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1.
Waste Manag ; 101: 180-187, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622863

RESUMO

With the rapid development of photovoltaic industry, the recycling of waste solar photovoltaic (PV) panels is becoming a critical and global challenge. Considering PV panels recycling is significantly effective and worthwhile to save natural resources and reduce the cost of production, how to selectively recycle valuable components of PV panels is the hot and dominant topic. Different from current mechanical crushing, heat treatment and chemical operation processes, novel and environment-friendly recycling approaches by using high voltage pulse discharge in water, called high voltage fragmentation (HVF), was discussed under different discharge conditions. The results showed that discharging across surface and interior of PV panels produced ablation round holes, sputter metal particles and dendritic channels. The average particle size decreased with the ascent of pulse number and voltage amplitude. Considering the energy consumption, the optimal condition of HVF in this paper was 160 kV for 300 pulses with the energy consumption of 192.99 J/g, crushing the PV panels into particles of 4.1 mm in average (13.7% of the initial size). More particle was distributed among the 0.1-2 mm size fractions as the energy increased. Selective fragmented products, such as Cu, Al, Pb, Ag and Sn, are concentrated on the fractions under 1 mm. Finally, hybrid crushing energy consumption model combined with fractal theory was discussed, which presented close relationship between energy and average particle size. Walker's model (n = 2.047 determined by fractal theory) had the best fitting effect.


Assuntos
Resíduo Eletrônico , Metais , Reciclagem
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 699: 134362, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522042

RESUMO

Heterogeneous reactions between gaseous pollutants and mineral particles have gradually become a research hotspot in the field of atmospheric chemistry. In this paper, competitive reactions between SO2 and acetic acid on the surface of α-Al2O3 and CaCO3 particles were studied by the diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopic (DRIFTS) technique in dark and dry conditions. At the same time, the temporary evolution of the integrated absorbance of acetate and sulfite was investigated to further understand the interaction of SO2 and acetic acid on the mineral particles. On the surface of α-Al2O3 particles, acetate and sulfite can compete for surface-active sites, resulting in a decrease in the total amount of acetates. In dark and dry conditions, the effect of acetic acid on SO2 cannot be obtained by the DRIFTS method. On the surface of CaCO3 particles, SO2 can have a competitive impact on acetic acid by grabbing active sites, leading to a slight decrease of the amount of acetates. The heterogeneous reaction of SO2 can be impeded by coexisting acetic acid, resulting in a drastic reduction of the number of sulfites. It can be seen that the formation mechanisms of acetate and sulfite on the surface of different mineral particles in the atmosphere are different, which provides a variety of ideas and possibilities for the formation of related inorganic and organic salts in the atmosphere.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805413

RESUMO

Cathepsin L (CTSL) is one of the crucial enzymes in cathepsin family, which has been widely known for its involvement in the innate immunity. However, it still remains poorly understood how CTSL modulates the immune system of teleosts. In this study, we captured three cathepsin L genes (SmCTSL, SmCTSL.1 and SmCTSL1) from turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). The coding sequences of SmCTSL, SmCTSL.1 and SmCTSL1 are 1,026 bp, 1,005 bp and 1,017 bp in length and encode 341, 334 and 338 amino acids, respectively. In details, transcripts of CTSL genes share same domains as other CTSL genes, one signal peptide, one propeptide and one papain family cysteine protease domain. Protein interaction network analysis indicated that turbot CTSL genes may play important roles in apoptotic signaling and involve in innate immune response. Evidence from subcellular localization demonstrated that the three Cathepsin L proteins were ubiquitous in nucleus and cytoplasm. The cathepsin L genes were widely expressed in all the tested tissues with the highest expression level of SmCTSL in spleen, and SmCTSL.1 and SmCTSL1 in intestine. Following Vibrio anguillarum, Edwardsiella tarda and Streptococcus iniae challenge, these cathepsin L genes were significantly regulated in mucosal tissues in all the challenges, especially significantly down-regulated rapidly in intestine in all the three challenges. In addition, the three cathepsin L genes showed strong binding ability to all the examined microbial ligands (LPS, PGN and LTA). Further studies should be used to analyze the function of these three cathepsin L genes. Therefore, we can use their function to maintain the integrity of the mucosal barrier, thereby promoting the disease resistance line and family selection in turbot.

