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1.
J Phys Chem A ; 2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32167770

RESUMO

The stability of endohedral clusterfullerenes is generally understood in terms of the metal cluster shape, cage structure, and metal-cage interactions, with the electronic state of the internal cluster mostly neglected. Herein, theoretical calculations reveal that the (Ti3C3)6+ unit of recently synthesized Ti3C3@Ih(7)-C80 exhibits a superatomic state with a perfect closed-shell 1S21P61D10 electronic configuration in accordance with the famous jellium model. This "trapped superatom" features considerable aromaticity and hyperconjugation interactions never reported for other clusterfullerenes. Besides the localized two-center two-electron (2c-2e) Ti-C/C-C bonds, it also has two 3c-2e Ti-C-Ti bonds. Furthermore, the ring strain of the cyclopropane-like C3 core is effectively released upon the metal coordination. All these factors greatly stabilize the (Ti3C3)6+ cluster, showing the critical role of metal-to-cage charge transfer and cage encapsulation in enhancing the stability of this exotic metal cluster.

2.
Bioinformatics ; 2020 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145009

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: Predicting potential links in biomedical bipartite networks can provide useful insights into the diagnosis and treatment of complex diseases and the discovery of novel drug targets. Computational methods have been proposed recently to predict potential links for various biomedical bipartite networks. However, existing methods are usually rely on the coverage of known links, which may encounter difficulties when dealing with new nodes without any known link information. RESULTS: In this study, we propose a new link prediction method, named graph regularized generalized matrix factorization (GRGMF), to identify potential links in biomedical bipartite networks. First, we formulate a generalized matrix factorization model to exploit the latent patterns behind observed links. In particular, it can take into account the neighborhood information of each node when learning the latent representation for each node, and the neighborhood information of each node can be learned adaptively. Second, we introduce two graph regularization terms to draw support from affinity information of each node derived from external databases to enhance the learning of latent representations. We conduct extensive experiments on six real datasets. Experiment results show that GRGMF can achieve competitive performance on all these datasets, which demonstrate the effectiveness of GRGMF in prediction potential links in biomedical bipartite networks. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: The package is available at https://github.com/happyalfred2016/GRGMF. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

3.
Cells ; 9(2)2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033504

RESUMO

Neutrophils play an essential role in the control of inflammatory diseases. However, whether cannabinoid receptors (CBs) play a role in neutrophil chemotaxis and NETosis in sterile liver inflammation remains unknown. The expression of marker genes on neutrophils was characterized by FACS, immunofluorescence, qRT-PCR, and Western blot. The amount of neutrophils was significantly elevated from 7 days and reached the peak at 2 weeks in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-treated mouse liver. The mRNA expression of neutrophil marker Ly6G had positive correlation with CB1 and CB2 expression in injured liver. In vitro CBs were abundantly expressed in isolated neutrophils and CB1 agonist ACEA promoted the chemotaxis and cytoskeletal remodeling, which can be suppressed by CB1 antagonist AM281. Moreover, ACEA induced NETosis, myeloperoxidase release from lysosome and ROS burst, indicating neutrophil activation, via Gαi/o. Conversely, CB2 agonist JWH133 had no effect on neutrophil function. ROS and p38 MAPK signaling pathways were involved in CB1-mediated neutrophil function, and ROS was upstream of p38 MAPK. CB1 blockade in vivo significantly attenuated neutrophil infiltration and liver inflammation in CCl4-treated mice. Taken together, CB1 mediates neutrophil chemotaxis and NETosis via Gαi/o/ROS/p38 MAPK signaling pathway in liver inflammation, which represents an effective therapeutic strategy for liver diseases.

