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1.
Nano Lett ; 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052693

RESUMO

Halide perovskites have attracted increasing research attention with regard to their potential for optoelectronic applications. Because of its low activation energy, ion migration is implicated in the long-term stability and many unusual transport behaviors of halide perovskite devices. However, direct observation and precise control of the ionic transport in halide perovskite crystals remain challenging. Here, we have designed an axial CsPbBr3-CsPbCl3 nanowire heterostructure, in which electric-field-induced halide ion migration was clearly visualized and quantified. We demonstrated that halide ion migration is dependent on the applied electric field and exhibits ionic rectification in this solid-state system, which is due to the nonuniform distribution of the ionic vacancies in the nanowire that results from a competition between electrical screening and their creation/destruction at the electrodes' interfaces. The asymmetric heterostructure characteristics add an additional knob to control the ion movement in the design of advanced ionic circuits with halide perovskites as building blocks.

2.
Nano Lett ; 20(9): 6364-6371, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32786946

RESUMO

Free-standing ultrathin (∼2 nm) films of several oxides (Al2O3,TiO2, and others) have been developed, which are mechanically robust and transparent to electrons with Ekin ≥ 200 eV and to photons. We demonstrate their applicability in environmental X-ray photoelectron and infrared spectroscopy for molecular level studies of solid-gas (≥1 bar) and solid-liquid interfaces. These films act as membranes closing a reaction cell and as substrates and electrodes for electrochemical reactions. The remarkable properties of such ultrathin oxides membranes enable atomic/molecular level studies of interfacial phenomena, such as corrosion, catalysis, electrochemical reactions, energy storage, geochemistry, and biology, in a broad range of environmental conditions.

3.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(26): 11514-11520, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32501693

RESUMO

For many applications of well-defined gold nanoclusters, it is desirable to understand their structural evolution behavior under working conditions with molecular precision. Here we report the first systematic investigation of the size transformation products of the Au22(SG)18 nanocluster under representative working conditions and highlight the surface effect on the transformation kinetics. Under thermal and aerobic conditions, the consecutive and pH-dependent transformation from Au22 to both well-defined clusters and small Au(I)SR species was identified by ESI-MS and UV-vis spectroscopy. By introducing a perturbation onto the Au22 surface, significant changes in the activation parameters were determined from the kinetic study of the Au22 transformation. This indicates the sensitivity of the nanocluster transformation pathway to the cluster surface. The systematic study of cluster transformation and the sensitivity of cluster transformation to the surface revealed herein has significant implications for future attempts to design gold nanoparticles with adaptation to the working environment and the regeneration of active nanoparticles.

4.
Nature ; 580(7805): 614-620, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350477

RESUMO

Epitaxial heterostructures based on oxide perovskites and III-V, II-VI and transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductors form the foundation of modern electronics and optoelectronics1-7. Halide perovskites-an emerging family of tunable semiconductors with desirable properties-are attractive for applications such as solution-processed solar cells, light-emitting diodes, detectors and lasers8-15. Their inherently soft crystal lattice allows greater tolerance to lattice mismatch, making them promising for heterostructure formation and semiconductor integration16,17. Atomically sharp epitaxial interfaces are necessary to improve performance and for device miniaturization. However, epitaxial growth of atomically sharp heterostructures of halide perovskites has not yet been achieved, owing to their high intrinsic ion mobility, which leads to interdiffusion and large junction widths18-21, and owing to their poor chemical stability, which leads to decomposition of prior layers during the fabrication of subsequent layers. Therefore, understanding the origins of this instability and identifying effective approaches to suppress ion diffusion are of great importance22-26. Here we report an effective strategy to substantially inhibit in-plane ion diffusion in two-dimensional halide perovskites by incorporating rigid π-conjugated organic ligands. We demonstrate highly stable and tunable lateral epitaxial heterostructures, multiheterostructures and superlattices. Near-atomically sharp interfaces and epitaxial growth are revealed by low-dose aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Molecular dynamics simulations confirm the reduced heterostructure disorder and larger vacancy formation energies of the two-dimensional perovskites in the presence of conjugated ligands. These findings provide insights into the immobilization and stabilization of halide perovskite semiconductors and demonstrate a materials platform for complex and molecularly thin superlattices, devices and integrated circuits.

5.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32299212

RESUMO

Carrier recombination is a crucial process governing the optical properties of a semiconductor. Although various theoretical approaches have been utilized to describe carrier behaviors, a quantitative understanding of the impact of defects and interfaces in low dimensional semiconductor systems is still elusive. Here, we develop a model system consisting of chemically tunable, highly luminescent halide perovskite nanocrystals to illustrate the role of carrier diffusion and material dimensionality on the carrier recombination kinetics and luminescence efficiency. Our advanced synthetic methods provide a well-controlled colloidal system consisting of nanocrystals with different aspect ratios, halide compositions, and surface conditions. Using this system, we reveal the scaling laws of photoluminescence quantum yield and radiative lifetime with respect to the aspect ratio of nanocrystals. The scaling laws derived herein are not only a phenomenological observation but proved a powerful tool disentangling the carrier dynamics of microscopic systems in a quantitative and interpretable manner. The investigation of our model system and theoretical formulation bring to light the dimensionality, as a hidden constraint on carrier dynamics, and identify the diffusion length as an important parameter that distinguishes nanoscale and macroscale carrier behaviors. The conceptual distinction in carrier dynamics in different dimensionality regimes informs new design rules for optical devices where complex microstructures are involved.

