitation, and repeatability. This established method was rapid, simple, environmentally friendly, and highly sensitive.

9.
Ann Transplant ; 24: 594-604, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712547

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Tacrolimus is a widely used immunosuppressant in renal transplant recipients. It was demonstrated in rats and healthy volunteers that Wuzhi capsules could inhibit metabolism and maintain blood concentration of tacrolimus. However, there are no clinical studies of Wuzhi capsules in renal transplant recipients. This research aimed to assess the effect of Wuzhi capsules on the blood concentration of tacrolimus in renal transplant recipients. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 158 Chinese renal transplant recipients receiving tacrolimus with or without Wuzhi capsules were included in this retrospective study. The cohort study included 126 recipients, with 86 recipients receiving Wuzhi capsules (WZCs) and the other 40 recipients not receiving WZCs. Another 32 recipients were involved in a self-control study. RESULTS Dose- and body weight-adjusted trough concentrations (C0/D/W) of tacrolimus in the WZC group were found to be significantly higher than that in the non-WZC group (P<0.05). The improvement of C0/D/W by administration of Wuzhi capsules was more significant in CYP3A5 expressers than in non-expressers following subgroup analysis. Furthermore, the WZC group had a remarkably higher proportion of subjects who reached target tacrolimus concentration than in the non-WZC group, both in CYP3A5 expressers (P=0.01) and non-expressers (P<0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis and self-control analysis confirmed the positive impact of Wuzhi capsules on tacrolimus concentration (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS Wuzhi capsules can increase tacrolimus trough concentration without adverse effects on allograft function, especially in CYP3A5 expressers. Efficient and convenient immunosuppressive effects on renal transplant recipients can be achieved by treatment including administration of Wuzhi capsules.

10.
Chemistry ; 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774194

RESUMO

Graphene as a suitable electrode has been extensively used for electrochemical double-layer capacitors based on its excellent properties including high electrical conductivity and large specific surface area. However, one of the drawbacks is the unavoidable stacking tendency between the graphene nanosheets, resulting in limited electrochemically specific surface area. Herein, the novel graphene nanosheets supported by hollow nitrogen-doped carbon frameworks derived from ZIF-8 (i.e. GPNC) were fabricated to boost its capacitance performance via a simple polyethyleneimine (PEI)-assisted pyrolysis strategy. Benefiting from the unique scaffold/support role of hollow nitrogen-doped carbon frameworks within the graphene interlayer, the GPNC with a large specific surface area along with ample micropore/mesopore channels and high nitrogen contents is capable of facilitating electron and electrolyte ion migration kinetics and enhancing intrinsic electrochemical activity. Thus, the GPNC exhibits the highest charge storage of 218 F g -1 and superior rate capability of 74% when the current density increased from 0.5 A g -1 to 20 A g -1 in comparison to pristine graphene and common ZIF-derived carbon/graphene electrodes. The assembled GPNC//GPNC two-electrode system further delivers a maximum power of 9080 W kg -1 with outstanding electrochemical retention of 84% over 10000 cycles.

11.
Chemosphere ; 243: 125166, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756653

RESUMO

Microorganisms and microbial products can be highly efficient in uptaking soluble and particulate forms of heavy metals, particularly from solutions. In this study, the removal efficiency, oxidative damage, antioxidant system, and the possible removal mechanisms were investigated in Rhodobacter (R.) sphaeroides SC01 under mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) stress. The results showed that SC01 had the highest removal rates (98%) of Pb among three heavy metals. Compared with Hg and Cd stress, Pb stress resulted in a lower levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death. In contrast, the activities of four antioxidant enzymes in SC01 under Pb stress was higher than that of Hg and Cd stress. Furthermore, the analysis from fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated that complexation of Pb with hydroxyl, amid and phosphate groups was found in SC01 under Pb stress. In addition, X-ray diffraction analysis showed that precipitate of lead phosphate hydroxide was produced on the cell surface in SC01 exposed to Pb stress. Therefore, these results suggested that SC01 had good Pb removal ability by biosorption and precipitation and will be potentially useful for removal of Pb in industrial effluents.

12.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(11): 825, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672961

RESUMO

C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 7 (CXCR7), which mediates the immune response in the brain, was recently reported to regulate neurological functions. However, the role of CXCR7 in epilepsy remains unclear. Here, we found that CXCR7 was upregulated in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) of mice subjected to kainic acid (KA)-induced epilepsy and in the brain tissues of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Silencing CXCR7 in the hippocampal DG region exerted an antiepileptic effect on the KA-induced mouse model of epilepsy, whereas CXCR7 overexpression produced a seizure-aggravating effect. Mechanistically, CXCR7 selectively regulated N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-mediated synaptic neurotransmission in hippocampal dentate granule cells by modulating the cell membrane expression of the NMDAR subunit2A, which requires the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). Thus, CXCR7 may regulate epileptic seizures and represents a novel target for antiepileptic treatments.