4.
Trials ; 21(1): 135, 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is associated with risk of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL). Systemic and intratympanic corticosteroids are the two primary treatments for SSNHL in patients with diabetes mellitus. The benefit of intratympanic compared to systemic treatment is the reduced systemic steroid exposure and associated systemic adverse effects. Intratympanic corticosteroid administration may have potential benefits over standard systemic therapies. METHODS/DESIGN: The proposed study is a prospective, randomized superiority trial. A total of 96 patients (48 in each group) will be randomized into the experimental or control group. Patients in the experimental group will receive four 1-mL doses of 40 mg/mL of methylprednisolone over a 1-week period, with a dose administered every 2 days via tympanic membrane injection into the middle ear. The control group will be administered intravenous methylprednisolone (1 mg/kg/day, maximal dose 60 mg/day) for 5 days. The primary outcome for this study is the change in hearing threshold from the first audiogram to the 30-day follow-up audiogram. Secondary outcome measures will include pure-tone average (PTA) at 90-day follow up, visual analog tinnitus scale, visual analog vertigo scale, visual analog aural fullness scale, fasting blood glucose and 2-h postprandial blood glucose during treatment, and the change in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) levels. Vital signs and otological physical examination will be performed at each follow-up visit. DISCUSSION: The efficacy and safety of intratympanic methylprednisolone compared to intravenous methylprednisolone will be investigated in patients with diabetes mellitus and SSNHL. This trial may provide strong evidence for the efficacy and safety of intratympanic corticosteroid treatment and important clinical information for the treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus and SSNHL. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR, ChiCTR1800015954. Registered on 2 May 2018, Retrospectively registered, http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=25326.

5.
Fungal Genet Biol ; 138: 103352, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087364

RESUMO

Small GTPases of the ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) family and their activating proteins (Arf-GAPs) regulate mycelial development and pathogenicity in yeast and filamentous fungi; however, little is known about their roles in nematode-trapping (NT) fungi. In this study, an ortholog of Arf-GAP Glo3 (AoGlo3) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was characterized in the NT fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora. Deletion of the Aoglo3 gene resulted in growth defects and an increase in hyphal septum. Meanwhile, the sporulation capacity of the ΔAoglo3 mutant was decreased by 98%, and 67.1-71.2% spores became gourd or claviform in shape (from obovoid), which was accompanied by a significant decrease in the spore germination rate. This reduced sporulation capacity correlated with the transcriptional repression of several sporulation-related genes including fluG, rodA, abaA, medA, and lreA. The ΔAoglo3 mutant was also sensitive to several chemical stressors such as Congo red, NaCl, and sorbitol. Additionally, AoGlo3 was found to be involved in endocytosis, and more myelin figures were observed in the ΔAoglo3 mutant than in the wild-type strain, which was consistent with the presence of more autophagosomes observed in the mutant. Importantly, AoGlo3 affected the production of mycelial traps and serine proteases for nematode predation. In summary, AoGlo3 is involved in the regulation of multiple cellular processes such as mycelial growth, conidiation, environmental adaption, endocytosis, and pathogenicity in A. oligospora.

6.
Mol Brain ; 13(1): 15, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019580

RESUMO

Anxiety disorder is highly prevalent worldwide and represents a chronic and functionally disabling condition, with high levels of psychological stress characterized by cognitive and physiological symptoms. Scopoletin (SP), a main active compound in Angelica dahurica, is traditionally used for the treatment of headache, rhinitis, pain, and other conditions. Here, we evaluated the effects of SP in a mouse model of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced chronic inflammation anxiety. SP (2.0, 10.0, 50.0 mg/kg) administration for 2 weeks dose-dependently ameliorated CFA-induced anxiety-like behaviors in the open field test and elevated plus maze test. Moreover, we found that SP treatment inhibited microglia activation and decreased both peripheral and central IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α levels in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, the imbalance in excitatory/inhibitory receptors and neurotransmitters in the basolateral nucleus after CFA injection was also modulated by SP administration. Our findings indicate that the inhibition of the nuclear factor-kappa B and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways involving anti-inflammatory activities and regulation of the excitatory/inhibitory balance can be attributed to the anxiolytic effects of SP. Moreover, our molecular docking analyses show that SP also has good affinity for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transaminase and GABAA receptors. Therefore, these results suggest that SP could be a candidate compound for anxiolytic therapy and for use as a structural base for developing new drugs.

