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1.
Adv Mater ; : e1800973, 2018 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29984441

RESUMO

The chemical stabilities of hybrid perovskite materials demand further improvement toward long-term and large-scale photovoltaic applications. Herein, the enhanced chemical stability of CH3 NH3 PbI3 is reported by doping the divalent anion Se2- in the form of PbSe in precursor solutions to enhance the hydrogen-bonding-like interactions between the organic cations and the inorganic framework. As a result, in 100% humidity at 40 °C, the 10% w/w PbSe-doped CH3 NH3 PbI3 films exhibited >140-fold stability improvement over pristine CH3 NH3 PbI3 films. As the PbSe-doped CH3 NH3 PbI3 films maintained the perovskite structure, a top efficiency of 10.4% with 70% retention after 700 h aging in ambient air is achieved with an unencapsulated 10% w/w PbSe:MAPbI3 -based cell. As a bonus, the incorporated Se2- also effectively suppresses iodine diffusion, leading to enhanced chemical stability of the silver electrodes.

2.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 2230, 2017 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29263379

RESUMO

Organic-inorganic perovskite solar cells have attracted tremendous attention because of their remarkably high power conversion efficiencies. To further improve device performance, it is imperative to obtain fundamental understandings on the photo-response and long-term stability down to the microscopic level. Here, we report the quantitative nanoscale photoconductivity imaging on two methylammonium lead triiodide thin films with different efficiencies by light-stimulated microwave impedance microscopy. The microwave signals are largely uniform across grains and grain boundaries, suggesting that microstructures do not lead to strong spatial variations of the intrinsic photo-response. In contrast, the measured photoconductivity and lifetime are strongly affected by bulk properties such as the sample crystallinity. As visualized by the spatial evolution of local photoconductivity, the degradation process begins with the disintegration of grains rather than nucleation and propagation from visible boundaries between grains. Our findings provide insights to improve the electro-optical properties of perovskite thin films towards large-scale commercialization.

3.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(39): 33565-33570, 2017 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28914536

RESUMO

In this letter, methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) thin films were examined via piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) and nanoindentation (NI) to determine if long-range atomic order existed across the full width and depth of the apparent grains. From the PFM, the piezoelectric response of the films was strongly correlated with low-index planes of the crystal structure and ferroelastic domains in macroscale solution-grown MAPbI3 crystals, which implied long-range order near the top surface. From the NI, it was found that the induced cracks were straight and extended across the full width of the apparent grains, which indicated that the long-range order was not limited to the near-surface region, but extended through the film thickness. Interestingly, the two MAPbI3 processes examined resulted in subtle differences in the extracted electro-mechanical and fracture properties, but exhibited similar power conversion efficiencies of >17% in completed devices.

4.
Science ; 356(6333): 59-62, 2017 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28386007

RESUMO

The Shockley-Queisser limit for solar cell efficiency can be overcome if hot carriers can be harvested before they thermalize. Recently, carrier cooling time up to 100 picoseconds was observed in hybrid perovskites, but it is unclear whether these long-lived hot carriers can migrate long distance for efficient collection. We report direct visualization of hot-carrier migration in methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) thin films by ultrafast transient absorption microscopy, demonstrating three distinct transport regimes. Quasiballistic transport was observed to correlate with excess kinetic energy, resulting in up to 230 nanometers transport distance that could overcome grain boundaries. The nonequilibrium transport persisted over tens of picoseconds and ~600 nanometers before reaching the diffusive transport limit. These results suggest potential applications of hot-carrier devices based on hybrid perovskites.

5.
Adv Mater ; 29(23)2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28417505

RESUMO

Organic-inorganic perovskites with intriguing optical and electrical properties have attracted significant research interests due to their excellent performance in optoelectronic devices. Recent efforts on preparing uniform and large-grain polycrystalline perovskite films have led to enhanced carrier lifetime up to several microseconds. However, the mobility and trap densities of polycrystalline perovskite films are still significantly behind their single-crystal counterparts. Here, a facile topotactic-oriented attachment (TOA) process to grow highly oriented perovskite films, featuring strong uniaxial-crystallographic texture, micrometer-grain morphology, high crystallinity, low trap density (≈4 × 1014 cm-3 ), and unprecedented 9 GHz charge-carrier mobility (71 cm2 V-1 s-1 ), is demonstrated. TOA-perovskite-based n-i-p planar solar cells show minimal discrepancies between stabilized efficiency (19.0%) and reverse-scan efficiency (19.7%). The TOA process is also applicable for growing other state-of-the-art perovskite alloys, including triple-cation and mixed-halide perovskites.

