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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(7): e24859, 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607860

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of electroacupuncture in the treatment of spasticity after stroke. METHODS: We will electronically search PubMed, Medline, Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, Chinese Scientific Journal Database, and Wan-Fang Database from the date of creation to November 2020. In addition, we will manually retrieve other resources including the reference lists of identified publications, conference articles, and gray literature. The clinical randomized controlled trials or quasi-randomized controlled trials related to electroacupuncture in the treatment of spasticity after stroke will be included in the study. The language is limited to Chinese and English. Research selection, data extraction, and research quality assessment will be independently completed by 2 researchers. Data were synthesized by using a fixed effect model or random effect model depend on the heterogeneity test. The modified Ashworth scale was the primary outcomes. Simplified Fugl-Meyer assessment scale (FMA), Stroke specific quality of life scale (SS-QOL) and adverse events will also be assessed as secondary outcomes. RevMan V.5.3 statistical software will be used for meta-analysis. If it is not appropriate for a meta- analysis, then a descriptive analysis will be conducted. Data synthesis will use the risk ratio and the standardized or weighted average difference of continuous data to represent the results. RESULTS: This study will provide a high-quality synthesis to assess the effectiveness and safety of electroacupuncture in the treatment of spasticity after stroke. CONCLUSION: This systematic review will provide evidence to judge whether electroacupuncture is an effective and safety intervention for patients with spasticity after stroke. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The protocol of the systematic review does not require ethical approval because it does not involve humans. We will publish this article in peer-reviewed journals and presented at relevant conferences. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: CRD42021220300.


Assuntos
Eletroacupuntura/métodos , Espasticidade Muscular/etiologia , Espasticidade Muscular/terapia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , China/epidemiologia , Gerenciamento de Dados , Eletroacupuntura/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Segurança , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; : 113950, 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610713

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Thesium chinense Turcz. has been used to treat mastitis, pulmonitis, tonsillitis, iaryngopharyngitis and upper respiratory tract infections in the indigenous medicine of China for a long history. Presently, several pharmaceutics prepared by this medical herb have been clinically used for the therapy of infectious diseases. AIM OF THE REVIEW: This review aims to comprehensively summarize the current researches on the ethnomedical, phytochemical and pharmacological aspects of T. chinense, and discuss their possible opportunities for the future research. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Extensive database searches, including Web of Science, SciFinder, Google Scholar and China Knowledge Resource Integrated, were performed using keywords such as 'Thesium chinense', 'Bai Rui Cao', and their chemical constituents. In addition, local classic herbal literature on ethnopharmacology and relevant textbooks were consulted to provide a comprehensive survey of this ethnomedicine. RESULTS: Thirty four chemical constituents, including flavonoids, alkaloids, and terpenoids, have been identified from T. chinense. Of which, flavonoids are the predominant and characteristic constituents. The crude extracts, the purified constituents, and commercial available pharmaceutics have displayed diverse in vitro and in vivo pharmacological functions (e.g. anti-inflammation, antimicrobial activity, analgesic effect, hepaprotection), and are particularly useful as a potential therapeutic agent against inflammation-related diseases. CONCLUSIONS: T. chinense is an important ethnomedical medicine and possesses a satisfying effect for treating inflammation, microbial infection, and upper respiratory diseases. It has received plenty of researches on its phytochemical and pharmacological aspects since 1970s. These findings definitely establish the link between chemical composition and pharmacological application, and support the ethnomedical use of T. chinense in the indigenous medicine of China. However, chemical composition of this plant and the molecular mechanisms of purified constituents have not been comprehensively investigated, and thus the trace constituents and the therapeutic targets of bioactive constituents deserve a further exploration. Collectively, the researchers should pay more attention to a better understanding and application of this ethnomedical plant.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33634406