4.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 933, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gene expression variation is a key underlying factor influencing phenotypic variation, and can occur via cis- or trans-regulation. To understand the role of cis- and trans-regulatory variation on population divergence in chicken, we developed reciprocal crosses of two chicken breeds, White Leghorn and Cornish Game, which exhibit major differences in body size and reproductive traits, and used them to determine the degree of cis versus trans variation in the brain, liver, and muscle tissue of male and female 1-day-old specimens. RESULTS: We provided an overview of how transcriptomes are regulated in hybrid progenies of two contrasting breeds based on allele specific expression analysis. Compared with cis-regulatory divergence, trans-acting genes were more extensive in the chicken genome. In addition, considerable compensatory cis- and trans-regulatory changes exist in the chicken genome. Most importantly, stronger purifying selection was observed on genes regulated by trans-variations than in genes regulated by the cis elements. CONCLUSIONS: We present a pipeline to explore allele-specific expression in hybrid progenies of inbred lines without a specific reference genome. Our research is the first study to describe the regulatory divergence between two contrasting breeds. The results suggest that artificial selection associated with domestication in chicken could have acted more on trans-regulatory divergence than on cis-regulatory divergence.

5.
Yi Chuan ; 41(11): 1023-1040, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735705

RESUMO

Heritability, one of the central quantitative genetic parameters, is critically important to measure the genetic variation of traits, especially in the studies of the response to selection in evolutionary biology and agriculture, and the prediction of disease risks in medicine. The statistical model and method for estimating heritability have been continually developed and improved, since the genetic variance components was first proposed by Fisher in 1918. Recently, the term "microbiability" (m 2), an analogous concept and estimated method to heritability, was introduced in gut microbiome research for evaluating the effect of entire microbiota on a host phenotype. In this review, we summarize the progress of statistical methods in the heritability estimation, as well as the current state of gut microbiome associations with the host genome, with a particular focus on the concept and estimated methods of microbiability. Our review will provide a reference for the future study of host phenotypic variation that can be inferred by the gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Modelos Genéticos , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Genoma , Fenótipo
6.
Opt Express ; 27(19): 27076-27087, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674575

RESUMO

Self-mixing velocity sensor based on a mutual-injected two-element terahertz quantum cascade laser (THz QCL) array is studied theoretically. The working characteristics of mutual-injected THz QCL array with different frequency detunings and self-mixing feedback strengths, as well as their influences on the self-mixing measurements are discussed in detail. Within the phase-locked range, each laser in the array reaches a stable state rapidly and can be used as a self-mixing detector due to the mutual injection coupling. The array will no longer be phase-locked when the frequency detuning of the lasers is too large, and only the laser that receives the feedback light can still be used for self-mixing velocity measurements. It is also found that even for the case of strong feedback, the THz QCLs will not be completely unstable and the self-mixing velocity measurements could also be possible. In addition, the simulation also shows that the array could measure two independent moving targets simultaneously. These results provide the theoretical support for the future applications of THz QCL arrays in self-mixing sensors.

8.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol ; 117: 105639, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669139