6.
Nano Lett ; 17(3): 1796-1801, 2017 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28151679

RESUMO

We perform scanning microwave microscopy (SMM) to study the spatially varying electronic properties and related morphology of pristine and degraded methylammonium lead-halide (MAPI) perovskite films fabricated under different ambient humidity. We find that higher processing humidity leads to the emergence of increased conductivity at the grain boundaries but also correlates with the appearance of resistive grains that contain PbI2. Deteriorated films show larger and increasingly insulating grain boundaries as well as spatially localized regions of reduced conductivity within grains. These results suggest that while humidity during film fabrication primarily benefits device properties due to the passivation of traps at the grain boundaries and self-doping, it also results in the emergence of PbI2-containing grains. We further establish that MAPI film deterioration under ambient conditions proceeds via the spatially localized breakdown of film conductivity, both at grain boundaries and within grains, due to local variations in susceptibility to deterioration. These results confirm that PbI2 has both beneficial and adverse effects on device performance and provide new means for device optimization by revealing spatial variations in sample conductivity as well as morphological differences in resistance to sample deterioration.

7.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 53(16): 2467-2470, 2017 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28180211

RESUMO

The flat band potentials and carrier densities of spin coated and sprayed MAPbI3, FA0.85Cs0.15PbI3, and MAPbBr3 perovskite films were determined using the Mott-Schottky relation. The films developed a space charge layer and exhibited p-type conduction with a carrier concentration of ∼1016 cm-3 for spin coated films. Electrochemical impedance spectra showed typical space charge impedance at frequencies >1 kHz, and an exceptional high capacitance at frequency <1 kHz owing to an ion diffusion component.

8.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 19(7): 5043-5050, 2017 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28168255

RESUMO

Here, we examine grain boundaries (GBs) with respect to non-GB regions (grain surfaces (GSs) and grain interiors (GIs)) in high-quality micrometer-sized perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 (or MAPbI3) thin films using high-resolution confocal fluorescence-lifetime imaging microscopy in conjunction with kinetic modeling of charge-transport and recombination processes. We show that, contrary to previous studies, GBs in our perovskite MAPbI3 thin films do not lead to increased recombination but that recombination in these films happens primarily in the non-GB regions (i.e., GSs or GIs). We also find that GBs in these films are not transparent to photogenerated carriers, which is likely associated with a potential barrier at GBs. Even though GBs generally display lower luminescence intensities than GSs/GIs, the lifetimes at GBs are no worse than those at GSs/GIs, further suggesting that GBs do not dominate non-radiative recombination in MAPbI3 thin films.

9.
Nat Commun ; 7: 12613, 2016 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27577007

RESUMO

A strong interaction of a semiconductor with a below-bandgap laser pulse causes a blue-shift of the bandgap transition energy, known as the optical Stark effect. The energy shift persists only during the pulse duration with an instantaneous response time. The optical Stark effect has practical relevance for applications, including quantum information processing and communication, and passively mode-locked femtosecond lasers. Here we demonstrate that solution-processable lead-halide perovskites exhibit a large optical Stark effect that is easily resolved at room temperature resulting from the sharp excitonic feature near the bandedge. We also demonstrate that a polarized pump pulse selectively shifts one spin state producing a spin splitting of the degenerate excitonic states. Such selective spin manipulation is an important prerequisite for spintronic applications. Our result implies that such hybrid semiconductors may have great potential for optoelectronic applications beyond photovoltaics.

10.
Nat Commun ; 7: 12305, 2016 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27477212

RESUMO

Organometallic halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have shown great promise as a low-cost, high-efficiency photovoltaic technology. Structural and electro-optical properties of the perovskite absorber layer are most critical to device operation characteristics. Here we present a facile fabrication of high-efficiency PSCs based on compact, large-grain, pinhole-free CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx (MAPbI3-xBrx) thin films with high reproducibility. A simple methylammonium bromide (MABr) treatment via spin-coating with a proper MABr concentration converts MAPbI3 thin films with different initial film qualities (for example, grain size and pinholes) to high-quality MAPbI3-xBrx thin films following an Ostwald ripening process, which is strongly affected by MABr concentration and is ineffective when replacing MABr with methylammonium iodide. A higher MABr concentration enhances I-Br anion exchange reaction, yielding poorer device performance. This MABr-selective Ostwald ripening process improves cell efficiency but also enhances device stability and thus represents a simple, promising strategy for further improving PSC performance with higher reproducibility and reliability.

