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1.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 605: 330-341, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34329982

RESUMO

The photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutant by carbon-based materials is still a challenge. Herein, xylose-derived carbon dots (X-CDs) and chitosan-derived CDs (C-CDs) were synthesized by heteroatoms-doping strategy. Although there is almost no difference in fluorescence emission behaviors, the two types of CDs demonstrated different advantages in photocatalysis and peroxymonosulfate (PMS) activation. Comparative research revealed that the X-CDs with doping of heteroatom S was superior in the separation of electron-hole pairs, resulting in a higher catalytic performance, while the S, N co-doped C-CDs can only exhibit high photocatalytic reactivity when they were coupled with PMS. The underlying reason is that the N-related functional groups with strong electron-donating property weakened the electron-trapping capacity of S-related energy level, but surface state resulting from this doping structures were conducive to promoting photo-generated electron transfer from C-CDs to PMS and played the primary role in organic oxidation. Thanks to the doping effect, both the X-CDs and C-CDs/PMS system displayed high photocatalytic performance for methylene blue removal under sunlight irradiation, showing almost 100% degradation efficiency in a 30 min period. The present study provides a valuable insight for the synthesis of CDs-based catalysts but also establishes a very promising catalytic oxidation system.

2.
Front Psychol ; 12: 717029, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34764905

RESUMO

Objective: In contrast to the drug situation in the rest of the world, synthetic drugs, rather than traditional drugs, have been the dominant abused drugs in China since 2019. However, the public misconception that synthetic drugs are not as addictive as traditional drugs, such as opioids and the scarcity of specific measurement instruments, have hindered the clinical diagnosis and treatment of synthetic drug abusers, thus the development of a localized instrument to evaluate dependence on synthetic drugs is in urgently needed. Method: Using a sample of 618 Chinese synthetic drug abusers (Mean age = 34.69 years; 44.17% female), the present study developed and examined the psychometric properties of a self-reporting instrument, the Synthetic Drug Dependence Scale (SDDS), which consists of four subscales: physical dependence, psychological dependence, health injury, and social function injury. Results: The SDDS revealed a three-factor model structure (weighted root mean square residual (WRMR) = 0.876, comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.965, Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) = 0.953, and Root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.070), with good internal consistency (composite reliability = 0.912, alfa = 0.801) and convergent validity. Elevated scores on the SDDS were associated with a higher level of reward sensitivity, punishment sensitivity, and stronger impulsivity. Interestingly, psychological dependence was the only significant predictor (p < 0.05) of criterion variables compared with the other three subscales, implying the important role of psychological factors in synthetic drugs dependence. Adequate measurement equivalence across sex, age (18-30 and 31-57 years old), and employment group (employed and unemployed) was also established. Conclusion: The SDDS appears to be an effective and reliable instrument that could be used to further investigate the characteristics of synthetic and traditional drug dependence, promoting a deeper understanding of the physical and psychological roles in drug dependence.

3.
Br J Anaesth ; 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749993

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of i.v. or topical lidocaine as an anaesthesia adjunct in improving clinical outcomes in patients receiving gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures under propofol sedation remains unclear. METHODS: Electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library) were searched for RCTs comparing the clinical outcomes with or without lidocaine application (i.v. or topical) in patients receiving propofol for gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures from inception to 29 March 2021. The primary outcome was propofol dosage, while secondary outcomes included procedure time, recovery time, adverse events (e.g. oxygen desaturation), post-procedural pain, and levels of endoscopist and patient satisfaction. RESULTS: Twelve trials (1707 patients) published between 2011 and 2020 demonstrated that addition of i.v. (n=7) or topical (n=5) lidocaine to propofol sedation decreased the level of post-procedural pain (standardised mean difference [SMD]=-0.47, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.8 to -0.14), risks of gag events (risk ratio [RR]=0.51, 95% CI: 0.35-0.75), and involuntary movement (RR=0.4, 95% CI: 0.16-0.96). Subgroup analysis demonstrated that only i.v. lidocaine reduced propofol dosage required for gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures (SMD=-0.83, 95% CI: -1.19 to -0.47), increased endoscopist satisfaction (SMD=0.75, 95% CI: 0.21-1.29), and shortened the recovery time (SMD=-0.83, 95% CI: -1.45 to -0.21). Intravenous or topical lidocaine did not affect the incidence of oxygen desaturation (RR=0.72, 95% CI: 0.41-1.24) or arterial hypotension (RR=0.6, 95% CI: 0.22-1.65) and procedure time (SMD=0.21, 95% CI: -0.09 to 0.51). CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis demonstrated that i.v. or topical lidocaine appears safe to use and may be of benefit for improving propofol sedation in patients undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures. Further large-scale trials are warranted to support our findings.

