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1.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 848906, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35663854

RESUMO

Gut microbial communities of animals play key roles in host evolution, while the relationship between gut microbiota and host evolution in Tibetan birds remains unknown. Herein, we sequenced the gut microbiota of 67 wild birds of seven species dwelling in the Tibetan wetlands. We found an obvious species-specific structure of gut microbiota among these plateau birds whose habitats were overlapped. Different from plateau mammals, there was no strict synergy between the hierarchical tree of gut microbial community and species phylogeny. In brown-headed gulls (Larus brunnicephalus) as an example, the structure of gut microbiota differed in different habitats, and the relative abundance of bacteria, such as Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Paracoccus, Lachnospiraceae, and Vibrio, significantly correlated with altitude. Finally, we found various pathogenic bacteria in the birds of these plateau wetlands, and the interspecific differences were related to their diet and living environments.

2.
Front Oncol ; 12: 840572, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35664729

RESUMO

Objective: Postoperative hypopituitarism associated with increased risks of premature mobility and mortality is often encountered in craniopharyngioma patients. The aim of our study is to construct nomograms related to injury types of the hypothalamus-pituitary axis (HPA) to predict hypopituitarism 1 year after surgery. Methods: Craniopharyngioma patients undergoing initial endoscopic endonasal surgery between December 2012 and March 2021 in our center were retrospectively reviewed, and injury types of the HPA were categorized according to intraoperative endoscopic observation. Included patients were randomly divided into a training group and a validation group. Nomograms were established based on the results of multivariate logistic analysis. The predictive performance of the nomograms was evaluated in the training and validation groups. Results: A total of 183 patients with craniopharyngioma were enrolled, and seven injury types of the HPA were summarized. Relative to intact HPA, exclusive hypothalamus injury significantly increased the risk of anterior (OR, 194.174; 95% CI, 21.311-1769.253; p < 0.001) and posterior pituitary dysfunction (OR, 31.393; 95% CI, 6.319-155.964; p < 0.001) 1 year after surgery, while exclusively sacrificing stalk infiltrated by tumors did not significantly increase the risk of anterior (OR, 5.633; 95% CI, 0.753-42.133; p = 0.092) and posterior pituitary dysfunction (OR, 1.580; 95% CI, 0.257-9.707; p = 0.621) 1 year after surgery. In the training group, the AUCs of nomograms predicting anterior and posterior pituitary dysfunction 1 year after surgery were 0.921 and 0.885, respectively, compared with 0.921 and 0.880 in the validation group. Conclusions: Intact hypothalamus structure is critical in maintaining pituitary function. Moreover, our preliminary study suggests that the pituitary stalk infiltrated by craniopharyngioma could be sacrificed to achieve radical resection, without substantially rendering significantly worse endocrinological efficiency 1 year after surgery. The user-friendly nomograms can be used to predict hypopituitarism 1 year after surgery.

3.
Biotechnol Biofuels Bioprod ; 15(1): 62, 2022 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35641999

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Starch is a very abundant and renewable carbohydrate and an important feedstock for industrial applications. However, most starch-based products are not cost-efficient due to the high energy input needed in traditional enzymatic starch conversion processes. Raw-starch-digesting enzymes (RSDEs) from filamentous fungi have great commercial value in starch processing. However, the regulatory mechanisms associated with their production in filamentous fungi remain unknown. RESULTS: In this study, we reported the novel finding that cellulolytic fungus Penicillium oxalicum 114-2 has broad RSDE activity. Four regulators, including the amylase transcription activator AmyR, the catabolite repression repressor CreA, the group III G protein α subunit PGA3, and the nonhistone chromosomal protein HepA, have been found to play a crucial regulatory role in RSDE expression. Enzymatic assays revealed that RSDE production significantly increased after the overexpression of AmyR and HepA, the deletion of CreA and the dominant activation of PGA3. RT-qPCR analysis demonstrated that there is a mutual regulation mode between the four regulators, and then formed a cascade regulation mechanism that is involved in RSDE expression. Comparative transcriptomic analysis between the wild-type strain and genetically engineered strains revealed differentially expressed genes that may mediate the RSDE expression. CONCLUSIONS: The four different types of regulators were systematically investigated and found to form a regulatory network controlling RSDE gene expression. Our results provide a new insight into the regulatory mechanism of fungal amylolytic enzyme expression and offer a theoretical basis to rationally improve the RSDE yield in the future.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35696480