7.
Neurosurg Rev ; 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32076898

RESUMO

To introduce a purely endoscopic endonasal trans-Meckel's cave approach or a transclival approach for trigeminal schwannomas (TSs) involving both the middle and posterior fossae. This retrospective study reviewed the medical records and intraoperative videos of 8 patients with TSs occupying both the middle and posterior fossae who underwent an endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) between January 2017 and October 2019. All 8 patients received total resection under a single-stage EEA. Six patients underwent endoscopic endonasal resection via a purely trans-Meckel's cave approach, and 2 patients underwent endoscopic endonasal resection via a trans-Meckel's cave approach combined with a transclival approach. There was no surgical-related hemorrhage or mortality and no cerebrospinal fluid leakage. All headache symptoms completely improved postoperatively (n = 3 patients). All cranial nerve (CN) symptoms (CN IX and CN VI) improved postoperatively. The most common preoperative symptom was facial numbness (n = 5 patients); 2 of these 5 patients showed a partial improvement, 1 patient experienced worsening, and 2 patients remained unchanged at the last follow-up. Four patients developed postoperative complications, including CN VI palsy (n = 2), dry eye (n = 2), mastication weakness (n = 1), and facial numbness (n = 2). All complications except for dry eye were relieved at the last follow-up, but the patients with dry eye did not develop corneal keratopathy. The endoscopic endonasal trans-Meckel's cave and transclival approaches provide adequate exposure and improve the rate of total resection for TSs occupying both the middle and posterior fossae with minimal invasion. It may be possible to use these approaches as a safe alternative to conventional surgical approaches.

8.
Bioinformatics ; 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32073600

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: Single cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) methods make it possible to reveal gene expression patterns at single-cell resolution. Due to technical defects, dropout events in scRNA-seq will add noise to the gene-cell expression matrix and hinder downstream analysis. Therefore, it is important for recovering the true gene expression levels before carrying out downstream analysis. RESULTS: In this paper, we develop an imputation method, called scTSSR, to recover gene expression for scRNA-seq. Unlike most existing methods that impute dropout events by borrowing information across only genes or cells, scTSSR simultaneously leverages information from both similar genes and similar cells using a two-side sparse self-representation model. We demonstrate that scTSSR can effectively capture the Gini coefficients of genes and gene-to-gene correlations observed in single-molecule RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (smRNA FISH). Down-sampling experiments indicate that scTSSR performs better than existing methods in recovering the true gene expression levels. We also show that scTSSR has a competitive performance in differential expression analysis, cell clustering and cell trajectory inference. AVAILABILITY: The R package is available at https://github.com/Zhangxf-ccnu/scTSSR. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

9.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 566: 257-264, 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007737

RESUMO

Hard carbon is regarded as one of the most promising anode material for sodium-ion batteries in virtue of the low cost and stable framework. However, the correlation between pore structures of hard carbon and sodium-ion storage is still ambiguous. In this work, based on precise control of pore-size distribution, the capacity, ion diffusion, and initial Coulombic efficiency were improved. Meanwhile, the relationship between pore structure and capacity was investigated. Our result indicates that the micropores hinder ion diffusion and hardly ever accommodate Na+ ions, while mesopores facilitate Na+ ion intercalation. Hard carbon with negligible micropores and abundant mesopores delivers a maximum capacity of 283.7 mAh g-1 at 20 mA g-1, which is 83% higher than that of micropore-rich one. Even after 320 cycles at 200 mA g-1, the capacity still remains 189.4 mAh g-1.