RESUMO

The coal fire in Wuda, Inner Mongolia of China, is one of the most serious coal fires in the world with a history over 50 years and endangers the neighboring downwind urban area. A lack of effective measures to control coal fires in this region can aggravate environmental pollution. In this study, the levels and spatial distributions of acid (pH) and SO42- in dust in the Wuda coalfield and its surrounding areas in Inner Mongolia, North China, were reported to identify the potential acid and SO42- pollution in the local environment with an area of 270 km2. The mean pH and SO42- content was to found to be 7.44 and 5981 µg·g-1, respectively. Through the analysis of the spatial distribution of pH and SO42- concentrations, it was found that most of contaminated areas are mainly distributed in coalfield and its affiliated industrial parks, and the Wuda urban area also suffered from pollution. Based on chemical equilibrium, the surface acid pollution might have resulted in the change of the dust type from the original weakly alkaline CaCO3 type to the CaSO4 type in coalfield and industrial parks. Finally, the pollution assessment revealed that the coalfield and industrial parks are both at heavy pollution levels, and the urban area is mostly moderately polluted, followed by farm and peripheral region with a certain pollution risk. The results indicated that the long-term release of acidic gas from the coal fires and industrial parks can led to significantly elevated acidity and SO42- levels in the dust of the local environment, while coal fires can aggravate surface pollution in industrial parks, but the extent of contamination was also closely related to the terrain and wind direction in the study area.

4.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 23(2): 143-147, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33627208

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical features of children with periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome, a polygenic and multifactorial autoinflammatory disease with unknown pathogenesis. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on the medical data of 13 children with PFAPA syndrome. RESULTS: All 13 children had disease onset within the age of 3 years, with a mean age of onset of (14±10) months. They all had periodic fever, with 8-18 attacks each year. The mean interictal period of fever was (30±5) days. Pharyngitis, cervical adenitis, and aphthous stomatitis were the three cardinal symptoms, with incidence rates of 100% (13/13), 85% (11/13), and 38% (5/13) respectively. There were increases in white blood cells, C-reactive protein, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate during fever. Of all the 13 children, 6 underwent whole exome sequencing and 7 underwent panel gene detection for autoinflammatory disease, and the results showed single heterozygous mutations in the MEFV gene in 6 children (46%). Recurrent fever in all children gradually returned to normal without antibiotics. Ten children were treated with a single dose of glucocorticoids, and fever was relieved after treatment. Of all the children, 4 were treated with cimetidine, among whom 2 had response; 4 children were treated with colchicine, among whom 2 had response and 2 were withdrawn from the drug due to adverse reactions. Tonsillectomy was performed for 2 children, among whom 1 was followed up for 3 years without recurrence and 1 still had recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: For children with unexplained periodic fever with early onset accompanied by pharyngitis, cervical adenitis, aphthous stomatitis, elevated inflammatory indices, and good response to glucocorticoids, PFAPA syndrome should be considered. This disorder has good prognosis, and early diagnosis can avoid the long-term repeated use of antibiotics.

5.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244394, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434215

RESUMO

With the recent research development, the importance of microRNAs (miRNAs) in renal clear cell carcinoma (CCRCC) has become widely known. The purpose of this study is to screen out the potential biomarkers of renal clear cell carcinoma (CCRCC) by microarray analysis. The miRNA chip (GSE16441) and mRNA chip (GSE66270) related to CCRCC were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. After data filtering and pretreating, R platform and a series of analysis tools (funrich3.1.3, string, Cytoscape_ 3.2.1, David, etc.) were used to analyze chip data and identify the specific and highly sensitive biomarkers. Finally, by constructing the miRNA -mRNA interaction network, it was determined that five miRNAs (hsa-mir-199a-5p, hsa-mir-199b-5p, hsa-mir-532-3p and hsa-mir-429) and two key genes (ETS1 and hapln1) are significantly related to the overall survival rate of patients.

6.
Eur J Med Chem ; 209: 112940, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33328099

RESUMO

ALDH1A1, one important member of 19 ALDHs, can metabolize reactive aldehydes to their corresponding carboxylic acid derivatives and play important physiological and toxicological roles in many areas, including CNS, metabolic disorders, and cancers. Overexpression of ALDH1A1 correlates with poor prognosis and tumor aggressiveness, is associated with drug resistance in traditional chemotherapy for cancer treatment and contributes to obesity, diabetes, and inflammation. So, inhibition of ALDH1A1 may offer new therapeutic options for patients with cancer, obesity, diabetes, and inflammation. Up to now, many ALDH1A1 inhibitors with different scaffolds have been identified and developed as useful chemical tools for better understanding of the functions of ALDH1A1 in physiologic and pathophysiologic conditions. In this review, the advances in the discovery and development of selective ALDH1A1 inhibitors are summarized, and opportunities and challenges associated with this field are also discussed.