4.
J Hazard Mater ; : 127751, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34799162

RESUMO

As detriments in aquatic environments, microplastics (MPs) have been commonly studied on organisms, but tissue-scale effects of MPs were poorly understood. Discus fish (Symphysodon aequifasciatus), herewith, were exposed to polystyrene MPs (0/20/200 µg/L) for 28 d. We found that MPs significantly inhibited growth performance. MPs were observed in skin, gill and intestine after 14/28-d exposure. MPs bioaccumulation was independent of exposure time, but increased with MPs concentrations. Microbial community diversity of fish gill, but not skin and intestine, in MPs treatments was significantly increased. Bacterial community of MP-treated skin and gill were obviously separated from control. Skin dominant phyla changed from Actinobacteriota to Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Proteobacteria gradually occupied dominance in gill after exposure. Furthermore, MPs-induced skin oxidative stress was demonstrated by the activation of superoxide dismutase and catalase. Skin malondialdehyde also increased and showed significant correlations with four bacterial phyla, e.g., Proteobacteria. Gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity decreased, strongly correlating to microbial community changes caused by MPs. Intestinal digestive enzymes activity (pepsin, lipase and α-amylase) reduced, revealing correlation with bacterial community especially Fibrobacterota. These results suggest a tissue-specific effect of MPs to microbial community and biomarkers in aquatic organism.

5.
J Biomech ; 129: 110827, 2021 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736088

RESUMO

Recently, the effectiveness of internal iliac artery balloon occlusion (IIABO) for treating postpartum hemorrhage caused by pernicious placenta previa (PPP) has been questioned. We conducted a retrospective analysis and hemodynamic simulation to assess the IIABO's effectiveness. The retrospective analysis involved 480 patients with PPP, among which 288 underwent IIABO treatment and the remaining 192 were used as controls. Blood loss and preoperative indicators were recorded, and multiple regression analysis was applied to test the effect of preoperative indicators on blood loss. Hemorrhage mechanisms were simulated using a numerical model. Results suggested that no significant difference in blood loss (1836 ± 1440 ml vs. 1784 ± 1647 ml, p = 0.22) was observed between the two groups. In addition, preoperative indicators, including age, weight, gestational age, gravidity, parity, blood type, anemia, or diabetes, were not associated with blood loss. In the simulation, after the intra-iliac artery was blocked, blood loss was caused by a reversed flow in the intrapelvic arteries, uterine veins, and uterine venules. The ratio of the time-averaged hemorrhage velocity (TAHV) in the balloon group to that in the control group was lower than that obtained in a clinical study (13.0% vs. 88.9%); in the presence of collateral circulation, blood loss occurred from collateral circulation and uterine venules after IIABO intervention, and the TAHV was 60%-90% that of the control group, which was closer to the clinical results (88.9%). These results suggest that IIABO cannot effectively treat postpartum hemorrhage because of the collateral circulation and reversed flow in the uterine venules.