RESUMO

Temporal action localization aims at localizing action instances from untrimmed videos. Existing works have designed various effective modules to precisely localize action instances based on appearance and motion features. However, by treating these two kinds of features with equal importance, previous works cannot take full advantage of each modality feature, making the learned model still sub-optimal. To tackle this issue, we make an early effort to study temporal action localization from the perspective of multi-modality feature learning, based on the observation that different actions exhibit specific preferences to appearance or motion modality. Specifically, we build a novel structured attention composition module. Unlike conventional attention, the proposed module would not infer frame attention and modality attention independently. Instead, by casting the relationship between the modality attention and the frame attention as an attention assignment process, the structured attention composition module learns to encode the frame-modality structure and uses it to regularize the inferred frame attention and modality attention, respectively, upon the optimal transport theory. The final frame-modality attention is obtained by the composition of the two individual attentions. The proposed structured attention composition module can be deployed as a plug-and-play module into existing action localization frameworks. Extensive experiments on two widely used benchmarks show that the proposed structured attention composition consistently improves four state-of-the-art temporal action localization methods and builds new state-of-the-art performance on THUMOS14.

5.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 34(5): 545-549, 2022 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35728861

RESUMO

Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) is a life support technique for patients with severe respiratory failure. In the past, single lumen cannula was mostly used to constract the vascular pathway of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Compared with single-lumen cannula, double lumen cannula (DLC) can reduce recirculation fraction, reduce complications such as infection and bleeding, and facilitate patient's rehabilitation. DLC requires accurate positioning of the catheter. It has been gradually applied in China. This paper will review the key points related to the use of DLC, such as the insertion, position, and complications, etc. to provide guidance for clinical application practice.

6.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(5): 1267-1274, 2022 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35730085

RESUMO

Mountain swamps in Zhejiang Province have been suffered from severe drouhgt threats because of climate change and artificial interruption. Sphagnum bogs and swamps were gradually degraded into arid swamps. However, the effects of arid processes on the C, N, P contents of soils and their stoichiometry in mountain swamps are still unclear. We measured C, N and P concentrations, pH values, and bulk density in the upper 0-60 cm soil layers in the stands of five mountain swamps with the different arid levels. Moreover, the aboveground biomass and the C, N, P concentrations in the crushed plant mixture were also measured. The results showed that the soils of mountain swamps in Zhejiang Province were rich in soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), but infertile in phosphorus (TP). Aboveground biomass, soil pH, bulk density increased, while SOC, TN, TP, C:N, C:P, N:P decreased with aridity. Soil pH and bulk density had significant negative correlations with SOC, TN, and TP in soils, respectively. The differences in the C, N, P accumulation in the soils were probably associated with litterfall production, the oxygen condition of wetlands, and the degree of plant decomposition at the different types of mountain swamps. In all, arid trends were obvious at the mountain swamps in Zhejiang Province. Soil nutrients, such as C, N, P, deceased, while plant community succeeded from the wet swamp to the mesophyte vegetation with the arid processes. The contents of C, N and P in the plants varied across species, and were not coupled with those in the soils.

7.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 887238, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35712239

RESUMO

Background: Chronic pain is defined as pain that persists typically for a period of over six months. Chronic pain is often accompanied by an anxiety disorder, and these two tend to exacerbate each other. This can make the treatment of these conditions more difficult. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is a member of the incretin hormone family and plays a critical role in glucose metabolism. Previous research has demonstrated the multiple roles of GIP in both physiological and pathological processes. In the central nervous system (CNS), studies of GIP are mainly focused on neurodegenerative diseases; hence, little is known about the functions of GIP in chronic pain and pain-related anxiety disorders. Methods: The chronic inflammatory pain model was established by hind paw injection with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in C57BL/6 mice. GIP receptor (GIPR) agonist (D-Ala2-GIP) and antagonist (Pro3-GIP) were given by intraperitoneal injection or anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) local microinjection. Von Frey filaments and radiant heat were employed to assess the mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity. Anxiety-like behaviors were detected by open field and elevated plus maze tests. The underlying mechanisms in the peripheral nervous system and CNS were explored by GIPR shRNA knockdown in the ACC, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, western blot analysis, whole-cell patch-clamp recording, immunofluorescence staining and quantitative real-time PCR. Results: In the present study, we found that hind paw injection with CFA induced pain sensitization and anxiety-like behaviors in mice. The expression of GIPR in the ACC was significantly higher in CFA-injected mice. D-Ala2-GIP administration by intraperitoneal or ACC local microinjection produced analgesic and anxiolytic effects; these were blocked by Pro3-GIP and GIPR shRNA knockdown in the ACC. Activation of GIPR inhibited neuroinflammation and activation of microglia, reversed the upregulation of NMDA and AMPA receptors, and suppressed the enhancement of excitatory neurotransmission in the ACC of model mice. Conclusions: GIPR activation was found to produce analgesic and anxiolytic effects, which were partially due to attenuation of neuroinflammation and inhibition of excitatory transmission in the ACC. GIPR may be a suitable target for treatment of chronic inflammatory pain and pain-related anxiety.