7.
Food Chem ; 338: 128116, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33092008

RESUMO

In this study, we investigated the cytoprotective effects of dihydromyricetin (DHM) against deoxynivalenol (DON)-induced toxicity and accompanied metabolic pathway changes in porcine jejunum epithelial cells (IPEC-J2). The cells were incubated in 250 ng/ml DON cotreated with 40 µM DHM, followed by toxicity analysis, oxidative stress reaction analysis, inflammatory response analysis and metabolomic analysis. The results showed that DHM significantly increased the cell viability (P < 0.01), the intracellular GSH level (P < 0.01) and decreased the intracellular ROS level (P < 0.01), the secretion of TNF-α, IL-8 (P < 0.01) and the apoptotic cell percentages (P < 0.01) in IPEC-J2 cells compared to that in the DON group. Metabolomic analysis revealed that DHM recovered the disorder of metabolic pathways such as glutamate metabolism, arachidonic metabolism and histidine metabolism caused by DON. In summary, DHM alleviated cell injury induced by DON and it is possibly through its antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory activity or ability to regulate metabolic pathways.


Assuntos
Citoproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonóis/farmacologia , Tricotecenos/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Suínos
8.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res ; : 118919, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279608

RESUMO

Biosensors utilizing intact live cells can report responses to certain stimuli rapidly and sensitively and have attracted a great deal of attention. The expression pattern of HSPA6, a little studied HSPA family member, has contributed to the development of multifunctional and intelligent whole-cell sensors. Herein, a new pHSPA6-based EGFP fluorescent reporter cell line was designed and developed via a CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knock-in strategy. The fluorescent reporter cell line has a precise EGFP integration site and gene copy number, and no selectable marker genes were introduced during the selection processes. Stimulation experiments with HSPA6-specific stressors indicated that EGFP fluorescent reporter cells could rapidly and effectively convert stress signals into EGFP fluorescent signals. Furthermore, cell proliferation and gene expression pattern analysis showed that the fluorescent reporter cells grew well and that both the integrated EGFP gene and the pHSPA6 gene were expressed rapidly and sensitively in response to stimulation. This study provides a new strategy for the construction of a cell model for HSPA6 expression/interaction and an intelligent live cell sensor, which can potentially be applied to numerous fields, such as those focusing on cellular models of HSPA6 signaling cascades, biomaterials, food security, environmental assessment, and drug screening.

9.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 579241, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33178022

RESUMO

Background: Considering the adverse reactions and side effects of immunosuppressive and cytotoxic drugs for the treatment of Primary Nephrotic Syndrome (PNS) and the extensive exploration of Chinese herbal injections (CHIs), systematic evaluation of the efficacy of different CHIs in the treatment of PNS is a key imperative. In this study, we performed a network meta-analysis to investigate the efficacy of CHIs in the treatment of PNS. Methods: A systematic literature review including studies published from the establishment of each database to May 28, 2020, was conducted in PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Embase, Web of Science, the Chinese Biological Medicine Literature Service System (CBM), the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) database, the Chinese Scientific Journal Database (VIP), and the Wanfang Database (WF).Two evaluators independently screened the literature, extracted data and the Cochrane Reviewer's Handbook 5.1 method was used to evaluate the quality of included studies. The differences in efficacy of different CHIs were compared and ranked using Stata 16.0 software. Surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA) probability values were applied to rank the examined treatments. Clustering analysis was performed to compare the effects of CHIs between two different outcomes. Results: A total of 41 eligible randomized controlled trials involving 2879 patients and nine CHIs were included. Nine CHIs were Xiangdan injection (XDI), Huangqi injection (HQI), Shenkang injection (SKI), Danshen injection (DSI), Yinxingdamo injection (YXI), Dengzhanhuasu injection (DZI), Danhong injection (DHI), Shuxuetong injection (SXI), Chuanxiongqin injection (CXI). The results of the network meta-analysis showed that: with Western medical (WM) treatment as a co-intervention, in terms of improving the total clinical effectiveness and serum albumin level, DHI was the most likely to be the best choice for treatment (SUCRA = 82.2%); YXI had the highest probability of being the best option in terms of reducing 24-h urinary protein excretion (SUCRA = 97.8%); in cholesterol-lowering comparisons, the SUCRA value allows for the most likely to be the best treatment is DZI (SUCRA = 84.5%). SXI was the most effective CHIs in terms of lowering serum triglycerides (SUCRA = 85.6%), whereas on the reducing fibrinogen side, the efficacy of CXI was significant (SUCRA = 67.6%). The result cluster analysis indicated that YXI and DHI were the best interventions with respect to total clinical effectiveness, 24-h urinary protein excretion and serum albumin. Conclusions: CHIs were found to be superior to WM alone in the treatment of PNS and may be beneficial for patients with PNS. WM+YXI and WM+DHI had the potential to be the best CHI with respect to the total clinical effectiveness, 24-h urinary protein excretion and serum albumin. However, more well-designed randomized controlled trials are still warranted.