6.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 145: 112400, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34801851

RESUMO

Resistance to chemotherapy and hormonal therapy is a major clinical problem in breast cancer medicine, especially for cancer metastasis and recurrence. Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) affects drug resistance by an unknown mechanism of action. Here we analyzed breast cancer patients (N = 457) and found that Σ4MEHP (the sum of MEHP, MEHHP, MECPP and MEOHP concentrations) in urine was significantly higher (P = 0.018) in the recurrent breast cancer group compared with non-recurrent patients. Σ4MEHP-High was positively and significantly correlated with tumor stage (P = 0.005), lymph node status (P = 0.001), estrogen receptor status (P = 0.010), Her2/Neu status (P = 0.004), recurrence (P = 0.000) and tumor size (P = 0.002), as well as an independent prognostic marker (OR = 1.868; 95% CI = 1.424-2.451; P < 0.000) associated with poor survival rates based on a positive Her2/Neu status (P = 0.035). In addition, we found that DEHP inhibited paclitaxel and doxorubicin effects in breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 and in zebrafish and mouse tumor initiation models. DEHP induced trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) expression through the vinculin/aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)/ERK signaling pathway and induced CYP2D6, CYP2C8 and CYP3A4 expression through the AhR genomic pathway to increase the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and doxorubicin metabolism, respectably. DEHP mediated AhR-related alterations in estrogen receptor expression through the ubiquitination system, which decreased tamoxifen effects in AhR knockout mice. These findings suggest a novel therapeutic avenue by targeting AhR in drug-resistant and recurrent breast cancer.

7.
J Surg Res ; 270: 539-546, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34808473

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The eighth edition of new staging systems for breast cancer incorporated four biological factors and the anatomic staging system. Validating analysis on Chinese patients has been limited. Our study performed analysis comparing the prognostic value of the staging system based on Chinese data. METHODS AND MATERIALS: All patients were classified according to the eighth edition and compared between anatomic and prognostic staging systems. The Kaplan-Meier test was used to calculate the overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). We performed Harrell concordance index (C-index) analyses to quantify a models' predictive performance. Akaike information criterion (AIC) via Cox regression analysis was used to conduct bootstrap-based goodness-of-fit comparisons of the competing staging systems. RESULTS: A total of 1556 patients were enrolled in the cohort. The median follow-up time was 76 mo (range, 4-146 mo), the median age was 48 y old (range, 21-87 y). The ratio of movement between anatomic stage (AS) and prognostic stage (PS) was 50.9%. Of these, 691 (44.5%) AS patients were down staged and 100 (6.4%) patients were upstaged when reclassified based on PS. Significant differences between two stages were achieved for stage IIIC in 5-y OS rates and for IIIB in 5-y DFS rates (63.5% versus 50.0% and 58.0% versus44.0%). The value of the C-index for PS and AS were 0.711 and 0.687 (P = 0.04). The AIC reaches a value of 3452.9 for the PS and a value of 3476.4 for the AS. CONCLUSIONS: The PS might provide better accuracy than the AS in predicting the prognosis of Chinese female breast cancer patients. It also provides a strong basis for the utility of clinical biomarkers to evaluate the prognosis of patients.

8.
BMC Med Imaging ; 21(1): 179, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34823482

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 99mTc-pertechnetate thyroid scintigraphy is a valid complementary avenue for evaluating thyroid disease in the clinic, the image feature of thyroid scintigram is relatively simple but the interpretation still has a moderate consistency among physicians. Thus, we aimed to develop an artificial intelligence (AI) system to automatically classify the four patterns of thyroid scintigram. METHODS: We collected 3087 thyroid scintigrams from center 1 to construct the training dataset (n = 2468) and internal validating dataset (n = 619), and another 302 cases from center 2 as external validating datasets. Four pre-trained neural networks that included ResNet50, DenseNet169, InceptionV3, and InceptionResNetV2 were implemented to construct AI models. The models were trained separately with transfer learning. We evaluated each model's performance with metrics as following: accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), recall, precision, and F1-score. RESULTS: The overall accuracy of four pre-trained neural networks in classifying four common uptake patterns of thyroid scintigrams all exceeded 90%, and the InceptionV3 stands out from others. It reached the highest performance with an overall accuracy of 92.73% for internal validation and 87.75% for external validation, respectively. As for each category of thyroid scintigrams, the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.986 for 'diffusely increased,' 0.997 for 'diffusely decreased,' 0.998 for 'focal increased,' and 0.945 for 'heterogeneous uptake' in internal validation, respectively. Accordingly, the corresponding performances also obtained an ideal result of 0.939, 1.000, 0.974, and 0.915 in external validation, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Deep convolutional neural network-based AI model represented considerable performance in the classification of thyroid scintigrams, which may help physicians improve the interpretation of thyroid scintigrams more consistently and efficiently.