11.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 7(15): 2879-87, 2016 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27396858

RESUMO

We report on the carrier-rotor coupling effect in perovskite organic-inorganic hybrid lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) compounds discovered by isotope effects. Deuterated organic-inorganic perovskite compounds including CH3ND3PbI3, CD3NH3PbI3, and CD3ND3PbI3 were synthesized. Devices made from regular CH3NH3PbI3 and deuterated CH3ND3PbI3 exhibit comparable performance in band gap, current-voltage, carrier mobility, and power conversion efficiency. However, a time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) study reveals that CH3NH3PbI3 exhibits notably longer carrier lifetime than that of CH3ND3PbI3, in both thin-film and single-crystal formats. Furthermore, the comparison in carrier lifetime between CD3NH3PbI3 and CH3ND3PbI3 single crystals suggests that vibrational modes in methylammonium (MA(+)) have little impact on carrier lifetime. In contrast, the fully deuterated compound CD3ND3PbI3 reconfirmed the trend of decreasing carrier lifetime upon the increasing moment of inertia of cationic MA(+). Polaron model elucidates the electron-rotor interaction.

12.
J Am Chem Soc ; 138(17): 5535-8, 2016 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27088448

RESUMO

Here we demonstrate a radically different chemical route for the creation of HC(NH2)2PbI3 (FAPbI3) perovskite thin films. This approach entails a simple exposure of as-synthesized CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) perovskite thin films to HC(═NH)NH2 (formamidine or FA) gas at 150 °C, which leads to rapid displacement of the MA(+) cations by FA(+) cations in the perovskite structure. The resultant FAPbI3 perovskite thin films preserve the microstructural morphology of the original MAPbI3 thin films exceptionally well. Importantly, the myriad processing innovations that have led to the creation of high-quality MAPbI3 perovskite thin films are directly adaptable to FAPbI3 through this simple, rapid chemical-conversion route. Accordingly, we show that efficiencies of perovskite solar cells fabricated with FAPbI3 thin films created using this route can reach ∼18%.

13.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 7(5): 905-17, 2016 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26886052

RESUMO

High-performance perovskite solar cells (PSCs) based on organometal halide perovskite have emerged in the past five years as excellent devices for harvesting solar energy. Some remaining challenges should be resolved to continue the momentum in their development. The photocurrent density-voltage (J-V) responses of the PSCs demonstrate anomalous dependence on the voltage scan direction/rate/range, voltage conditioning history, and device configuration. The hysteretic J-V behavior presents a challenge for determining the accurate power conversion efficiency of the PSCs. Here, we review the recent progress on the investigation of the origin(s) of J-V hysteresis behavior in PSCs. We discuss the impact of slow transient capacitive current, trapping and detrapping process, ion migrations, and ferroelectric polarization on the hysteresis behavior. The remaining issues and future research required toward the understanding of J-V hysteresis in PSCs will also be discussed.


Assuntos
Compostos de Cálcio/química , Óxidos/química , Energia Solar , Titânio/química
14.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 8(3): 2232-7, 2016 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26726763

RESUMO

Wide-bandgap perovskite solar cells (PSCs) based on organolead (I, Br)-mixed halide perovskites (e.g., MAPbI2Br and MAPbIBr2 perovskite with bandgaps of 1.77 and 2.05 eV, respectively) are considered as promising low-cost alternatives for application in tandem or multijunction photovoltaics (PVs). Here, we demonstrate that manipulating the crystallization behavior of (I, Br)-mixed halide perovskites in antisolvent bath is critical for the formation of smooth, dense thin films of these perovskites. Since the growth of perovskite grains from a precursor solution tends to be more rapid with increasing Br content, further enhancement in the nucleation rate becomes necessary for the effective decoupling of the nucleation and the crystal-growth stages in Br-rich perovskites. This is enabled by introducing simple stirring during antisolvent-bathing, which induces enhanced advection transport of the extracted precursor-solvent into the bath environment. Consequently, wide-bandgap planar PSCs fabricated using these high quality mixed-halide perovskite thin films, Br-rich MAPbIBr2, in particular, show enhanced PV performance.

15.
J Am Chem Soc ; 138(3): 750-3, 2016 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26730744

RESUMO

We demonstrate the feasibility of a nonsalt-based precursor pair--inorganic HPbI3 solid and organic CH3NH2 gas--for the deposition of uniform CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite thin films. The strong room-temperature solid-gas interaction between HPbI3 and CH3NH2 induces transformative evolution of ultrasmooth, full-coverage perovskite thin films at a rapid rate (in seconds) from nominally processed rough, partial-coverage HPbI3 thin films. The chemical origin of this behavior is elucidated via in situ experiments. Perovskite solar cells, fabricated using MAPbI3 thin films thus deposited, deliver power conversion efficiencies up to 18.2%, attesting to the high quality of the perovskite thin films deposited using this transformative process.