10.
Materials (Basel) ; 13(21)2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33142889

RESUMO

In this work, SixCoCrNi (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, molar ratio) alloys were designed by introducing elemental Si into CoCrNi, a medium-entropy alloy (MEA). The effects of Si addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the as-cast SiCoCrNi alloys were investigated. The results suggested that a novel Si-rich face-centred cubic (FCC) phase formed in the Si0.3CoCrNi and Si0.4CoCrNi alloys. The Si-rich FCC phase, which featured high hardness and was located between the dendrites of the matrix FCC phase (with higher phase fraction), significantly increased the yield strength of the Si0.4CoCrNi alloys five times compared with the CoCrNi alloy.

11.
J Int Med Res ; 48(10): 300060520964011, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33086884

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of fucoxanthin, reported to have significant anticancer effects, and histone Cluster 1 H3 Family Member D (HIST1H3D; implicated in tumorigenesis) in cervical cancer. METHODS: The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of fucoxanthin against HeLa and SiHa cervical cancer cells was determined. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in SiHa cells treated with IC50 fucoxanthin were screened by high-throughput techniques and subjected to signal enrichment. Following identification of HIST1H3D as a candidate gene, HIST1H3D-knockdown models were created via transfection with a short hairpin HIST1H3D payload. Impacts on cell proliferation, cell-cycle distribution, colony formation, and apoptosis were studied. RESULTS: The fucoxanthin IC50 was 1 445 and 1 641 µM (Hela and SiHa cells, respectively). Chip results revealed 2 255 DEGs, including 943 upregulated and 1 312 downregulated genes, in fucoxanthin-treated versus untreated SiHa cells. Disease and function analysis indicated that these DEGs are primarily associated with cancer and organismal injuries and abnormalities, and online integrated pathway analysis showed that the DEGs were mainly enriched in p53 signalling. HIST1H3D was significantly downregulated in response to fucoxanthin. Inhibition of HIST1H3D mRNA significantly reduced cell proliferation and colony formation, significantly augmented the percentage of apoptotic HeLa and SiHa cells, and cells were arrested in G0/G1 cell cycle phase. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that HIST1H3D may be an oncogene in cervical carcinogenesis and a potential fucoxanthin target in treating cervical cancer.

12.
Curr Mol Med ; 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33092506

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the effects of apigenin (API) on the proliferation, migration, and invasion of human tongue squamous cell carcinoma Tca8113 cells and explore its probable mechanisms. METHODS: After treating Tca8113 cells with API, the cell proliferation, migration, and invasivecapacities were identified by te-trazolium salt colorimetry(MTT) assay, cell scratch test, and Transwell chamber test. Cellular immunofluorescence staining was used to localize mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1) and extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK) 1/2 proteins. Western blot was used to detect the variations of the related protein expression levels. RESULTS: ① Through the MTT assay, API significantly inhibited cell proliferation (P<0.01). ②In the cell scratch test, the dis-tance of lateral migration after the API treatment was significantly shorter compared to the control group (P<0.01). ③The inva-sion rate in the lower chamber of the Transwell chamber was lower in the API group (P<0.01). ④ Cellular immunofluores-cence staining presented that the total-MEKK1 was localized in the cytoplasm, p-MEKK1 was localized in the nuclear mem-brane and cytoplasm, and p-ERK1/2 was localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus. ⑤ After API was applied to cells, the expres-sions of p-MEKK1 and p-ERK1/2 proteins significantly reduced (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Apigenin(API) significantly inhibits the proliferation, migration, and invasion of Tca8113 cells and its mecha-nism may be associatedwith the MAPK signaling pathway.