10.
Anal Chem ; 92(5): 3555-3562, 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008316

RESUMO

Tiagabine hydrochloride (TGB) is a clinically frequently used drug for anticonvulsion and reducing epileptic frequency. Over administration of TGB could bring about adverse effects, such as speech disorder, depression, and even suicidal tendencies. Therefore, accessible and sensitive assay for analysis of TGB becomes an urgent need toward guiding clinical medication. Here, we present the first report on fluorescence turn-on detection of TGB in urine testing. In this protocol, a fluorescent dye, perylene tetracarboxylic acid imide derivative (PTAI), is found specifically occupying the Sudlow site II of human serum albumin (HSA) and displays a new phenomenon of binding-induced quenching (BIQ). In presence of TGB, competitive binding of the TGB to the site II of HSA will trigger release of PTAI, thus successfully lighting up the fluorescence of PTAI. This label-free assay enjoys a broader working range (1-350 µM) and lower detection limit (0.218 µM) than the traditional liquid chromatography method and is uninterfered by the miscellaneous in the artificial urine. The BIQ probe highlights the merits of HSA as a quencher and a molecular recognition unit, and it opens up a way for studying drug-HSA interaction mechanism and noninvasive pharmaceutical testing.

11.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(12): 1843-1846, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31950937

RESUMO

As the most abundant protein in blood, human serum albumin (HSA) is usually regarded as an interferent in clinical molecular diagnosis. Herein, we report that HSA is an endogenous signal amplifier for the detection of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in human plasma. This is the first study to utilize intrinsic biological components as the signal amplifier in blood tests.


Assuntos
Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Albumina Sérica Humana/química , Butiratos/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
12.
World Neurosurg ; 136: e476-e486, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953101

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study was performed to elucidate the role of nitric oxide (NO) and connexin 40 (Cx40) in the induction of cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in vivo. METHODS: A SAH rat model was established using the double-bleed method. A total of 108 Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 250-300 g were randomly divided into 6 groups: SAH; SAH plus diethylenetriamine (DETA)/NO (exogenous NO donor); SAH plus 8-bromoadenosine (8-Br)-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP; protein kinase G [PKG] activator); SAH plus DETA/NO plus KT5823 (PKG inhibitor); SAH plus DETA/NO plus 40Gap27 (Cx40 inhibitor); and sham. The changes in the diameter of the branch microvessels in the middle cerebral artery were recorded. The neurological score was evaluated using the Garcia scoring system. Basilar artery (BA) tension was measured using the Danish Myo Technology myograph system. Cx40 protein expression was analyzed using immunofluorescence and Western blotting. Endothelial NO synthase, soluble guanylate cyclase, and PKG protein expression were measured by Western blotting. RESULTS: A considerable narrowing of the cerebral vessels was detected in the SAH group compared with that in the sham group. Moreover, compared with the sham group, the SAH group showed a marked decrease in Cx40, endothelial NO synthase, soluble guanylate cyclase, and PKG expression. The expression of Cx40 and PKG were obviously higher in the SAH plus DETA/NO and SAH plus 8-Br-cGMP groups than in the SAH group. However, Cx40 was lower in the SAH plus DETA/NO plus KT5823 and SAH plus DETA/NO plus 40Gap27 groups than in the SAH plus ETA/NO group. The BAs showed significant vasodilation in the SAH plus DETA/NO and SAH plus 8-Br-cGMP groups. However, the vasodilation response of BAs was inhibited in the SAH plus DETA/NO plus KT5823 and SAH plus DETA-NO plus 40Gap27 groups. CONCLUSIONS: The NO-cGMP-PKG pathway alleviated cerebral vasospasm via Cx40 upregulation.