9.
J Pers Med ; 11(11)2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34834551

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive and chemoresistant cancer type. The development of novel therapeutic strategies is still urgently needed. Personalized or precision medicine is a new trend in cancer therapy, which treats cancer patients with specific genetic alterations. In this study, a gene signature was identified from the transcriptome of HCC patients, which was correlated with the patients' poorer prognoses. This gene signature is functionally related to mitotic cell cycle regulation, and its higher or lower expression is linked to the mutation in tumor protein p53 (TP53) or catenin beta 1 (CTNNB1), respectively. Gene-drug association analysis indicated that the taxanes, such as the clinically approved anticancer drug paclitaxel, are potential drugs targeting this mitotic gene signature. Accordingly, HCC cell lines harboring mutant TP53 or wild-type CTNNB1 genes are more sensitive to paclitaxel treatment. Therefore, our results imply that HCC patients with mutant TP53 or wild-type CTNNB1 genes may benefit from the paclitaxel therapy.

10.
Biomed J ; 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a bioactive component of propolis, has beneficial effects on cancer prevention. Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is an antitumor gene of bladder cancer. Therefore, this study investigated the anti-cancer effect of CAPE on bladder carcinoma cells and related mechanisms. METHODS: The expressions of GDF15, N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1), and maspin, and the activations of ERK, JNK, p38, and AMPKα1/2 in human bladder cells after gene transfection or knockdown were determined by immunoblot, RT-qPCR, and reporter assays. The assays of 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU), CyQUANT cell proliferation, and Matrigel invasion, and the xenograft animal study were used to assess the cell proliferation, invasion, and tumorigenesis. RESULTS: GDF15 expression in epithelial cells was negatively correlated with neoplasia in vitro. Also, GDF15 exhibits in bladder fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells. CAPE-induced expressions of NDRG1 and maspin decreased cell proliferation and invasion of bladder carcinoma cells in a GDF15-dependent manner in vitro. The xenograft animal study suggesting CAPE attenuated tumor growth in vivo. CAPE increased phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, p38, and AMPKα1/2 to modulate the GDF15 expressions. Pretreatments with ERK, JNK, or p38 inhibitors partially inhibited the CAPE effects on the inductions of GDF15, NDRG1, or maspin. Knockdown of AMPKα1/2 attenuated the CAPE-induced GDF15 expression and cell proliferation in bladder carcinoma cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that CAPE is a promising agent for anti-tumor growth in human bladder carcinoma cells via the upregulation of GDF15.

12.
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 35(10): 1246-1250, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34651476

RESUMO

Objective: To compare the difference in the inclination and anteversion angles of the acetabular cup measured by intraoperative robot-assisted total hip arthroplasty (THA) and postoperative X-ray films and CT imaging. Methods: The clinical data of 54 patients (54 hips) who underwent robot-assisted THA between May 2020 and December 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. Among them, there were 26 males (26 hips) and 28 females (28 hips), with an average age of 58.4 years (range, 39-71 years). The body mass index was 19.2-29.3 kg/m 2, with an average of 25.2 kg/m 2. All the patients had their first THA, including 31 cases of osteonecrosis of the femoral head, 12 cases of hip arthritis, 8 cases of femoral neck fracture, and 3 cases of developmental dysplasia of the hip. The anteversion and inclination angles of the acetabular cup were obtained through the surgical data in the robot host system. All patients underwent X-ray and CT scan examination within 2-7 days after operation to obtain the postoperative anteversion and inclination angles of the acetabular cup. According to the concept of "Lewinnek safe zone", the proportion of acetabular in the safe zone intra- and post-operation were compared. Results: The operation time was 57.8-89.2 minutes, with an average of 68.3 minutes; the intraoperative blood loss was 125.0-450.0 mL, with an average of 204.8 mL. No adverse events such as dislocation of hip joint and infection occurred during hospitalization. The anteversion angle of acetabular cup was (40.8±0.6)° during operation and (41.2±2.8)° after operation, with no significant difference ( t=1.026, P=0.307). The anteversion angle of acetabular cup measured during operation was (17.6±1.4)°, which was significantly smaller than that measured after operation (23.4±3.8)°( t=10.520, P=0.000). According to "Lewinnek safe zone", 54 hips (100%) were in the safety zone during operation, and 16 hips were out of the safety zone, 38 hips were in the safty zone after operation, the ratio of the hips in the safty zone was 70.4%, showing a significant difference ( χ 2=18.783, P=0.000). Conclusion: Robot-assisted THA can obtain accurate placement of the acetabular cup, but there is a large deviation between the anteversion angle of the acetabular cup in the lateral position during operation and the supine position after operation. Further study is needed to define the intraoperative placement position of the acetabular cup.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril , Prótese de Quadril , Robótica , Acetábulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Acetábulo/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Res Synth Methods ; 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628727