Assuntos
Ansiolíticos , Dor Crônica , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Animais , Ansiolíticos/farmacologia , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Crônica/metabolismo , Adjuvante de Freund/metabolismo , Adjuvante de Freund/farmacologia , Polipeptídeo Inibidor Gástrico/farmacologia , Giro do Cíngulo/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , RNA Interferente Pequeno/farmacologia , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Receptores dos Hormônios Gastrointestinais
9.
Front Oncol ; 12: 847250, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35719989

RESUMO

Objective: The surgical management of lesions involving the lateral area of the suprasellar region, including the lateral aspect of the planum sphenoidale and the tight junction region of the optic canal (OC), anterior clinoid process (ACP), and internal carotid artery (ICA) and its dural rings, is extremely challenging. Here, these regions, namely, the "parasuprasellar" area, are described from the endonasal perspective. Moreover, the authors introduce two novels endoscopic endonasal supraoptic (EESO) and endoscopic endonasal infraoptic (EEIO) approaches to access the parasuprasellar area. Methods: Surgical simulation of the EESO and EEIO approaches to the parasuprasellar area was conducted in 5 silicon-injected specimens. The same techniques were applied in 12 patients with lesions involving the parasuprasellar area. Results: The EESO approach provided excellent surgical access to the lateral region of the planum sphenoidale, which corresponds to the orbital gyrus of the frontal lobe. With stepwise bone (OC, optic strut and ACP) removal, dissociation of the ophthalmic artery (OA) and optic nerve (ON), the EEIO approach enables access to the lateral region of the supraclinoidal ICA. These approaches can be used independently or in combination, but are more often employed as a complement to the endoscopic endonasal midline and transcavernous approaches. In clinical application, the EESO and EEIO approaches were successfully performed in 12 patients harboring tumors as well as multiple aneurysms involving the parasuprasellar area. Gross total and subtotal tumor resection were achieved in 9 patients and 1 patient, respectively. For two patients with multiple aneurysms, the lesions were clipped selectively according to location and size. Visual acuity improved in 7 patients, remained stable in 4, and deteriorated in only 1. No postoperative intracranial infection or ICA injury occurred in this series. Conclusions: The EESO and EEIO approaches offer original treatment options for well-selected lesions involving the parasuprasellar area. They can be combined with the endoscopic endonasal midline and transcavernous approaches to remove extensive pathologies involving the intrasellar, suprasellar, sphenoid, and cavernous sinuses and even the bifurcation of the ICA. This work for the first time pushes the boundary of the endoscopic endonasal approach lateral to the supraclinoidal ICA and ON.

