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1.
J Geriatr Cardiol ; 19(4): 276-283, 2022 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35572222

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the duration of the pre-hospital delay time and identify factors associated with prolonged pre-hospital delay in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in China. METHODS: Data were collected from November 2014 to December 2019 as part of the Improving Care for Cardiovascular Disease in China-Acute Coronary Syndrome (CCC-ACS) project. A total of 33,386 patients with AMI admitted to the index hospitals were included in this study. Two-level logistic regression was conducted to explore the factors associated with the pre-hospital delay and the associations between different pre-hospital delay and in-hospital outcomes. RESULTS: Of the 33,386 patients with AMI, 70.7% of patients arrived at hospital ≥ 2 h after symptom onset. Old age, female, rural medical insurance, symptom onset at early dawn, and non-use of an ambulance predicted a prolonged pre-hospital delay (all P < 0.05). Hypertension and heart failure at admission were only significant in predicting a longer delay in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) (all P < 0.05). A pre-hospital delay of ≥ 2 h was associated with an increased risk of mortality [odds ratio (OR) = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.09-1.69, P = 0.006] and major adverse cardiovascular events (OR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.02-1.47, P = 0.033) in patients with STEMI compared with a pre-hospital delay of < 2 h. CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged pre-hospital delay is associated with adverse in-hospital outcomes in patients with STEMI in China. Our study identifies that patient characteristics, symptom onset time, and type of transportation are associated with pre-hospital delay time, and provides focuses for quality improvement.

2.
BMC Microbiol ; 22(1): 128, 2022 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35549900

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella pullorum are two important groups of zoonotic pathogens. At present, the treatment of intestinal pathogenic bacteria infection mainly relies on antibiotics, which directly inhibit or kill the pathogenic bacteria. However, due to long-term irrational, excessive use or abuse, bacteria have developed different degrees of drug resistance. N6, an arenicin-3 derivative isolated from the lugworm, has potent antibacterial activity and is poorly resistant to enzymatic hydrolysis and distribution in vivo. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is an extensively studied polymer and commonly used in protein or peptide drugs to improve their therapeutic potential. Here, we modified the N-/C-terminal or Cys residue of N6 with liner PEGn of different lengths (n = 2, 6,12, and 24), and the effects of PEGylation of N6 on the stability, toxicity, bactericidal mechanism, distribution and efficacy were investigated in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: The antimicrobial activity of the peptide showed that PEGylated N6 at the C-terminus (n = 2, N6-COOH-miniPEG) had potent activity against Gram-negative bacteria; PEGylated N6 at the N-terminus and Cys residues showed low or no activity with increasing lengths of PEG. N6-COOH-miniPEG has higher stability in trypsin than the parent peptide-N6. N6-COOH-miniPEG significantly regulated cytokine expression in lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells, and the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-1ß were reduced by 31.21%, 65.62% and 44.12%, respectively, lower than those of N6 (-0.06%, -12.36% and -12.73%); N6-COOH-miniPEG increased the level of IL-10 (37.83%), higher than N6 (-10.21%). The data indicated that N6-COOH-miniPEG has more potent anti-inflammatory and immune-regulatory effect than N6 in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. N6-COOH-miniPEG exhibited a much wider biodistribution in mice and prolonged in vivo half-time. FITC-labeled N6-COOH-miniPEG was distributed throughout the body of mice in the range of 0.75 - 2 h after injection, while FITC-labeled N6 only concentrated in the abdominal cavity of mice after injection, and the distribution range was narrow. N6-COOH-miniPEG improved the survival rates of mice challenged with E. coli or S. pullorum, downregulated the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1ß and IL-10 in the serum of LPS-infected mice, and alleviated multiple-organ injuries (the liver, spleen, kidney, and lung), superior to antibiotics, but slightly inferior to N6. CONCLUSIONS: The antibacterial activity, bactericidal mechanism and cytotoxicity of N6-COOH-miniPEG and N6 were similar. N6-COOH-miniPEG has a higher resistance to trysin than N6. The distribution of N6-COOH-miniPEG in mice was superior to that of N6. In exploring the modulatory effects of antimicrobial peptides on cytokines, N6-COOH-miniPEG had stronger anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects than N6. The results suggested that C-terminal PEGylated N6 may provide an opportunity for the development of effective anti-inflammatory and antibacterial peptides.