13.
Front Immunol ; 11: 580208, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33042163

RESUMO

Gallic acid (GA) is a naturally occurring polyphenol compound present in fruits, vegetables, and herbal medicines. According to previous studies, GA has many biological properties, including antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial properties. GA and its derivatives have multiple industrial uses, such as food supplements or additives. Additionally, recent studies have shown that GA and its derivatives not only enhance gut microbiome (GM) activities, but also modulate immune responses. Thus, GA has great potential to facilitate natural defense against microbial infections and modulate the immune response. However, the exact mechanisms of GA acts on the GM and immune system remain unclear. In this review, first the physicochemical properties, bioavailability, absorption, and metabolism of GA are introduced, and then we summarize recent findings concerning its roles in gastrointestinal health. Furthermore, the present review attempts to explain how GA influences the GM and modulates the immune response to maintain intestinal health.

14.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(41): 23735-23742, 2020 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057521

RESUMO

The application of two-dimensional (2D) graphitic carbon-based materials in photocatalysis has been limited to date, because the nature and role of π-conjugated moieties in them remain unclear. Herein we propose and study bilayer BC3/C3N and BC3/BC6N van der Waals heterostructures as direct Z-scheme photocatalysts for overall water splitting using density functional theory calculations. The roles of polar π-conjugated moieties in the formation, stacking configuration, and electronic and optical properties of bilayer van der Waals heterostructures are discussed. It is shown that polar π-conjugated moieties of graphitic BCN monolayers lead to a favorable π-π interaction, determining the most stable stacking configuration, and a long-range charge transfer between components. The former makes the electronic band structure of heterostructures favor photocatalytic water splitting in efficiency and energetics. The latter generates a built-in electric field for the interface recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs, indicating a Z-scheme mechanism. The delocalized nature of π-conjugated electrons in monolayer components allows for high carrier mobility of bilayer heterostructures, promoting the photocatalytic reactions on graphitic BCN monolayers. These findings show that 2D π-conjugated materials, including graphitic carbon-based materials and biological systems, have great potential in the design and development of 2D metal-free direct Z-scheme photocatalysts for environmental purification and energy conversion.

15.
Small ; 16(43): e2002771, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33015902

RESUMO

The carbonaceous materials with low cost and high safety have been considered as promising anodes for potassium-ion batteries (PIBs). However, it is still a challenge to design a carbonaceous material with long cycle life and high rate performance due to the poor K+ reaction kinetics. Herein, this article reports a N-doped porous carbon framework (NPCF) with a high nitrogen content of 13.57 at% within high doping level of the pyrrolic N and pyridinic N, which exhibits a high reversible capacity of 327 mA h g-1 over 100 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g-1 , excellent rate capability (144 and 105 mA h g-1 at 10 and 20 A g-1 , respectively) and great cyclability of 258.9 mA h g-1 after 2000 cycles at 1 A g-1 . Such a high rate performance and excellent cycling stability anode material is seldom reported in PIBs. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal that the pyrrolic and pyridinic N-doping are helpful to enhance the K adsorption ability, thereby increasing the specific capacity.

16.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 1560-1563, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018290

RESUMO

The characteristics of diabetic retinopathy (DR) fundus images generally consist of multiple types of lesions which provided strong evidence for the ophthalmologists to make diagnosis. It is particularly significant to figure out an efficient method to not only accurately classify DR fundus images but also recognize all kinds of lesions on them. In this paper, a deep learning-based multi-label classification model with Gradient-weighted Class Activation Mapping (Grad-CAM) was proposed, which can both make DR classification and automatically locate the regions of different lesions. To reducing laborious annotation work and improve the efficiency of labeling, this paper innovatively considered different types of lesions as different labels for a fundus image so that this paper changed the task of lesion detection into that of image classification. A total of five labels were pre-defined and 3228 fundus images were collected for developing our model. The architecture of deep learning model was designed by ourselves based on ResNet. Through experiments on the test images, this method acquired a sensitive of 93.9% and a specificity of 94.4% on DR classification. Moreover, the corresponding regions of lesions were reasonably outlined on the DR fundus images.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Diabetes Mellitus , Retinopatia Diabética , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico por imagem , Fundo de Olho , Humanos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
17.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 110: 103942, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957236