14.
J Biotechnol ; 309: 85-91, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926180

RESUMO

Ascomycete fungi Cordyceps are widely used in traditional Chinese medicine, and numerous investigations have been carried out to uncover their biological activities. However, primary researches on the physiological effects of Cordyceps were committed using crude extracts. At present, there are only a few compounds which were comprehensively characterized from Cordyceps, partial owing to the low production. In order to scientifically take advantage of Cordyceps, we used the strategy of genome mining to discover bioactive compounds from Cordyceps militaris. We found the putative biosynthetic gene cluster of the acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase inhibitor beauveriolides in the genome of C. militaris, and produced the compounds by heterologous expression in Aspergillus nidulans. Production of beauveriolide I and III also was detected in both ferment mycelia and fruiting bodies of C. militaris. The possible biosynthetic pathway was proposed. Our studies unveil the active compounds of C. militaris against atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease and provide the enzyme resources for the biosynthesis of new cyclodepsipeptide molecules.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31983673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hemorrhage is one of the most serious complications of endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST). The risk factors for delayed hemorrhage are not clear. This study aimed to explore the risk factors for post-EST delayed hemorrhage and suggest some precautionary measures. METHODS: This study analyzed 8477 patients who successfully underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and EST between January 2007 and June 2015 in the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to find the risk factors for delayed hemorrhage after EST. RESULTS: Of the 8477 patients screened, 137 (1.62%) experienced delayed hemorrhage. Univariate analysis showed that male, the severity of jaundice, duodenal papillary adenoma and carcinoma, diabetes, intraoperative bleeding, moderate and large incisions, and directional deviation of incision are risk factors for post-EST delayed hemorrhage (P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that intraoperative bleeding [odds ratio (OR) = 3.326; 95% CI: 1.785-6.196; P < 0.001] and directional deviation of incision (OR = 2.184; 95% CI: 1.266-3.767; P = 0.005) are independent risk factors for post-EST delayed hemorrhage. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of post-EST delayed hemorrhage was 1.62% in our study. Intraoperative bleeding and directional deviation of incision are independent risk factors for post-EST delayed hemorrhage.

16.
Bioinformatics ; 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971577

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: Reconstruction of cancer gene networks from gene expression data is important for understanding the mechanisms underlying human cancer. Due to heterogeneity, the tumor tissue samples for a single cancer type can be divided into multiple distinct subtypes (inter-tumor heterogeneity) and are composed of non-cancerous and cancerous cells (intra-tumor heterogeneity). If tumor heterogeneity is ignored when inferring gene networks, the edges specific to individual cancer subtypes and cell types cannot be characterized. However, most existing network reconstruction methods do not simultaneously take inter-tumor and intra-tumor heterogeneity into account. RESULTS: In this paper, we propose a new Gaussian graphical model based method for jointly estimating multiple cancer gene networks by simultaneously capturing inter-tumor and intra-tumor heterogeneity. Given gene expression data of heterogeneous samples for different cancer subtypes, a non-cancerous network shared across different cancer subtypes and multiple subtype specific cancerous networks are estimated jointly. Tumor heterogeneity can be revealed by the difference in the estimated networks. The performance of our method is first evaluated using simulated data, and the results indicate that our method outperforms other state-of-the-art methods. We also apply our method to The Cancer Genome Atlas breast cancer data to reconstruct non-cancerous and subtype specific cancerous gene networks. Hub nodes in the networks estimated by our method perform important biological functions associated with breast cancer development and subtype classification. AVAILABILITY: The source code is available at https://github.com/Zhangxf-ccnu/NETI2. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

17.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227287, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914153

RESUMO

Tooth agenesis is one of the most common developmental anomalies in humans and can affect dental occlusion and speech pronunciation. Research has identified an association between mutations in MSX1, PAX9, EDA, AXIN2, WNT10A, WNT10B and LRP6 and human tooth agenesis. Two unrelated individuals with non-syndromic tooth agenesis and their families were enrolled in this study. Using Sanger sequencing of the candidate genes, we identified two novel mutations: a missense mutation c.572 T>C and a frameshift mutation c.590_594 dup TGTCC, which were both detected in the homeodomain of MSX1. After identifying the mutations, structural modeling and bioinformatics analysis were used to predict the resulting conformational changes in the MSX1 homeodomain. Combined with 3D-structural analysis of other MSX1 mutations, we propose that there is a correlation between the observed phenotypes and alterations in hydrogen bond formation, thereby potentially affecting protein binding.