RESUMO

The main event in the progression of pulmonary fibrosis is the appearance of myofibroblasts. Recent evidence supports pericytes as a major source of myofibroblasts. TGFß/Smad2/3 and PDGF/Erk signaling pathways are important for regulating pericyte activation. Previous studies have demonstrated that PDGFßR and TGFßR are modified by core fucosylation (CF) catalyzed by α-1,6-fucosyltransferase (FUT8). The aim of this study was to compare the effect of inhibiting CF versus the PDGFßR and TGFßR signaling pathways on pericyte activation and lung fibrosis. FUT8shRNA was used to knock down FUT8-mediated CF both in vivo and in isolated lung pericytes. The small molecule receptor antagonists, ST1571 (imatinib) and LY2109761, were used to block the PDGFß/pErk and TGFß/pSmad2/3 signaling pathways, respectively. Pericyte detachment and myofibroblastic transformation were assessed by immunofluorescence and Western blot. Histochemical and immunohistochemical staining were used to evaluate the effect of the intervention on pulmonary fibrosis. Our findings demonstrate that FUT8shRNA significantly blocked pericyte activation and the progression of pulmonary fibrosis, achieving intervention effects superior to the small molecule inhibitors. The PDGFß and TGFß pathways were simultaneously affected by the CF blockade. FUT8 expression was upregulated with the transformation of pericytes into myofibroblasts, and silencing FUT8 expression inhibited this transformation. In addition, there is a causal relationship between CF modification catalyzed by FUT8 and pulmonary fibrosis. Our findings suggest that FUT8 may be a novel therapeutic target for pulmonary fibrosis.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711643

RESUMO

ADAMTS (A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase with Thrombospondin type I motifs) enzymes play an important role in various morphogenesis processes. To determine the functions of Adamts18 in the early stages of organogenesis, we created Adamts18 deficient zebrafish using morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (MO) to generate exon 3 skipped adamts18 mRNA transcripts. Results showed that Adamts18 deficiency in zebrafish embryos caused developmental defects, including expanded brain ventricle and hindbrain edema, eye defects, and accumulation of blood in the caudal vein. Adamts18 deficiency also led to impaired trunk angiogenesis and formation of the caudal vein plexus (CVP). Consequently, Adamts18 deficient zebrafish embryos exhibited incomplete formation of intersegment vessels (ISVs), disruption of the honeycomb structure of CVP, and reduced CVP area and loop number. Furthermore, Adamts18 deficiency resulted in impaired blood circulation in major trunk, caudal vein (CV), and common cardinal vein (CCV). These aberrant vascular phenotypes in mutant zebrafish embryos were shown to be associated with a decreased expression of multiple angiogenesis-related signaling genes, including slit/robo, dll4/Notch, cox2, and fgfr. These findings indicate the critical role of Adamts18 in the early stages of vascular network development.

10.
EMBO Mol Med ; : e10924, 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777202

RESUMO

Dysregulated cholesterol metabolism is a hallmark of many cancers, including glioblastoma (GBM), but its role in disease progression is not well understood. Here, we identified cholesterol 24-hydroxylase (CYP46A1), a brain-specific enzyme responsible for the elimination of cholesterol through the conversion of cholesterol into 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol (24OHC), as one of the most dramatically dysregulated cholesterol metabolism genes in GBM. CYP46A1 was significantly decreased in GBM samples compared with normal brain tissue. A reduction in CYP46A1 expression was associated with increasing tumour grade and poor prognosis in human gliomas. Ectopic expression of CYP46A1 suppressed cell proliferation and in vivo tumour growth by increasing 24OHC levels. RNA-seq revealed that treatment of GBM cells with 24OHC suppressed tumour growth through regulation of LXR and SREBP signalling. Efavirenz, an activator of CYP46A1 that is known to penetrate the blood-brain barrier, inhibited GBM growth in vivo. Our findings demonstrate that CYP46A1 is a critical regulator of cellular cholesterol in GBM and that the CYP46A1/24OHC axis is a potential therapeutic target.

11.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(10)2019 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635393

RESUMO

Heterosis, a phenomenon characterized by the superior performance of hybrid individuals relative to their parents, has been widely utilized in livestock and crop breeding, while the underlying genetic basis remains elusive in chickens. Here, we performed a reciprocal crossing experiment with broiler and layer chickens and conducted RNA sequencing on liver tissues for reciprocal crosses and their parental lines to identify inheritance patterns of gene expression. Our results showed that heterosis of the abdominal fat percentage was 69.28%-154.71% in reciprocal crosses. Over-dominant genes of reciprocal crosses were significantly enriched in three biological pathways, namely, butanoate metabolism, the synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies, and valine, leucine, and isoleucine degradation. Among these shared over-dominant genes, we found that a lipid-related gene, HMGCL, was enriched in these pathways. Furthermore, we validated this gene as over-dominant using qRT-PCR. Although no shared significant pathway was detected in the high-parent dominant genes of reciprocal crosses, high-parent dominant gene expression was the major gene inheritance pattern in reciprocal crosses and we could not exclude the effect of high-parent dominant genes. These findings suggest that non-additive genes play important roles in the heterosis of important traits in chickens and have important implications regarding our understanding of heterosis.