3.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 22(1): 144, 2022 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35568822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to investigate whether intratracheal dexmedetomidine combined with ropivacaine reduces the severity and incidence of postoperative sore throat after tracheal intubation under general anaesthesia. METHODS: Two hundred patients with American Society of Anaesthesiologists physical status I-II who were subjected to general anaesthesia were randomly divided into four groups, namely, Group D, Group R, Group DR and Group S; these groups received intratracheal dexmedetomidine (1 µg/kg), 0.8% ropivacaine (40 mg), dexmedetomidine (1 µg/kg) combined with 0.8% ropivacaine (40 mg) and normal saline before endotracheal intubation, respectively. The primary outcomes were the incidence and grade of sore throat and hoarseness at 2 h and 24 h after surgery. Moreover, the modified Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation Scale results were recorded at each time point. The secondary outcomes were intraoperative haemodynamic fluctuations, intraoperative anaesthetic drug requirements, and adverse reactions during and after surgery. The patients' vital signs before induction, before superficial anaesthesia, after superficial anaesthesia, before intubation, after intubation, and 1 min after intubation were recorded. The use of anaesthetic drugs and occurrence of adverse effects were also recorded. RESULTS: The incidence and severity of sore throat were significantly lower in Group DR than in the other three groups 2 h after the operation, but they were only significantly lower in Group DR than in the control group 24 h after the operation. Moreover, compared with Group S and Group D, Group DR exhibited more stable haemodynamics during intubation. The doses of remifentanil and propofol were significantly lower in Group DR than in the other groups. CONCLUSION: The combined use of dexmedetomidine and ropivacaine for surface anaesthesia before intubation significantly reduced the incidence and severity of postoperative sore throat. This treatment also decreased anaesthetic drug requirements and intraoperative haemodynamic fluctuations and caused no adverse effects. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This clinical research was registered at the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR1900022907, Registration date 30/04/2019).

4.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 66: 116811, 2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35576655

RESUMO

Acute inflammatory diseases, such as sepsis, are life-threatening illnesses. Regulating the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAchR)-mediated signaling may be a promising strategy to treat sepsis. Diarylheptanoids have long been found to exhibit anti-inflammatory properties. However, the possible mechanism of diarylheptanoids has rarely been investigated. In this study, we isolated and synthesized 49 diarylheptanoids and analogues and evaluated their anti-inflammatory activities. Among them, compounds 28 and 40 markedly blocked lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of nitric oxide (NO), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) and interleukin-6 in murine RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, compounds 28 and 40 also effectively attenuated LPS-induced sepsis, acute lung injury, and cytokines release in vivo. Mechanistically, compounds 28 and 40 significantly induced phosphorylation of janus kinase 2/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (JAK2/STAT3) signaling and suppression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway. Furthermore, blocking α7 nAchR could effectively abolish compounds 28 and 40-mediated activation of JAK2-STAT3 signaling as well as inhibition of NF-κB activation and NO production in LPS-exposed RAW264.7 cells. Collectively, our findings have identified a new diarylheptanoid, compound 28, as an agonist of α7 nAchR-JAK2-STAT3 signaling, which can be potentially developed as a valuable candidate for the treatment of sepsis, and provide a new lead structure for the development of anti-inflammatory agents targeting α7 nAchR-JAK2-STAT3 signaling.

5.
BMC Med Imaging ; 22(1): 81, 2022 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteoporotic vertebral fractures are often clinically silent and unrecognized. The present study aimed to determine whether routine chest radiographs could be a potential screening tool for identifying missed vertebral fractures in men aged over 50 years or postmenopausal women, especially those with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of undetected vertebral fractures in elderly Chinese patients with and without T2DM. METHODS: Clinical data and chest radiographs of 567 individuals with T2DM (T2DM group) and 583 without diabetes (nondiabetic group) at a tertiary hospital in central south China were extracted from the records. Vertebral fractures were specifically looked for on chest radiographs and classified using the Genant semi-quantitative scale. Prevalence was compared between the two groups. RESULTS: Mean age and sex composition were comparable between the two groups. Mean weight and body mass index were significantly lower in the T2DM group. In both groups, fractures mostly involved the T11-12 and L1 vertebrae. Moderate/severe fractures were identified in 33.3% individuals in the T2DM group (31.4% men and 36.0% women) versus 23.2% individuals (20.9% men and 25.5% women) in the nondiabetic group. CONCLUSIONS: Routine chest radiographs could be a useful screening tool for identifying asymptomatic vertebral fractures. Trial registration The study was designed as an observational retrospective study, therefore a trial registration was not necessary.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Fraturas por Osteoporose , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico por imagem , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fraturas por Osteoporose/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas por Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Pós-Menopausa , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/epidemiologia
6.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 209(Pt B): 2213-2225, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35504411