10.
Front Neurol ; 13: 891060, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35720073

RESUMO

Introduction: Contrast-enhanced transcranial Doppler (c-TCD) is a noninvasive test with high sensitivity for the detection of a right-to-left shunt (RLS). Currently, there are no reports on the outcomes of unilateral versus bilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) monitoring. This study compared the positivity rate of bilateral MCA monitoring with unilateral MCA monitoring for RLS using c-TCD. Methods: We enrolled 239 patients (86 women and 153 men) with a mean age of 48.54 ± 13.25 years (range, 14-79 years), who underwent c-TCD examination in the Department of Transcranial Doppler Ultrasound of our hospital between February 2018 and February 2021, due to suspicion of RLS. Bilateral MCA monitoring of 239 patients was performed using dual-channel and dual-depth c-TCD. The positive rate and shunt classification of RLS were calculated for left, right, and bilateral MCA monitoring. The differences in RLS detected by c-TCD monitoring of the left, right and bilateral MCA were compared. Results: In the left middle cerebral artery (LMCA) monitoring, 35.56% (85 of 239) had a positive RLS result, 38 cases were permanent (44.70%), and 47 cases were latent (55.30%). In the right middle cerebral artery (RMCA) monitoring, 36.82% (88 of 239) had a positive RLS result, 38 cases were permanent (43.18%), and 50 cases were latent (56.82%). In the bilateral MCA group, 43.09% (103 of 239) had a positive RLS result, 50 cases were permanent (48.54%) and 53 were latent (51.46%). The positive rate of bilateral MCA monitoring was higher than that of LMCA and RMCA (43.09, 35.56, and 36.82%, respectively), and the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.193). The positive rate of bilateral MCA monitoring was higher than that of LMCA and RMCA for mild and moderate shunts, but the difference was not statistically significant. The positive rate of bilateral MCA monitoring was equal to that of RMCA, but higher than that of LMCA, with no statistical significance. LMCA monitoring revealed 85 patients with RLS. The sensitivity was 82.52% (85/103). The specificity was 100%. The RMCA monitoring results showed 88 cases with RLS. The sensitivity was 85.44% (88/103). The specificity was 100%. Conclusions: There was no significant difference in the RLS detection rate between unilateral and bilateral MCA monitoring using c-TCD. Bilateral MCA monitoring may be more advantageous for mild RLS detection.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35635810

RESUMO

Weakly supervised temporal action localization is a newly emerging yet widely studied topic in recent years. The existing methods can be categorized into the pre-classification pipeline and the post-classification pipeline. The pre-classification pipeline first performs classification on each video snippet and then aggregates the snippet-level classification scores to obtain the video-level classification score. In contrast, the post-classification pipeline aggregates the snippet-level features first and then predicts the video-level classificationscore based on the aggregated feature. Although the classifiers in these two pipelines are used in different ways, the role they play is exactly the same. To this end, an ideal classifier can make both pipelines work. This inspires us to simultaneously learn these two pipelines in a unified framework to obtain an effective classifier. Specifically, we implement two parallel network streams to model the two localization-by-classification pipelines simultaneously and make the two network streams share the same classifier. This achieves the novel Equivalent Classification Mapping (ECM) mechanism. Moreover, we discover that an ideal classifier may possess two characteristics: 1) The frame-level classification scores obtained from the pre-classification stream and the feature aggregation weights in the post-classification stream should be consistent; 2) The classification results of these two streams should be identical. Based on these two characteristics, we further introduce a weight-transition module and an equivalent training strategy into the proposed learning framework, which assists to thoroughly mine the equivalence mechanism. Comprehensive experiments are conducted on three benchmarks and ECM achieves accurate action localization results.

12.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 851746, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35559236

RESUMO

Ischemic stroke elicits white matter injury typically signed by axonal disintegration and demyelination; thus, the development of white matter reorganization is needed. 2,3,5,6-Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) is widely used to treat ischemic stroke. This study was aimed to investigate whether TMP could protect the white matter and promote axonal repair after cerebral ischemia. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and treated with TMP (10, 20, 40 mg/kg) intraperitoneally for 14 days. The motor function related to gait was evaluated by the gait analysis system. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was conducted to noninvasively identify gray-white matter structural integrity, axonal reorganization, and cerebral blood flow (CBF), followed by histological analysis. The expressions of axonal growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43), synaptophysin (SYN), axonal growth-inhibitory signals, and guidance factors were measured by Western blot. Our results showed TMP reduced infarct volume, relieved gray-white matter damage, promoted axonal remodeling, and restored CBF along the peri-infarct cortex, external capsule, and internal capsule. These MRI findings were confirmed by histopathological data. Moreover, motor function, especially gait impairment, was improved by TMP treatment. Notably, TMP upregulated GAP-43 and SYN and enhanced axonal guidance cues such as Netrin-1/DCC and Slit-2/Robo-1 but downregulated intrinsic growth-inhibitory signals NogoA/NgR/RhoA/ROCK-2. Taken together, our data indicated that TMP facilitated poststroke axonal remodeling and motor functional recovery. Moreover, our findings suggested that TMP restored local CBF, augmented guidance cues, and restrained intrinsic growth-inhibitory signals, all of which might improve the intracerebral microenvironment of ischemic areas and then benefit white matter remodeling.