12.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(20)2019 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635127

RESUMO

Combining research areas of biomechanics and pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) provides a very promising way for pedestrian positioning in environments where Global Positioning System (GPS) signals are degraded or unavailable. In recent years, the PDR systems based on a smartphone's built-in inertial sensors have attracted much attention in such environments. However, smartphone-based PDR systems are facing various challenges, especially the heading drift, which leads to the phenomenon of estimated walking path passing through walls. In this paper, the 2D PDR system is implemented by using a pocket-worn smartphone, and then enhanced by introducing a map-matching algorithm that employs a particle filter to prevent the wall-crossing problem. In addition, to extend the PDR system for 3D applications, the smartphone's built-in barometer is used to measure the pressure variation associated to the pedestrian's vertical displacement. Experimental results show that the map-matching algorithm based on a particle filter can effectively solve the wall-crossing problem and improve the accuracy of indoor PDR. By fusing the barometer readings, the vertical displacement can be calculated to derive the floor transition information. Despite the inherent sensor noises and complex pedestrian movements, smartphone-based 3D pedestrian positioning systems have considerable potential for indoor location-based services (LBS).

13.
Mol Cell Proteomics ; 18(12): 2447-2458, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31649062

RESUMO

Chronic use of opioids can produce opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH), and when used to treat migraine, these drugs can result in increased pain and headache chronicity. We hypothesized that overlapping mechanisms between OIH and chronic migraine occur through neuropeptide dysregulation. Using label-free, non-biased liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to identify and measure changes in more than 1500 neuropeptides under these two conditions, we observed only 16 neuropeptides that were altered between the two conditions. The known pro-migraine molecule, calcitonin-gene related peptide, was among seven peptides associated with chronic migraine, with several pain-processing neuropeptides among the nine other peptides affected in OIH. Further, composite peptide complements Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and Secretogranin (SCG) showed significant changes in both chronic migraine and OIH. In a follow-up pharmacological study, we confirmed the role of PACAP in models of these two disorders, validating the effectiveness of our peptidomic approach, and identifying PACAP as a mechanistic link between chronic migraine and OIH. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD013362.

14.
Psychiatry Res ; 282: 112608, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655405

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Abnormalities in insular functional connectivity have been implicated in many clinical features of schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to determine to what degree such abnormalities occur in individuals with clinical high risk for psychosis (CHR), and whether which is associated with symptom severity. METHODS: Resting-state fMRI data were collected from 47 healthy controls, 24 CHR individuals and 19 patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Using the posterior, dorsal and ventral insular subregions as separate seeds, we examined resting-state functional connectivity differences between different groups and the association between concurrent symptom severity and dysconnectivity. RESULTS: Compared with healthy controls, both CHR individuals and schizophrenia patients showed hypoconnectivity between posterior insula (PI) and somatosensory areas, and between dorsal anterior insula (dAI) and putamen. Schizophrenia patients also showed dAI and ventral anterior insula(vAI) hyperconnectivity with visual areas relative to controls and CHR individuals. Correlation analysis revealed that dAI functional connectivity with superior temporal gyrus was positively correlated with positive symptoms of CHR, and vAI connectivity with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was negatively correlated with the severity of the symptoms of first-episode schizophrenia. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that insular functional dysconnectivity with the sensory cortex may be a system-level neural substrate preceding the onset of psychosis.