RESUMO

To explore an effective and economic method to prepare higher contents of resistant starch (RS), different enzyme treatments including single pullulanase (PUL), commercial α-amylase (AA) or/and ß-amylase (BA) with PUL, and malt endogenous amylase (MA) with PUL were used and the structural, physicochemical properties and digestibility of all modified starches (MS) were compared. All the enzyme-treated starches displayed a mixture of B and V-type diffraction patterns. The MA/PUL-MS showed higher V-type diffraction peak intensity as compared to other modified starches. Compared to the combination of commercial enzyme treatment, the combination of malt enzyme treatment led to higher apparent amylose contents (45.56%), RS content (53.93%) and thermal stability (302 °C), whereas it possessed lower solubility indices and predicted glycaemic index. The apparent viscosity and shear resistance of MA/PUL-MS were lower than that of AA/PUL-MS, whereas that of MA/PUL-MS was higher than that of BA/PUL-MS and BA/AA/PUL-MS. These findings would provide a theoretical and applicative basis to produce foods with lower GI in industrial production.

7.
ACS Macro Lett ; 11(1): 60-65, 2022 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35574782

RESUMO

A dual rate-modulation approach was implemented for the first time to create crystalline covalent triazine frameworks. Based on a new polycondensation approach, regulating the condensation rate via the exploitation of a modulated aldehyde monomer and addition of an extrinsic inhibitor affords inherent control over the polymer growth and therefore provides tunable crystallinities and porosities for the resulting triazine frameworks. The existence of rich redox-active triazine linkages gives rise to obtaining exceptional sodium storage, where 239 mAh g-1 at 1.0 A g-1 is obtained after 200 cycles. We anticipate this new protocol based on the dynamic imine metathesis will facilitate new possibilities for the construction of crystalline covalent triazine frameworks and promote their energy-related applications.

8.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 9: 828614, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35497978

RESUMO

Background: There are limited data available on the impact of early (within 24 h of admission) ß-blocker therapy on in-hospital outcomes of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and mild-moderate acute heart failure. This study aimed to explore the association between early oral ß-blocker therapy and in-hospital outcomes. Methods: Inpatients with STEMI and Killip class II or III heart failure from the Improving Care for Cardiovascular Disease in China project (n = 10,239) were enrolled. The primary outcome was a combined endpoint composed of in-hospital all-cause mortality, successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation after cardiac arrest, and cardiogenic shock. Inverse-probability-of-treatment weighting, multivariate Cox regression, and propensity score matching were performed. Results: Early oral ß-blocker therapy was administered to 56.5% of patients. The incidence of the combined endpoint events was significantly lower in patients with early therapy than in those without (2.7 vs. 5.1%, P < 0.001). Inverse-probability-of-treatment weighting analysis demonstrated that early ß-blocker therapy was associated with a low risk of combined endpoint events (HR = 0.641, 95% CI: 0.486-0.844, P = 0.002). Similar results were shown in multivariate Cox regression (HR = 0.665, 95% CI: 0.496-0.894, P = 0.007) and propensity score matching (HR = 0.633, 95% CI: 0.453-0.884, P = 0.007) analyses. A dose-response trend between the first-day ß-blocker dosages and adverse outcomes was observed in a subset of participants with available data. No factor could modify the association of early treatment and the primary outcomes among the subgroups analyses. Conclusion: Based on nationwide Chinese data, early oral ß-blocker therapy is independently associated with a lower risk of poor in-hospital outcome in patients with STEMI and Killip class II or III heart failure.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524777