RESUMO

There is an emerging interest in natural silkworm silks as alternative reinforcement for engineering composites. Here, we summarize the research on two common silkworm silks and silk fibre reinforced plastics (SFRPs) from the authors over the past few years in the context of related research. Silk fibres from silkworms display good strength and toughness under ambient and cryogenic conditions owing to their elastic-plastic deformation mechanism. In particular, the wild Antheraea pernyi (A. pernyi) silk also displays micro- and nano-fibrillation as an important mechanism for toughness and impact resistance. For SFRP composites, we found: (i) it is critical to achieve silk fibre volume fraction to above 50% for an optimal reinforcement and toughening effect; (ii) the tougher A. pernyi silks present a better reinforcement and toughening agent than B. mori silks; (iii) impact and toughness properties are advantageous properties of SFRPs; (iv) hybridization of natural silk with other fibres can further improve the mechanical performance and economics of SFRPs for engineering applications; and (v) the lightweight structure designs can improve the service efficiency of SFRPs for energy absorption. The understanding on the comprehensive mechanical properties and the toughening mechanisms of silks and silk fibre-reinforced polymer composites (SFRPs) could provide key insights into material design and applications.

18.
FASEB J ; 34(11): 14250-14263, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32905637

RESUMO

Renal fibrosis, which is characterized by excessive extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation in the renal tubulointerstitium, can lead to chronic kidney disease (CKD). The role of microfiber-associated protein 4 (MFAP4), which is an ECM protein that interacts with elastin and collagen, in renal fibrosis has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the role of MFAP4 in the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis and the underlying mechanism using in vivo and in vitro models. The MFAP4-/- mice were subjected to unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) to elucidate the role of MFAP4 in renal fibrosis in vivo. Compared to the wild-type mice, the MFAP4-/- mice exhibited decreased protein expression of p-p65 and p-IKBα and ECM deposition after UUO. The MFAP4-/- mice exhibited attenuated nuclear translocation of p65 (the hub subunit of nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathway), suppressed activation of transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß/Smad pathways, and downregulated expression of fibronectin, collagen I, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. The knockdown of MFAP4 mitigated the TGF-ß-induced upregulated expression of fibronectin, collagen I, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in the human proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2). Compared to the HK-2 cells transfected with sh-MFAP4, the HK-2 cells co-transfected with sh-MFAP4 and Ad-MFAP4 exhibited severe inflammatory response and increased fibrosis-related proteins expression. Mechanistically, the knockdown of MFAP4 inhibited the activation of NF-κB and TGF-ß/Smad signaling pathways and downregulated the expression of fibrosis-related proteins. The findings of this study indicate that MFAP4 is involved in UUO-induced renal fibrosis through regulation of NF-κB and TGF-ß/Smad pathways.

19.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(7): 609, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737285

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

20.
Cancer Biomark ; 29(2): 179-187, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741805

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the mechanisms by which oral cancer acquires resistance to gemcitabine. METHODS: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells were treated with gemcitabine upon infection or with a lentivirus harboring short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeted to transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß). Then, Western blot, ELISA, migration assay, MTT assay, and animal experiments were used to explore the mechanism of resistance to gemcitabine treatment. RESULTS: After the treatment of non-transfected cells with gemcitabine, NF-κB and AKT activities were increased, which may have induced the OSCC resistance to gemcitabine. Then, we found that TGF-ß downregulation effectively reduced NF-κB and AKT phosphorylation levels after the administration of gemcitabine and increased the OSCC sensitivity to gemcitabine, resulting in cell death and the blunting of OSCC resistance to gemcitabine. The EMT was also reduced by TGF-ß downregulation combined with gemcitabine treatment. CONCLUSION: Cellular levels of TGF-ß constitute an important factor in gemcitabine resistance and TGF-ß silencing might represent a novel and potent strategy for overcoming OSCC resistance to gemcitabine.

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