13.
Food Funct ; 10(11): 7378-7386, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651924

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown that 7S protein is the active ingredient responsible for the plasma cholesterol-lowering activity of soybean. It is hypothesized that isoflavones in soybean could enhance the blood cholesterol-lowering activity of 7S protein. Forty-eight hamsters were divided into six groups and fed a non-cholesterol diet or one of the five high-cholesterol diets containing 12.1% 7S protein with 0-15.62 mg g-1 isoflavones. The results showed that addition of isoflavones in diets dose-dependently enhanced the plasma total cholesterol-lowering activity of 7S protein. Addition of isoflavones in 7S protein-based diets significantly reduced hepatic cholesterol accumulation by 12.6-26.1%, compared with the high cholesterol control diet. Isoflavones could also facilitate excretion of neutral sterols in a dose-dependent manner. Supplementation of isoflavones in diets favourably modulated mRNA expression and the protein mass of HMG-CoA reductase. It was concluded that the enhancing effect of isoflavones on the blood cholesterol-lowering activity of 7S protein was mediated by inhibiting the cholesterol absorption and de novo cholesterol synthesis in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(40): e17118, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an intermediate stage between the cognitive changes of normal aging and early dementia. Tai Chi (TC) may be particularly beneficial to patients with MCI due to its whole-body coordination characteristics. This systematic review protocol aims to outline the methods that will be used to assess the comparative effectiveness and safety of TC for MCI through a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: A systematic review will identify and evaluate randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that examined the effects and safety of TC compared to a placebo, conventional treatment, and no treatment on cognitive function in individuals with MCI. Studies from databases of MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, Global Health, Cochrane Library, and Scopus from January 1990 to March 2019 reported in English will be searched. Two independent reviewers will screen the studies for inclusion with the eligibility criteria and extract data. Risk of bias of individual studies will be assessed in line with Cochrane risk of bias tool. The overall quality of cumulative evidence will be assessed using selected Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluations criteria. Statistics will be used for heterogeneity assessment, sensitivity analysis, data synthesis, generating funnel plots, and subgroup analysis. Meta-analysis will be performed, if sufficiently homogeneous studies are found. A narrative synthesis will be conducted, grouping studies by exposure and outcome definitions, and describing any differences by subgroups. RESULTS: This study will provide practical and targeted evidence in investigating the impact of TC exercise for individuals with MCI. CONCLUSION: The findings of our study will provide updated evidence to determine whether TC is an effective intervention to patients with MCI. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: International Prospective Register for Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) number CRD42019125104.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/terapia , Tai Ji/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa
15.
Cells ; 8(10)2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623282

RESUMO

: Psychological stress (PS) disturbs the reproductive endocrine system and promotes male infertility, but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms have not been extensively studied. This study aimed to uncover the mechanisms of PS-induced male reproductive related abnormalities subjected to a 'terrified sound' exposure. Male rats subjected to PS displayed slow growth, decreased sperm quality, abnormal levels of the reproductive endocrine hormones, decreased expression of the reproductive-related proteins androgen-binding protein (ABP) and bromodomain-containing protein (BRDT), increased apoptosis in the testis, and accompanied by elevated levels of ß-endorphin (ß-EP). These effects were reversed by naloxone. Furthermore, PS-induced ß-EP could promote mu opioid receptor (MOR) activation and ensure intracellular p38 MAPK phosphorylation and then lead to Leydig cells (LCs) apoptosis. The current result showed that ß-EP was a key factor to PS-induced male infertility.

16.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 560: 69-76, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639566

RESUMO

Design and fabrication of the nitrogen-doped carbon materials with hierarchically porous structure is crucial for improving the electrochemical performance of supercapacitors. In this study, facile fabrication of the nitrogen-doped hierarchical carbon nanosheets (i.e. HGPC-A) is demonstrated via one-step carbonization and activation strategy using the polyvinyl alcohol/polyaniline (PVA/PANI) hydrogels as precursors in the presence of graphene oxide (GO). Benefiting from the covalent bonding assembly between GO and PVA/PANI polymers, the as-obtained HGPC-A with the hierarchical and interconnected nanosheet structure exhibits the high specific surface area and abundant macro-/meso-/micropore channels. It is also found that the introduction of the graphene has a significant effect on increasing the pyridinic-N ratio and enhancing the structural stability of HGPC-A in comparison to the pristine PVA/PANI hydrogel-derived carbon materials (HPC-A). Remarkably, these fascinating structure features of the HGPC-A enable the high charge storage performance as the electrode for supercapacitor, highlighted by a high specific capacitance of 311 F g-1 with superior rate capability of 64.3% when the current density increased from 0.5 A g-1 to 20 A g-1. Moreover, the integrated symmetric supercapacitor using the HGPC-A electrodes displays superb cycling durability of 88.5% over 10,000 cycles and high charge storage capacity of 7.0 Wh kg-1.