RESUMO

Wound infection caused by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a great challenge which has caused significant burden and economic loss to the medical system. NZ2114, a plectasin-derived peptide, is an antibacterial agent for preventing and treating S. aureus infection, especially for methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infection. Here, three-dimensional reticulated antimicrobial peptide (AMP) NZ2114 hydrogels were developed based on hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) and sodium alginate (SA); they displayed sustained and stable release properties (97.88 ± 1.79% and 91.1 ± 10.52% release rate in 72 h, respectively) and good short-term cytocompatibility and hemocompatibility. But the HPC-NZ2114 hydrogel had a smaller pore size (diameter 0.832 ± 0.420 µm vs. 3.912 ± 2.881 µm) and better mechanical properties than that of the SA-NZ2114 hydrogel. HPC/SA-NZ2114 hydrogels possess efficient antimicrobial activity in vitro and in vivo. In a full-thickness skin defect model, the wound closure of the 1.024 mg/g HPC-NZ2114 hydrogel group was superior to those of the SA-NZ2114 hydrogel and antibiotic groups on day 7. The HPC-NZ2114 hydrogel accelerated wound healing by reducing inflammation and promoting the production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), endothelial growth factor (EGF) and angiogenesis (CD31) through histological and immunohistochemistry evaluation. These data indicated that the HPC-NZ2114 hydrogel is an excellent candidate for S. aureus infection wound dressing. KEY POINTS: •NZ2114 hydrogels showed potential in vitro bactericidal activity against S. aureus •NZ2114 hydrogels could release continuously for 72 h and had good biocompatibility •NZ2114 hydrogels could effectively promote S. aureus-infected wound healing.

10.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2200553, 2022 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35362198

RESUMO

Elastomers offer attractive advantages over classical solid-state electrolytes in terms of ensuring stable interfacial contact and maintaining fatigue durability, but the low ionic conductivity obstructs their practical applications in long-life lithium metal batteries. In this work, rubber-derived lithium-conducting elastomer has been developed via sulfur vulcanization of nitrile butadiene rubber with a polymerizable ionic liquid to provide both high resilience and dramatically improved ionic conductivity. Owing to the chemically crosslinked network between rubber chains and ionic liquid fragments generated during vulcanization, the elastic lithium-conductor achieves high resilience of 0.92 MJ m-3 , superior cyclic durability of 1000 cycles at 50% strain, and high room-temperature ionic conductivity of 2.7 × 10-4  S cm-1 . Consequently, the corresponding solid-state lithium/LiFePO4 battery exhibits a high capacity of ≈146 mAh g-1 with a high capacity retention of 94.3% for up to 300 cycles.

11.
Theor Appl Genet ; 2022 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35377004

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: A superior allele of wheat gene TaGL3.3-5B was identified and could be used in marker-assisted breeding in wheat. Identifying the main genes which mainly regulate the yield-associated traits can significantly increase the wheat production. In this study, gene TaGL3.3 was cloned from common wheat according to the sequence of OsPPKL3. A SNP in the 8th exon of TaGL3.3-5B, T/C in coding sequence (CDS), which resulted in an amino acid change (Val/Ala), was identified between the low 1000-kernel weight (TKW) wheat Chinese Spring and the high TKW wheat Xinong 817 (817). Subsequently, association analysis in the mini-core collection (MCC) and the recombinant inbred lines (RIL) revealed that the allele TaGL3.3-5B-C (from 817) was significantly correlated with higher TKW. The high frequency of TaGL3.3-5B-C in the Chinese modern wheat cultivars indicated that it was selected positively in wheat breeding programs. The overexpression of TaGL3.3-5B-C in Arabidopsis resulted in shorter pods and longer grains than those of wild-type counterparts. Additionally, TaGL3.3 expressed a tissue-specific pattern in wheat as revealed by qRT-PCR. We also found that 817 showed higher expression of TaGL3.3 than that in Chinese Spring (CS) during the seed development. These results demonstrate that TaGL3.3 plays an important role in the formation of seed size and weight. Allele TaGL3.3-5B-C is associated with larger and heavier grains that are beneficial to wheat yield improvement.

12.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2022 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35396533