16.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 7(3): 418-25, 2016 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26757105

RESUMO

In spite of the rapid rise of metal organic halide perovskites for next-generation solar cells, little quantitative information on the electronic structure of interfaces of these materials is available. The present study characterizes the electronic structure of interfaces between semiconducting single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) contacts and a prototypical methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) absorber layer. Using photoemission spectroscopy we provide quantitative values for the energy levels at the interface and observe the formation of an interfacial dipole between SWCNTs and perovskite. This process can be ascribed to electron donation from the MAPbI3 to the adjacent SWCNT making the nanotube film n-type at the interface and inducing band bending throughout the SWCNT layer. We then use transient absorbance spectroscopy to correlate this electronic alignment with rapid and efficient photoexcited charge transfer. The results indicate that SWCNT transport and contact layers facilitate rapid charge extraction and suggest avenues for enhancing device performance.

17.
Nanoscale ; 8(12): 6265-70, 2016 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26549434

RESUMO

The microstructure of the solid-PbI2 precursor thin film plays an important role in the intercalation crystallization of the formamidinium lead triiodide perovskite (α-HC(NH2)2PbI3). It is shown that microstructurally engineered PbI2 thin films with porosity and low crystallinity are the most favorable for conversion into uniform-coverage, phase-pure α-HC(NH2)2PbI3 perovskite thin films. Planar perovskite solar cells fabricated using these thin films deliver power conversion efficiency (PCE) up to 13.8%.

18.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 6(23): 4693-700, 2015 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26550850

RESUMO

In the past five years, perovskite solar cells (PSCs) based on organometal halide perovskite have exhibited extraordinary photovoltaic (PV) performance. However, the PV measurements of PSCs have been widely recognized to depend on voltage scanning condition (hysteretic current density-voltage [J-V] behavior), as well as on voltage treatment history. In this study, we find that varied PSC responses are attributable to two causes. First, capacitive effect associated with electrode polarization provides a slow transient non-steady-state photocurrent that modifies the J-V response. Second, modification of interfacial barriers induced by ion migration can modulate charge-collection efficiency so that it causes a pseudo-steady-state photocurrent, which changes according to previous voltage conditioning. Both phenomena are strongly influenced by ions accumulating at outer interfaces, but their electrical and PV effects are different. The time scale for decay of capacitive current is on the order of seconds, whereas the slow redistribution of mobile ions requires several minutes.


Assuntos
Compostos de Cálcio/química , Íons/química , Óxidos/química , Energia Solar , Titânio/química , Eletricidade , Humanos
19.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 6(23): 4688-92, 2015 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26551036

RESUMO

Understanding carrier recombination in semiconductors is a critical component when developing practical applications. Here we measure and compare the monomolecular, bimolecular, and trimolecular (Auger) recombination rate constants of CH3NH3PbBr3 and CH3NH3PbI3. The monomolecular and bimolecular recombination rate constants for both samples are limited by trap-assisted recombination. The bimolecular recombination rate constant for CH3NH3PbBr3 is ∼3.3 times larger than that for CH3NH3PbI3 and both are in line with that found for radiative recombination in other direct-gap semiconductors. The Auger recombination rate constant is 4 times larger in lead-bromide-based perovskite compared with lead-iodide-based perovskite and does not follow the reduced Auger rate when the bandgap increases. The increased Auger recombination rate, which is enhanced by Coulomb interactions, can be ascribed to the larger exciton binding energy, ∼40 meV, in CH3NH3PbBr3 compared with ∼13 meV in CH3NH3PbI3.


Assuntos
Compostos de Cálcio/química , Nanopartículas/química , Óxidos/química , Recombinação Genética/genética , Titânio/química , Medições Luminescentes , Espectroscopia Fotoeletrônica
20.
Adv Mater ; 27(41): 6363-70, 2015 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26414514

RESUMO

The preparation of uniform, high-crystallinity planar perovskite films with high-aspect-ratio grains over a square-inch area is demonstrated. The best power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 16.3% (stabilized output of ≈15.6%) is obtained for a planar perovskite solar cell (PSC) with 1.2 cm2 active area, and the PCE jumps to 18.3% (stabilized output of ≈17.5%) for a PSC with a 0.12 cm2 active area.

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