15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(44): 12322-12332, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638792

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to reveal the antibacterial mechanism of lactobionic acid (LBA) against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) using quantitative proteomics by sequential window acquisition of all theoretical mass spectra (SWATH-MS) to analyze 100 differentially expressed proteins after LBA treatment. Furthermore, multiple experiments were conducted to validate the results of the proteomic analysis including reactive oxygen species (ROS), virulence-associated gene expression, and the relative quantification of target proteins and genes by parallel reaction monitoring and quantitative real-time PCR. Combining the ultrastructure observations, proteomic analysis, and our previous research, the mode of LBA action against MRSA was speculated as cell wall damage and loss of membrane integrity; inhibition of DNA repair and protein synthesis; inhibition of virulence factors and biofilm production; induction of oxidative stress; and inhibition of metabolic pathways. These results suggest potential applications for LBA in food safety and pharmaceuticals, considering its multitarget effects against MRSA.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Dissacarídeos/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Dissacarídeos/genética , Dissacarídeos/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/química , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/metabolismo , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Proteômica
16.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 120: 109352, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586905

RESUMO

Inflammatory monocyte and macrophage subset accumulation during the inflammatory response that drives atherosclerosis can exacerbate the extent of atherosclerosis. It has been demonstrated that voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) can regulate cell bioactivities in monocytes/macrophages. We hypothesized that blockade of mononuclear phagocyte VGSCs was atheroprotective through monocyte/macrophage subset modulation and macrophage proliferation suppression in atherosclerotic lesions. In this experimental study, when VGSCs were knocked down with RNA interference plasmid transfection in mouse peripheral blood monocytes and monocyte-macrophage lineage RAW264.7 cells in vitro, the biological characteristics of proliferation, phagocytosis, and migration in RAW264.7 cells declined. In addition, suppression of LPS-induced M1 polarization and facilitation of IL-4-induced M2 polarization were also observed. In an in vivo study, ApoE knockout (ApoE-/-) mice were fed a standard chow diet (CD) or a western diet (WD). After feeding with phenytoin (PHT), no significant differences were detected in plasma lipids, and the anti-inflammatory phenotypes of both monocytes and macrophages were elevated and proinflammatory phenotypes declined. The local proliferation of macrophages was also distinctly suppressed, along with a significant reduction in atheromatous plaques. In conclusion, blockade of VGSCs in the mononuclear phagocyte system reduced atherosclerotic lesions, which may occur through altering monocyte/macrophage subsets and suppressing macrophage proliferation in atherosclerotic plaques. Blockage of VGSCs may play an important role in cardiovascular protection.

17.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(89): 13406-13409, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637391

RESUMO

A new small molecular hole-transporting material, 1,3,6,8-tetrakis[N-(p-methoxyphenyl)-N'-(9,9'-dimethyl-9H-fluoren-2-yl)-amino]pyrene (TFAP) was synthesized and applied in CH3NH3PbI3-perovskite solar cells. A best power conversion efficiency of 19.7% with a photovoltage of 1.11 V has been achieved.

18.
Cancer ; 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Omacetaxine mepesuccinate (OME) has antileukemic effects against acute myeloid leukemia (AML) carrying an internal tandem duplication of Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3-ITD). A phase 2 clinical trial was conducted to evaluate a combination treatment of sorafenib and omacetaxine mepesuccinate (SOME). METHODS: Relapsed or refractory (R/R) or newly diagnosed patients were treated with sorafenib (200-400 mg twice daily) and OME (2 mg daily) for 7 (first course) or 5 days (second course onward) every 21 days until disease progression or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The primary endpoint was composite complete remission, which was defined as complete remission (CR) plus complete remission with incomplete hematologic recovery (CRi). Secondary endpoints were leukemia-free survival (LFS) and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Thirty-nine R/R patients and 5 newly diagnosed patients were recruited. Among the R/R patients, 28 achieved CR or CRi. Two patients showed partial remission, and 9 patients did not respond. Among the 5 newly diagnosed patients, 4 achieved CR, and 1 achieved CRi. The median LFS and OS were 5.6 and 10.9 months, respectively. Prior Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) inhibitor exposure (P = .007), 2 or more inductions (P = .001), and coexisting IDH2 (P = .008) and RUNX1 mutations (P = .003) were associated with lower CR/CRi rates. HSCT consolidation and deep molecular responses (defined as an FLT3-ITD variant allelic frequency [VAF] ≤ 0.1% or a nucleophosmin 1 [NPM1] mutant VAF ≤ 0.01%) were associated with better OS and LFS. Prior FLT3 inhibitor exposure and 2 or more inductions were associated with inferior LFS. CONCLUSIONS: SOME was safe and effective for R/R and newly diagnosed FLT3-ITD AML.