RESUMO

Aberrant activation of cardiac fibroblasts is the main cause and character of cardiac fibrosis, and inhibition of cardiac fibrosis becomes a promising treatment for cardiac diseases. Platelet-activating factor (PAF) and Hippo pathway is recently recognized as key signaling mechanisms in cardiovascular diseases. In this study we explored the potential roles of PAF and Hippo signaling pathway in cardiac fibrosis. Myocardial infarction (MI) was induced in mice by left anterior descending artery ligation. After 28 days, the mice were sacrificed, and the hearts were collected for analyses. We showed that PAF receptor (PAFR) and yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1, a key effector in the Hippo pathway) were significantly increased in the heart of MI mice. Increased expression of PAFR and YAP1 was also observed in angiotensin II (Ang II)-treated mouse cardiac fibroblasts. In mouse cardiac fibroblasts, forced expression of YAP1 increased cell viability, resulted in collagen deposition and promoted fibroblast-myofibroblast transition. We showed that PAF induced fibrogenesis through activation of YAP1 and promoted its nuclear translocation via interacting with PAFR, while YAP1 promoted the expression of PAFR by binding to and activating transcription factor TEAD1. More importantly, silencing PAFR or YAP1 by shRNA, or using transgenic mice to induce the conditional deletion of YAP1 in cardiac fibroblasts, impeded cardiac fibrosis and improved cardiac function in MI mice. Taken together, this study elucidates the role and mechanisms of PAFR/YAP1 positive feedback loop in cardiac fibrosis, suggesting a potential role of this pathway as novel therapeutic targets in cardiac fibrosis.

13.
ACS Synth Biol ; 2022 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35471824

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic pathogen widely distributed within the world, poses a huge threat to human health, and causes significant economic losses to the livestock industry. Herein, we developed a portable one-pot detection of T. gondii by combining recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) and a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas12a system. A glass microfiber filter device used for the first step can efficiently extract T. gondii from low-concentration samples. The lyophilized RPA reagents and Cas12a/crRNA reagents are prestored in one Eppendorf tube, and both reactions can be performed on a low-cost thermal controller (∼37 °C), avoiding the drawbacks of the step-by-step addition of components. The developed RPA/CRISPR/Cas12a system exhibits a high selectivity toward the B1 gene amplicon of T. gondii over other parasites with a limit of detection of 3.3 copies/µL. The visual signal readout can be easily realized by a fluorometer or lateral-flow strip. A portable suitcase containing the minimum equipment and lyophilized reagents was adopted for the rapid determination of T. gondii in heavily polluted landfill leachate. This system presents rapidness, robustness and on-site features for the detection of nucleic acids of the parasite, making it a promising tool for field applications in remote areas.

14.
Plant Dis ; 2022 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35486599

RESUMO

Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) is one of the main biennial vegetables in China and its flowers can be produced in the second year. In May 2021, approximately 50% of the flower stalks of Chinese cabbage wilted in a field in Laizhou, China. Water-soaked lesions were first observed on the lateral shoots of flower stalks, leading to wilting at a later stage. Small diseased tissues were excised from the margin of lesions, surface disinfected in 75% alcohol, rinsed in distilled water twice, and transferred onto potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium for incubation at 28 ℃. Five fungal isolates were obtained using single spore isolation method. The fungal colonies were initially white and became gray or black within 5 days. The columella was globose to subglobose and 82.86±5.25 µm (n=5) in diameter; sporangiophores were smooth-walled, simple or branched; the globose sporangia were 86.06±15.37 µm (n=5) in diameter and black; the sporangiospores were subglobose and abundant and 5.23±0.98 µm (n=5) in diameter; and the rhizoids were dark brown and 5.69±1.82 µm (n=5) wide. A cetyl tri-methyl ammonium bromide method was used to extract DNA from 3-day-old hyphae (Ausubel et al. 1987). PCR was performed for ITS (White et al. 1990), the RNA polymerase II large subunit (RPB1) gene (Voigt et al. 2000) and the actin (ACT) gene (Stiller et al. 1997). The DNA sequences of the five isolates were identical, therefore, the sequence of Isolate RO21 was submitted to GenBank. According to BLAST search, the ITS (MZ452687), RPB1 (OK431470), and ACT (OK431471) sequences showed 99.66% similarity to Rhizopus oryzae Strain CBS 112.07 (NR103595), 100% to Strain CBS 127.08 (KJ566325) and 100% to Strain CBS 102660 (KJ551423), respectively. A neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree was reconstructed based on the ITS of Isolate RO21 and 14 other Rhizopus species sequences obtained from GenBank. Isolate RO21 was found to be most closely related to R. oryzae and far from other species. Based on morphological and phylogenetic characteristics, Isolate RO21 was identified as R. oryzae (Dolatabadi et al. 2014, Kwon et al. 2015, Palemón-Alberto et al. 2020). Sporangiospores were harvested from 5-day-old PDA cultures, suspended in sterilized distilled water, adjusted to 106 spores/ml and amended with 0.1% Tween-80. Chinese cabbage inbred line "A54-1" was inoculated near the middle of the flower stalk by applying 20 µl of spore suspension (106 spores/ml) to each of three sites wounded using a sterilized knife or to the unwounded site. Sterilized distilled water was used as the control. Forty flower stalks (20 for the inoculation treatment and the rest for the control) selected from ten plants were used for pathogenicity test. All plants were incubated in a growth chamber at 28/22 °C (day/night), with 80 to 90% of relative humidity. Wilting symptoms similar to those in the field were observed in the wounded flower stalks after 5 days and in the non-wounded flower stalks after 15 days. All control flower stalks remained asymptomatic. The fungus was re-isolated from the artificially infected flower stalks and identified as R. oryzae by morphological characteristics and sequencing to fulfill the Koch's postulates. To our knowledge, this is the first report that R. oryzae causes flower stalk wilting on Chinese cabbage in China. The results can provide the basis for future studies on the occurrence, prevention and management of this disease.