14.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 8(5)2022 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35628718

RESUMO

Small GTPases from the ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) family and their activating proteins (Arf-GAPs) regulate mycelial development, endocytosis, and virulence in fungi. Here, we identified two orthologous Arf-GAP proteins, AoGcs1 and AoGts1, in a typical nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora. The transcription of Aogcs1 and Aogts1 was highly expressed in the sporulation stage. The deletion of Aogcs1 and Aogts1 caused defects in DNA damage, endocytosis, scavenging of reactive oxygen species, lipid droplet storage, mitochondrial activity, autophagy, serine protease activity, and the response to endoplasmic reticulum stress. The combined effects resulted in slow growth, decreased sporulation capacity, increased susceptibility to chemical stressors and heat shock, and decreased pathogenicity of the mutants compared with the wild-type (WT) strain. Although deletion of Aogcs1 and Aogts1 produced similar phenotfypic traits, their roles varied in conidiation and proteolytic activity. The ΔAogts1 mutant showed a remarkable reduction in conidial yield compared with the WT strain but not in proteolytic activity; in contrast, the ΔAogcs1 mutant showed an increase in proteolytic activity but not in sporulation. In addition, the growth of ΔAogcs1 and ΔAogts1 mutants was promoted by rapamycin, and the ΔAogts1 mutant was sensitive to H-89. Collectively, the ΔAogts1 mutant showed a more remarkable difference compared with the WT strain than the ΔAogcs1 mutant. Our study further illustrates the importance of Arf-GAPs in the growth, development, and pathogenicity of nematode-trapping fungi.

15.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 2254, 2022 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35474066

RESUMO

The evolutionary origin of the photosynthetic eukaryotes drastically altered the evolution of complex lifeforms and impacted global ecology. The endosymbiotic theory suggests that photosynthetic eukaryotes evolved due to endosymbiosis between non-photosynthetic eukaryotic host cells and photosynthetic cyanobacterial or algal endosymbionts. The photosynthetic endosymbionts, propagating within the cytoplasm of the host cells, evolved, and eventually transformed into chloroplasts. Despite the fundamental importance of this evolutionary event, we have minimal understanding of this remarkable evolutionary transformation. Here, we design and engineer artificial, genetically tractable, photosynthetic endosymbiosis between photosynthetic cyanobacteria and budding yeasts. We engineer various mutants of model photosynthetic cyanobacteria as endosymbionts within yeast cells where, the engineered cyanobacteria perform bioenergetic functions to support the growth of yeast cells under defined photosynthetic conditions. We anticipate that these genetically tractable endosymbiotic platforms can be used for evolutionary studies, particularly related to organelle evolution, and also for synthetic biology applications.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Simbiose , Evolução Biológica , Cloroplastos/genética , Cianobactérias/genética , Fotossíntese/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Simbiose/genética
16.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 8(4)2022 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35448637

RESUMO

Nematode-trapping (NT) fungi play a significant role in the biological control of plant- parasitic nematodes. NT fungi, as a predator, can differentiate into specialized structures called "traps" to capture, kill, and consume nematodes at a nutrient-deprived condition. Therefore, trap formation is also an important indicator that NT fungi transition from a saprophytic to a predacious lifestyle. With the development of gene knockout and multiple omics such as genomics, transcriptomics, and metabolomics, increasing studies have tried to investigate the regulation mechanism of trap formation in NT fungi. This review summarizes the potential regulatory mechanism of trap formation in NT fungi based on the latest findings in this field. Signaling pathways have been confirmed to play an especially vital role in trap formation based on phenotypes of various mutants and multi-omics analysis, and the involvement of small molecule compounds, woronin body, peroxisome, autophagy, and pH-sensing receptors in the formation of traps are also discussed. In addition, we also highlight the research focus for elucidating the mechanism underlying trap formation of NT fungi in the future.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35476574

RESUMO

The single cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) technique begins a new era by revealing gene expression patterns at single-cell resolution, enabling studies of heterogeneity and transcriptome dynamics of complex tissues at single-cell resolution. However, existing large proportion of dropout events may hinder downstream analyses. Thus imputation of dropout events is an important step in analyzing scRNA-seq data. We develop scTSSR2, a new imputation method which combines matrix decomposition with the previously developed two-side sparse self-representation, leading to fast two-side sparse self-representation to impute dropout events in scRNA-seq data. The comparisons of computational speed and memory usage among different imputation methods show that scTSSR2 has distinct advantages in terms of computational speed and memory usage. Comprehensive downstream experiments show that scTSSR2 outperforms the state-of-the-art imputation methods. A user-friendly R package scTSSR2 is developed to denoise the scRNA-seq data to improve the data quality.