19.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0213630, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613897

RESUMO

During the stringent response, bacteria synthesize guanosine-3',5'-bis(diphosphate) (ppGpp) and guanosine-5'-triphosphate 3'-diphosphate (pppGpp), which act as secondary messengers to promote cellular survival and adaptation. (p)ppGpp 'alarmones' are synthesized and/or hydrolyzed by proteins belonging to the RelA/SpoT Homologue (RSH) family. Many bacteria also encode 'small alarmone synthetase' (SAS) proteins (e.g. RelP, RelQ) which may also be capable of synthesizing a third alarmone: guanosine-5'-phosphate 3'-diphosphate (pGpp). Here, we report the biochemical properties of the Rel (RSH), RelP and RelQ proteins from Staphylococcus aureus (Sa-Rel, Sa-RelP, Sa-RelQ, respectively). Sa-Rel synthesized pppGpp more efficiently than ppGpp, but lacked the ability to produce pGpp. Sa-Rel efficiently hydrolyzed all three alarmones in a Mn(II) ion-dependent manner. The removal of the C-terminal regulatory domain of Sa-Rel increased its rate of (p)ppGpp synthesis ca. 10-fold, but had negligible effects on its rate of (pp)pGpp hydrolysis. Sa-RelP and Sa-RelQ efficiently synthesized pGpp in addition to pppGpp and ppGpp. The alarmone-synthesizing abilities of Sa-RelQ, but not Sa-RelP, were allosterically-stimulated by the addition of pppGpp, ppGpp or pGpp. The respective (pp)pGpp-synthesizing activities of Sa-RelP/Sa-RelQ were compared and contrasted with SAS homologues from Enterococcus faecalis (Ef-RelQ) and Streptococcus mutans (Sm-RelQ, Sm-RelP). Results indicated that EF-RelQ, Sm-RelQ and Sa-RelQ were functionally equivalent; but exhibited considerable variations in their respective biochemical properties, and the degrees to which alarmones and single-stranded RNA molecules allosterically modulated their respective alarmone-synthesizing activities. The respective (pp)pGpp-synthesizing capabilities of Sa-RelP and Sm-RelP proteins were inhibited by pGpp, ppGpp and pppGpp. Our results support the premise that RelP and RelQ proteins may synthesize pGpp in addition to (p)ppGpp within S. aureus and other Gram-positive bacterial species.

20.
PLoS Biol ; 17(10): e3000485, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622335

RESUMO

Schistosomes are parasitic flatworms that infect over 200 million people, causing the neglected tropical disease, schistosomiasis. A single drug, praziquantel, is used to treat schistosome infection. Limitations in mass drug administration programs and the emergence of schistosomiasis in nontropical areas indicate the need for new strategies to prevent infection. It has been known for several decades that rotifers colonizing the schistosome's snail intermediate host produce a water-soluble factor that paralyzes cercariae, the life cycle stage infecting humans. In spite of its potential for preventing infection, the nature of this factor has remained obscure. Here, we report the purification and chemical characterization of Schistosome Paralysis Factor (SPF), a novel tetracyclic alkaloid produced by the rotifer Rotaria rotatoria. We show that this compound paralyzes schistosome cercariae and prevents infection and does so more effectively than analogous compounds. This molecule provides new directions for understanding cercariae motility and new strategies for preventing schistosome infection.

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