15.
Brain Res ; 1788: 147926, 2022 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35469847

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Activation of muscarinic receptors located in bladder sensory pathways is generally considered to be the primary contributor for driving the pathogenesis of neurogenic detrusor overactivity following spinal cord injury. The present study is undertaken to examine whether moxibustion improves neurogenic detrusor overactivity via modulating the abnormal muscarinic receptor pathway. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to spinal cord injury with T9-10 spinal cord transection. Fourteen days later, animals were received moxibustion treatment for one week. Urodynamic parameters and pelvic afferents discharge were measured. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content in the voided cystometry fluid was determined. Expressions of M2, M3, and P2X3 receptors in the bladder mucosa were evaluated. RESULTS: Moxibustion treatment prevented the development of detrusor overactivity in spinal cord injury rats, with an increase in the intercontraction interval and micturition pressure threshold and a decrease in afferent activity during filling. The expression of M2 was markedly suppressed by moxibustion, accompanied by a reduction in the levels of ATP and P2X3. M2 receptor antagonist methoctramine hemihydrate had similar effects to moxibustion on bladder function and afferent activity, while the M2-preferential agonist oxotremorine methiodide abolished the beneficial effects of moxibustion. CONCLUSION: Moxibustion is a potential candidate for treating neurogenic bladder overactivity in a rat model of spinal cord injury, possibly through inhibiting the M2/ATP/P2X3 pathway.

16.
Pediatr Diabetes ; 2022 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35411611

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and safety profile of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, lixisenatide, for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in pediatric individuals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this Phase 1, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, ascending repeated dose study (NCT02803918), participants aged ≥10 and < 18 years were randomized 3:1 to receive once-daily lixisenatide in 2-week increments of 5, 10, and 20 µg (n = 18) or placebo (n = 5) for 6 weeks. RESULTS: Mean lixisenatide concentrations generally increased with increasing doses irrespective of anti-drug antibody (ADA) status; however, mean lixisenatide concentrations and inter-subject variability were higher for participants with positive ADA status. Improvements in fasting plasma glucose, post-prandial glucose, AUC0-4.5 , HbA1c , and body weight were observed with lixisenatide. Overall, the safety profile was consistent with the known profile in adults, with no unexpected side effects and no treatment-emergent adverse events resulting in death or discontinuation. The most common events in the lixisenatide group were vomiting (11.1%) and nausea (11.1%). No symptomatic hypoglycemia was reported in either group. No clinically significant hematologic, biochemical or vital sign abnormalities were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Mean lixisenatide concentrations generally increased with increasing dose, irrespective of ADA status. Lixisenatide was associated with improved glycemic control and a trend in body weight reduction compared with placebo. The safety and tolerability profile of repeated lixisenatide doses of up to 20 µg per day in children and adolescents with T2D was reflective of the established safety profile of lixisenatide in adults.

17.
Front Neurosci ; 16: 846584, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35295093

RESUMO

The retina is an important visual organ, which is responsible for receiving light signals and transmitting them to the optic nerve center step by step. The retina contains a variety of cells, among which photoreceptor cells receive light signals and convert them into nerve signals, and are mainly responsible for light and dark vision. Retinal degeneration is mainly the degeneration of photoreceptor cells, and retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is characterized by rod degeneration followed by cone degeneration. So far, there is still a lack of effective drugs to treat RP. Here, we established a stable RP model by tail vein injection of methyl methanesulfonate to study the mechanism of retinal photoreceptor degeneration. Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is located in the central pathway of growth and energy metabolism and changes in a variety of diseases in response to pathological changes. We found that the mTOR was activated in this model. Therefore, the inhibitor of mTOR, rapamycin was used to suppress the expression of mTOR and interfere with photoreceptor degeneration. Electroretinogram assay showed that the function of mice retina was improved. Hematoxylin and eosin staining results displayed that retinal photoreceptor thickness and morphology were improved. Also, the autophagy in rapamycin group was activated, which revealed that rapamycin may protect the retinal photoreceptor by inhibiting mTOR and then activating autophagy.