18.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 20(1): 15, 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Platelets in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) are characterized by increased activation and aggregation, which tends to be associated with a high morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Moreover, a large proportion of DM2 patients show an inadequate response to standard antiplatelet treatments, contributing to recurrent cardiovascular events. In our previous study, we indicated that Salvianolic acid A (SAA) presents an antiplatelet effect in healthy volunteers. However, whether it can inhibit "activated platelets" with a pathologic status has not been explored. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the antiplatelet effect of SAA and its diabetic complication-related difference in DM2. METHODS: Forty patients diagnosed with DM2 from January 2018 to April 2018 were recruited. Fibrinogen-binding (PAC-1) and P-selectin (CD62p) flow cytometry reagents were measured under resting and stimulated conditions by flow cytometry, while agonist-induced platelet aggregation was conducted by light transmission aggregometry. Before all these measurements were conducted, all platelet samples were preincubated with a vehicle or SAA for 10 min. Additionally, the diabetic complication-related difference in the antiplatelet effect of SAA was further studied in enrolled patients. RESULTS: The expressions of PAC-1 and CD62p were elevated in DM2, as well as the maximal platelet aggregation. In addition, SAA decreased the expressions of PAC-1 and CD62p, which were enhanced by ADP and thrombin (all P < 0.01). It also reduced the platelet aggregation induced by ADP (P < 0.001) and thrombin (P < 0.05). Comparing the antiplatelet effect of SAA on DM2, with and without diabetic complications, no statistically significant difference was found (all P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated that SAA can inhibit platelet activation and aggregation in patients with DM2, and the inhibition did not abate for the existence of diabetic complications.

19.
Adv Mater ; 32(8): e1905522, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944425

RESUMO

Living things rely on various physical, chemical, and biological interfaces, e.g., somatosensation, olfactory/gustatory perception, and nervous system response. They help organisms to perceive the world, adapt to their surroundings, and maintain internal and external balance. Interfacial information exchanges are complicated but efficient, delicate but precise, and multimodal but unisonous, which has driven researchers to study the science of such interfaces and develop techniques with potential applications in health monitoring, smart robotics, future wearable devices, and cyber physical/human systems. To understand better the issues in these interfaces, a cyber-physiochemical interface (CPI) that is capable of extracting biophysical and biochemical signals, and closely relating them to electronic, communication, and computing technology, to provide the core for aforementioned applications, is proposed. The scientific and technical progress in CPI is summarized, and the challenges to and strategies for building stable interfaces, including materials, sensor development, system integration, and data processing techniques are discussed. It is hoped that this will result in an unprecedented multi-disciplinary network of scientific collaboration in CPI to explore much uncharted territory for progress, providing technical inspiration-to the development of the next-generation personal healthcare technology, smart sports-technology, adaptive prosthetics and augmentation of human capability, etc.

20.
Chemistry ; 26(11): 2464-2469, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31808970

RESUMO

Chemical modification of endohedral metallofullerenes (EMFs) is an efficient strategy to realize their ultimate applications in many fields. Herein, we report the highly regioselective and quantitative mono-formation of pyrazole- and pyrrole-ring-fused derivatives of the prototypical di-EMF Y2 @C3v (8)-C82 , that is, Y2 @C3v (8)-C82 (C13 N2 H10 ) and Y2 @C3v (8)-C82 (C9 NH11 ), from the respective 1,3-dipolar reactions with either diphenylnitrilimine or N-benzylazomethine ylide, without the formation of any bis- or multi-adducts. Crystallographic results unambiguously reveal that only one [6,6]-bond out of the twenty-five different types of nonequivalent C-C bonds of Y2 @C3v (8)-C82 is involved in the 1,3-dipolar reactions. Our theoretical results rationalize that the remarkably high regioselectivity and the quantitative formation of mono-adducts are direct results from the anisotropic distribution of π-electron density on the C3v (8)-C82 cage and the local strain of the cage carbon atoms as well. Interestingly, electrochemical and theoretical studies demonstrate that the reversibility of the redox processes, in particular the reversibility of the reductive processes of Y2 @C3v (8)-C82 , has been markedly altered upon exohedral functionalization, but the oxidative process was less influenced, indicating that the oxidation is mainly influenced by the internal Y2 cluster, whereas the reduction is primarily associated with the fullerene cage. The pyrazole and pyrrole-fused derivatives may find potential applications as organic photovoltaic materials and biological reagents.

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