18.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 106(8): 3069-3080, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35435455

RESUMO

Monascus purpureus is a fungus known for producing various physiologically active secondary metabolites. Of these, Monacolin K, a compound with hypocholesterolemic effects, is controlled by the biosynthetic gene mokF. Here, mokF deletion and overexpression strains (F2 and C3, respectively) were constructed using genetic engineering and compared with the M. purpureus wild strain (M1). The results showed that Monacolin K production was reduced by 50.86% in F2 and increased by 74.19% in C3. Of the three strains, C3 showed the highest production of Monacolin K and the most abnormal morphology. In addition, mokF influenced the expression level of mokA-mokI and might play an important role in regulating the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in M. purpureus. Overall, our study verified the function of mokF in M. purpureus using gene deletion and overexpression technology. KEY POINTS: • The deletion and overexpression strains of mokF gene were successfully constructed. • The deletion or overexpression of mokF gene directly affected Monacolin K production. •The mokF gene had little effect on Monascus pigments and cell biomass.


Assuntos
Monascus , Deleção de Genes , Engenharia Genética , Lovastatina , Monascus/genética , Monascus/metabolismo , Pigmentos Biológicos , Metabolismo Secundário/genética
19.
Nanoscale Adv ; 4(5): 1318-1323, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35342862

RESUMO

In the research ecosystem's quest towards having deployable organic light-emitting diodes with higher-energy emission (e.g., blue light), we advocate focusing on fluorescent emitters, due to their relative stability and colour purity, and developing design strategies to significantly improve their efficiencies. We propose that all triplet-triplet annihilation upconversion (TTA-UC) emitters would make good candidates for triplet fusion-enhanced OLEDs ("FuLEDs"), due to the energetically uphill nature of the photophysical process, and their common requirements. We demonstrate this with the low-cost sky-blue 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran (DPBF). Having satisfied the criteria for TTA-UC, we show DPBF as a photon upconverter (I th 92 mW cm-2), and henceforth demonstrate it as a bright emitter for FuLEDs. Notably, the devices achieved 6.5% external quantum efficiency (above the ∼5% threshold without triplet contribution), and triplet-exciton-fusion-generated fluorescence contributes up to 44% of the electroluminescence, as shown by transient measurements. Here, triplet fusion translates to a quantum yield (Φ TTA-UC) of 19%, at an electrical excitation of ∼0.01 mW cm-2. The enhancement is meaningful for commercial blue OLED displays. We also found DPBF to have decent hole mobilities of ∼0.08 cm2 V-1 s-1. This additional finding can lead to DPBF being used in other capacities in various printable electronics.

20.
Ann Transl Med ; 10(2): 40, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35282134

RESUMO

Background: N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most frequent internal methylation of eukaryotic RNA (ribonucleic acid) transcripts and plays an important function in RNA processing. The current research aimed to investigate the role of m6A-STIM2 axis in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) progression. Methods: The expression of STIM2 (Stromal Interaction Molecule 2) in CCA was measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). STIM2 was examined in vivo for its effects on the malignant phenotypes of CCA cells. The m6A modification of STIM2 was assessed through MeRIP (methylated RNA Immunoprecipitation)-PCR. Results: Based on the GEPIA (Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis) 2 database findings, a low STIM2 mRNA (messenger RNA) level was related to a poor prognosis in individuals with CCA. Quantitative PCR and IHC assays indicated decreased protein satin in CCA tissues and were associated with extrahepatic metastasis. Vianude mice tail vein injection model indicated that increased STIM2 levels suppressed CCA cell metastasis in vivo, while KRT8 (keratin 8) was detected as the direct downstream target of STIM2-mediated CCA cell metastasis in vivo. Meanwhile, based on SRAMP database and MeRIP assays indicated that m6A alteration resulted in abnormal STIM2 expression in CCA via METTL14 and YTHDC2. Conclusions: Our findings revealed the epi-transcriptomic dysregulation in CCA and metastasis by proposing a complicated STIM2-KRT8 regulatory paradigm based on m6A alteration.

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