18.
Front Pain Res (Lausanne) ; 3: 826160, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35295802

RESUMO

The outbreak of COVID-19 poses a serious threat to global health. Musculoskeletal (MSK) pain is the most frequent symptom in patients with COVID-19 besides fever and cough. There are limited studies addressing MSK symptoms in patients with COVID-19. This review aims to provide an overview of current studies related to MSK pain in patients with COVID-19, summarize the possible mechanisms of myalgia, and describe the current management options. In addition to acute respiratory manifestations, COVID-19 might also affect neurological systems which include skeletal manifestations and muscular injury. A possible mechanism of MSK pain and myalgia in COVID-19 may be related to the distribution of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) and the occurrence of cytokine storms. ACE-2 has been shown to be the receptor of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV2). Moreover, studies have shown that inflammatory cytokines could cause myalgia by inducing prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. In addition, it was also found that the plasma levels of IL2, IL7, IL10, IL-6, TNFα, and e lymphopenia were higher in patients with COVID-19. In general, the treatment of MSK pain in patients with COVID-19 falls into pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions. Various treatments of each have its own merits. The role of vaccination is irreplaceable in the efforts to prevent COVID-19 and mitigates its subsequent symptoms.

19.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 106(7): 2795-2809, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35348850

RESUMO

High-throughput sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene has been successfully applied to explore the microbial structure and dynamics in various environments. The distinctive microbial communities in oceanic trench sediments are expected because of the extremely high pressure and V-shape topology that caused the isolation from the other marine sediments. However, they have only been primarily targeted using 'universal' primers that provide variable performances for different environments. It is necessary to design specific primers to improve the detection resolution of unique microbial groups in oceanic trenches. Here, we designed one pair of bacterial and two pairs of archaeal specific primers based on 16S rRNA gene full-length sequences that truly come from trench sediment and tested their performances in 30 oceanic trench sediment samples. An in silico analysis showed that the V3-V4 hypervariable region was the most informative and representative for oceanic trench microbial groups. Compared with the 'universal' primers, 46 bacterial families were only detected by newly designed primer B344F/B749R, and eight archaeal families were only detected by the newly designed primer A306F/A713R which covered the one or two orders of magnitude more ASVs (amplicon sequence variants) (1,470,216) in the tested total 30 samples. Moreover, A306F/A713R had the largest number of observed ASVs suggesting its better performance in discovering more archaeal species which were easily ignored in universal primer-based experiments for oceanic trench sediments. The novel primers designed in this research could be a better option to access the unique microbial communities in extreme oceanic trench sediments.Key points• Defining V3-V4 as the most adequate hypervariable region for archaea and bacteria from oceanic trench sediments.• Three sets of bacterial and archaeal primers appear validity and advantage in revealing the real trench microbial communities.• The novel primers provide a better option to specifically detect the unique microbial communities in extreme oceanic trench sediments.


Assuntos
Archaea , Bactérias , Archaea/genética , Bactérias/genética , Genes de RNAr , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Humanos , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
20.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 820002, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35355561

RESUMO

Nowadays, diabetes and obesity are two main health-threatening metabolic disorders in the world, which increase the risk for many chronic diseases. Apelin, a peptide hormone, exerts its effect by binding with angiotensin II protein J receptor (APJ) and is considered to be linked with diabetes and obesity. Apelin and its receptor are widely present in the body and are involved in many physiological processes, such as glucose and lipid metabolism, homeostasis, endocrine response to stress, and angiogenesis. In this review, we summarize the literatures on the role of the Apelin-APJ system in diabetes and obesity for a better understanding of the mechanism and function of apelin and its receptor in the pathophysiology of diseases that may contribute to the development of new therapies.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular , Apelina/metabolismo , Receptores de Apelina/metabolismo , Humanos , Obesidade/metabolismo
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