RESUMO

Overviews synthesising the results of multiple systematic reviews help inform evidence-based clinical practice. In this first of two companion papers, we evaluate the bibliometrics of overviews, including their prevalence and factors affecting citation rates and journal impact factor (JIF). We searched MEDLINE, Epistemonikos and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR). We included overviews that: (a) synthesised reviews, (b) conducted a systematic search, (c) had a methods section and (d) examined a healthcare intervention. Multivariable regression was conducted to determine the association between citation density, JIF and six predictor variables. We found 1218 overviews published from 2000 to 2020; the majority (73%) were published in the most recent 5-year period. We extracted a selection of these overviews (n = 541; 44%) dated from 2000 to 2018. The 541 overviews were published in 307 journals; CDSR (8%), PLOS ONE (3%) and Sao Paulo Medical Journal (2%) were the most prevalent. The majority (70%) were published in journals with impact factors between 0.05 and 3.97. We found a mean citation count of 10 overviews per year, published in journals with a mean JIF of 4.4. In multivariable analysis, overviews with a high number of citations and JIFs had more authors, larger sample sizes, were open access and reported the funding source. An eightfold increase in the number of overviews was found between 2009 and 2020. We identified 332 overviews published in 2020, which is equivalent to one overview published per day. Overviews perform above average for the journals in which they publish.

14.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 144: 112284, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626932

RESUMO

Hepatic fibrosis is a wound-healing process caused by prolonged liver damage and often occurs due to hepatic stellate cell activation in response to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Red raspberry has been found to attenuate oxidative stress, mainly because it is rich in bioactive components. In the current study, we investigated the inhibitory effects and associated molecular mechanisms of red raspberry extract (RBE) upon activated hepatic stellate cell (aHSC) in cellular and rat models. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were increased in the dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-applied samples, whereas treatment of RBE significantly suppressed the activities of these enzymes. In addition, a histopathological analysis demonstrated that RBE could substantially diminish the hepatic collagen content and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression induced by DMN. Administration of 250 µg/mL RBE could also arrest the growth and enhance the apoptosis of activated HSC-T6 cells, which was accompanied with elevated levels of activated caspases and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage. Particularly, RBE application remarkably abolished oxidative damage within the cells and reduced the carbonylation of proteins, which was attributed to the upregulation of catalase, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Moreover, the knockdown of Nrf2 together with the RBE treatment synergistically abrogated the expression of α-SMA and promoted the level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ), suggesting that RBE could mitigate the transdifferentiation of HSC in a Nrf2-independent manner. These findings implied that the application of RBE could effectively remove oxidative stress and relieve the activation of HSC via modulating the caspase/PARP, Nrf2/HO-1 and PPAR-γ pathways, which may allow the development of novel therapeutic strategies against chemical-caused liver fibrogenesis.