17.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 15141, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641189

RESUMO

East Asia is as a principal hotspot for emerging zoonotic infections. Understanding the likely pathways for their emergence and spread requires knowledge on human-human and human-animal contacts, but such studies are rare. We used self-completed and interviewer-completed contact diaries to quantify patterns of these contacts for 965 individuals in 2017/2018 in a high-income densely-populated area of China, Shanghai City. Interviewer-completed diaries recorded more social contacts (19.3 vs. 18.0) and longer social contact duration (35.0 vs. 29.1 hours) than self-reporting. Strong age-assortativity was observed in all age groups especially among young participants (aged 7-20) and middle aged participants (25-55 years). 17.7% of participants reported touching animals (15.3% (pets), 0.0% (poultry) and 0.1% (livestock)). Human-human contact was very frequent but contact with animals (especially poultry) was rare although associated with frequent human-human contact. Hence, this densely populated area is more likely to act as an accelerator for human-human spread but less likely to be at the source of a zoonosis outbreak. We also propose that telephone interview at the end of reporting day is a potential improvement of the design of future contact surveys.

18.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2019 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607752

RESUMO

T cell metabolic activation plays a crucial role in inflammation of atherosclerosis. Shikonin (SKN), a natural naphthoquinone with anti-inflammatory activity, has shown to exert cardioprotective effects, but the effect of SKN on atherosclerosis is unclear. In addition, SKN was found to inhibit glycolysis via targeting pyruvate kinase muscle isozyme 2 (PKM2). In the present study, we investigated the effects of SKN on hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy)-accelerated atherosclerosis and T cell inflammatory activation in ApoE-/- mice and the metabolic mechanisms in this process. Drinking water supplemented with Hcy (1.8 g/L) was administered to ApoE-/- mice for 2 weeks and the mice were injected with SKN (1.2 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle every 3 days. We showed that SKN treatment markedly attenuated HHcy-accelerated atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- mice and significantly decreased inflammatory activated CD4+ T cells and proinflammatory macrophages in plaques. In splenic CD4+ T cells isolated from HHcy-ApoE-/- mice, SKN treatment significantly inhibited HHcy-stimulated PKM2 activity, interferon-γ secretion and the capacity of these T cells to promote macrophage proinflammatory polarization. SKN treatment significantly inhibited HHcy-stimulated CD4+ T cell glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation. Metabolic profiling analysis of CD4+ T cells revealed that Hcy administration significantly increased various glucose metabolites as well as lipids and acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1, which were reversed by SKN treatment. In conclusion, our results suggest that SKN is effective to ameliorate atherosclerosis in HHcy-ApoE-/- mice and this is at least partly associated with the inhibition of SKN on CD4+ T cell inflammatory activation via PKM2-dependent metabolic suppression.

19.
J Sep Sci ; 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617304

RESUMO

The quantification of three alkaloids is important because quantitative study is a means of assessing the reliability of the experimental method, and three alkaloids of peimine, peiminine, and peimisine are main active ingredients in Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2015. An effective method based on the matrix solid-phase dispersion microextraction was developed for the extraction of alkaloid compounds in Fritillariae Thunbergii Bulbus. Target analytes were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The optimized experimental condition was that 50 mg Fritillariae Thunbergii Bulbus was blended homogeneously with 10 mg citric acid for 5 min. Two hundred microliters of water acidized by 1 mol/L hydrochloric acid (pH = 4.5) was selected to elute tested alkaloids. The results demonstrated that the investigated method had low limits of detection (1.32-1.59 ng/mL), good recoveries (86.63-98.12%), and reproducibility (relative standard deviations of peak areas < 0.87%). The proposed matrix solid-phase dispersion microextraction coupled with capillary electrophoresis combined with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was successfully applied for the extraction of alkaloids in plants.

20.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 385: 114786, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655076

RESUMO

The aim of this research was to detect potential serum biomarkers of melamine diet-induced bladder stones in C57BL/6 mice. Magnetic bead-based weak cationexchange chromatography (MB-WCX) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) were employed to detect serum biomarkers in 10 mice fed a melamine diet and 10 control mice. Seventeen peaks (fold change>1.5) with a mass to charge (m/z) value of 1000-10,000 Da were detected in the two groups. Among the significant peaks, five were upregulated and the other 12 were downregulated in the model group. Among the upregulated peaks, 2954.49 and 1710.49 were found to correspond to the peptide regions of NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 8(Ndufα8) and basigin, respectively, by liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization and tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry(LC-ESI-MS/MS). Western blot analysis was used to detect the expression of Ndufα8 and basigin in another 10 model mice and 10 control mice. The western blot results confirmed the LC-ESI-MS/MS data. The expression of serum basigin and Ndufα8 was partly dependent the concentration of melamine, but no time dependence. In conclusion, Ndufα8 and basigin may be potential serum biomarkers for the detection of melamine diet-induced bladder stones in C57BL/6 mice.

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