15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(42): e27548, 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34678889

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Progressive encephalopathy with brain edema and/or leukoencephalopathy-1 is an infantile, lethal neurometabolic disorder caused by a NAD(P)HX epimerase (NAXE) gene mutation. It is characterized by a fluctuating disease course with repeated episodes of improvement and regression. In this report, we present a rare case of NAXE gene mutation-related encephalopathy with unexpected neurological recovery and long survival time. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 20-month-old girl presented with progressively unsteady gait and bilateral hand tremors after a trivial febrile illness. Her disease rapidly progressed to consciousness disturbance, 4-limb weakness (muscle power: 1/5 on the Medical Research Council scale), and respiratory failure. The patient gradually recovered 2 months later. However, another episode of severe fever-induced encephalopathy developed 2 years after the initial presentation. DIAGNOSES: Results of laboratory investigations, including complete blood count, blood chemistry, inflammatory markers, and cerebral spinal fluid analysis were unremarkable. Electroencephalography and nerve conduction velocity studies yielded normal results. Brain magnetic resonance imaging on diffusion-weighted imaging revealed abnormal sysmmetric hyperintensity in the bilateral middle cerebellar peduncles. A genetic study using whole exome sequencing confirmed the diagnosis of NAXE gene mutation-related encephalopathy. INTERVENTIONS: Pulse therapy with methylprednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulin, coenzyme Q10, and carnitine were initially introduced. After a NAXE gene defect was detected, the vitamin B complex and coenzyme Q10 were administered. A continuous rehabilitation program was also implemented. OUTCOMES: NAXE gene mutation-related encephalopathy is usually regarded as a lethal neurometabolic disorder. However, the outcome in this case is better than that in the previous cases. She showed progressive neurological recovery and a longer survival time. The muscle power of the 4 limbs recovered to grade 4. At present (age of 5.5 years old), she can walk with an unsteady gait and go to school. LESSONS: Although NAXE gene mutation-related encephalopathy is rare, it should be considered as a differential diagnosis of early onset progressive encephalopathy.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/genética , Encefalopatias/fisiopatologia , Racemases e Epimerases/genética , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Ubiquinona/análogos & derivados , Ubiquinona/uso terapêutico , Complexo Vitamínico B/uso terapêutico , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
16.
Org Lett ; 23(20): 7933-7937, 2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34609147

RESUMO

Hantzsch esters (HEs) served as two-carbon partners in a copper(I)-catalyzed enantioselective [3 + 2] annulation with racemic 2-(hetero)aryl-N-sulfonyl aziridines via kinetic resolution to provide pyrrolo[2,3-b]tetrahydropyridines containing multiple contiguous stereogenic centers including all-carbon quaternary centers in excellent yields and enantiopurities and moderate-to-excellent diastereoselectivities. Mainly dependent upon the structures of the aziridines, a competitive hydrogenolysis process with HEs as the hydrogen source was also observed in some cases.

17.
Front Psychol ; 12: 695751, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497558

RESUMO

This study examined Taiwanese Han and indigenous (Tayal) youth's experiences of stressful life events, the association between stressful experiences and depressive symptomology, and also the indirect and interactive effects of connection on the relationship between stressful experiences and depressive symptomology. Taiwanese Han (97%) is the majority group, whereas indigenous people make up 2.3% of Taiwan's population. Taiwanese indigenous people have experienced disparities across socio-historical, educational, and economic aspects of their lives. This study included 291 eighth-grade participants (40% from the Tayal tribe, 48.8% female, and M age = 13.44). The Han sample in this study all lived in cities, and the Tayal sample all lived in the tribal areas of the Northern Taiwan mountain regions. Person-centered (latent class analyses) and cumulative (sum of items) approaches were used to investigate family and school stressful events, respectively. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted separately for the Han and Tayal participants to examine the role of family and school connection in relation to family and school stressors and depressive symptomology. Our results showed that stressful experiences are clearly linked to depressive symptomology and family connection was important to both Tayal and Han youth in supporting their coping with depressive symptoms. However, Tayal youth might be particularly vulnerable to family stressful events because family stressors disrupted their connection with their parents and thereby minimized the protective function of family relationships. To decrease the likely onset of depression during early adolescence, our results suggest that it is important for parents and other family members to monitor adolescents' daily experiences of stress and provide support when needed. Furthermore, mental health interventions need to be tailored specifically for youth in specific racial, social, and economic contexts. Tayal youth mental health might benefit particularly from increasing school connection and decreasing stresses experienced in family contexts. Implications, limitations, and recommendations for future research are discussed.

18.
Surg Obes Relat Dis ; 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34565683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of intravenous lidocaine in adults undergoing laparoscopic bariatric surgeries (LBS) remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at investigating the effect of intravenous lidocaine on postoperative opioid consumption and recovery following LBS. SETTING: Meta-analysis. METHODS: We searched databases including MEDLINE, Embase, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library for randomized controlled trials that evaluated the use of intravenous lidocaine compared to placebo only prior to May 2021. The primary outcome was 24-hour postoperative opioid consumption, while secondary outcomes included pain score, quality of recovery (QOR)-40 score, length of hospital stay (LOS), and postoperative nausea/vomiting (PONV). RESULTS: Seven trials (496 participants) were included. Intraoperative intravenous lidocaine significantly reduced 24-hour equivalent morphine consumption (mean difference [MD]: -11.97 mg; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -23.12 to -.83), pain score at 1 to 3 hours (MD: -.77; 95% CI: -1.5 to -.04), and LOS (MD: -8.93 hr; 95% CI: -13.41 to -4.44) without positive impact on 24-hour pain score and PONV. There was also an increase in time to first opioid requirement (MD: 20.23 min; 95% CI: 11.76-28.7) and QOR-40 score (MD: 24.38; 95% CI: 5.57-43.18). However, sensitivity analysis demonstrated evidence supporting the beneficial effect of lidocaine only for time to first opioid requirement and QOR-40. The associations of intraoperative intravenous lidocaine with reductions in morphine consumption, pain score at 1 to 3 hours, and LOS after LBS were also weak. CONCLUSION: Intraoperative intravenous lidocaine during LBS prolonged time to first opioid requirement and improved quality of recovery postoperatively without 24-hour pain or nausea/vomiting benefits. Due to the small number of trials, larger studies are warranted to verify our findings.

19.
Int J Ophthalmol ; 14(9): 1315-1320, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34540605

RESUMO

AIM: To explore the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IL33/IL1RL1 gene region with the susceptibility to Behcet's disease (BD) in a Chinese Han population. METHODS: A total of eight SNPs in the candidate gene region (rs11792633, rs7025417, rs10975519 and rs1048274 in IL33; rs2310220, rs12712142, rs13424006 and rs3821204 in IL1RL1) were genotyped in783 BD patients and 701 healthy controls by the Sequenom Mass Array iPLEX platform. RESULTS: A statistically significant association was observed between IL1RL1 rs12712142 and BD patients. The frequency of IL1RL1 rs12712142 variant allele A was significantly lower in BD patients than that in controls (OR=0.8, 95%CI: 0.69-0.94, Pc=0.039); the genotype distribution (Pc=0.043) and additive and dominant genetic model analyses (OR=0.8, 95%CI: 0.69-0.94, Pc=0.040 and OR=0.72, 95%CI: 0.58-0.88, Pc=0.011) also indicated a strong association between rs12712142 and BD patients. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to reveal the association between IL1RL1 rs12712142 variant allele A and the decreased risk of BD in the Chinese Han population, indicating a protective role of IL1RL1 in the pathogenesis of BD.

20.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 12(39): 9531-9538, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569800

RESUMO

The electromagnetic field in an optical cavity can dramatically modify and even control chemical reactivity via vibrational strong coupling (VSC). Since the typical vibration and cavity frequencies are considerably larger than thermal energy, it is essential to adopt a quantum description of cavity-catalyzed adiabatic chemical reactions. Using quantum transition state theory (TST), we examine the coherent nature of adiabatic reactions in cavities and derive the cavity-induced changes in eigenfrequencies, zero-point energy, and quantum tunneling. The resulting quantum TST calculation allows us to explain and predict the resonance effect (i.e., maximal kinetic modification via tuning the cavity frequency), collective effect (i.e., linear scaling with the molecular density), and selectivity (i.e., cavity-induced control of the branching ratio). The TST calculation is further supported by perturbative analysis of polariton normal modes, which not only provides physical insights to cavity-catalyzed chemical reactions but also presents a general approach to treat other VSC phenomena.

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