6.
Nano Lett ; 2020 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348146

RESUMO

Because of the toxicity of lead, searching for a lead-free halide perovskite semiconducting material with comparable optical and electronic properties is of great interest. Rare-earth-based halide perovskite represents a promising class of materials for this purpose. In this work, we demonstrate the solution-phase synthesis of single-crystalline CsEuCl3 nanocrystals with a uniform size distribution centered around 15 nm. The CsEuCl3 nanocrystals have photoluminescence emission centered at 435 nm, with a full width at half-maximum of 19 nm. Furthermore, CsEuCl3 nanocrystals can be embedded in a polymer matrix that provides enhanced stability under continuous laser irradiation. Lead-free rare-earth cesium europium halide perovskite nanocrystals represent a promising candidate to replace lead halide perovskites.

7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(17): 9194-9201, 2020 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32295882

RESUMO

Promotion of C-C bonds is one of the key fundamental questions in the field of CO2 electroreduction. Much progress has occurred in developing bulk-derived Cu-based electrodes for CO2-to-multicarbons (CO2-to-C2+), especially in the widely studied class of high-surface-area "oxide-derived" copper. However, fundamental understanding into the structural characteristics responsible for efficient C-C formation is restricted by the intrinsic activity of these catalysts often being comparable to polycrystalline copper foil. By closely probing a Cu nanoparticle (NP) ensemble catalyst active for CO2-to-C2+, we show that bias-induced rapid fusion or "electrochemical scrambling" of Cu NPs creates disordered structures intrinsically active for low overpotential C2+ formation, exhibiting around sevenfold enhancement in C2+ turnover over crystalline Cu. Integrating ex situ, passivated ex situ, and in situ analyses reveals that the scrambled state exhibits several structural signatures: a distinct transition to single-crystal Cu2O cubes upon air exposure, low crystallinity upon passivation, and high mobility under bias. These findings suggest that disordered copper structures facilitate C-C bond formation from CO2 and that electrochemical nanocrystal scrambling is an avenue toward creating such catalysts.

8.
J Phys Chem A ; 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32096402

RESUMO

Inorganic lead halide perovskite nanostructures show promise as the active layers in photovoltaics, light emitting diodes, and other optoelectronic devices. They are robust in the presence of oxygen and water, and the electronic structure and dynamics of these nanostructures can be tuned through quantum confinement. Here we create aligned bundles of CsPbBr3 nanowires with widths resulting in quantum confinement of the electronic wave functions and subject them to ultrafast microscopy. We directly image rapid one-dimensional exciton diffusion along the nanowires, and we measure an exciton trap density of roughly one per nanowire. Using transient absorption microscopy, we observe a polarization-dependent splitting of the band edge exciton line, and from the polarized fluorescence of nanowires in solution, we determine that the exciton transition dipole moments are anisotropic in strength. Our observations are consistent with a model in which splitting is driven by shape anisotropy in conjunction with long-range exchange.

9.
Sci Adv ; 6(4): eaay4045, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32042900

RESUMO

Achieving perovskite-based high-color purity blue-emitting light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is still challenging. Here, we report successful synthesis of a series of blue-emissive two-dimensional Ruddlesden-Popper phase single crystals and their high-color purity blue-emitting LED demonstrations. Although this approach successfully achieves a series of bandgap emissions based on the different layer thicknesses, it still suffers from a conventional temperature-induced device degradation mechanism during high-voltage operations. To understand the underlying mechanism, we further elucidate temperature-induced device degradation by investigating the crystal structural and spectral evolution dynamics via in situ temperature-dependent single-crystal x-ray diffraction, photoluminescence (PL) characterization, and density functional theory calculation. The PL peak becomes asymmetrically broadened with a marked intensity decay, as temperature increases owing to [PbBr6]4- octahedra tilting and the organic chain disordering, which results in bandgap decrease. This study indicates that careful heat management under LED operation is a key factor to maintain the sharp and intense emission.

10.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057230

RESUMO

Halide perovskites have many important optoelectronic properties, including high emission efficiency, high absorption coefficients, color purity, and tunable emission wavelength, which makes these materials promising for optoelectronic applications. However, the inability to precisely control large-scale patterned growth of halide perovskites limits their potential toward various device applications. Here, we report a patterning method for the growth of a cesium lead halide perovskite single crystal array. Our approach consists of two steps: (1) cesium halide salt arrays patterning and (2) chemical vapor transport process to convert salt arrays into single crystal perovskite arrays. Characterizations including energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and photoluminescence have been employed to confirm the chemical compositions and the optical properties of the as-synthesized perovskite arrays. This patterning method enables the patterning of single crystal cesium lead halide perovskite arrays with tunable spacing (from 2 to 20 µm) and crystal size (from 200 nm to 1.2 µm) in high production yield (almost every pixel in the array is successfully grown with converted perovskite crystals). Our large-scale patterning method renders a platform for the study of fundamental properties and opportunities for perovskite-based optoelectronic applications.

11.
Nano Lett ; 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048513

RESUMO

Pt-based alloy catalysts are promising candidates for fuel-cell applications, especially for cathodic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and anodic methanol oxidation reaction (MOR). The rational design of composition and morphology is crucial to promoting catalytic performances. Here, we report the synthesis of Pt-Co nanoframes via chemical etching of Co from solid rhombic dodecahedra. The obtained Pt-Co nanoframes exhibit excellent ORR mass activity in acidic electrolyte, which is as high as 0.40 A mgPt-1 initially and 0.34 A mgPt-1 after 10 000 potential cycles at 0.95 VRHE. Furthermore, their MOR mass activity in alkaline media is up to 4.28 A mgPt-1 and is 4-fold higher than that of commercial Pt/C catalyst. Experimental studies indicate that the weakened binding of intermediate carbonaceous poison contributes to the enhanced MOR behavior. More impressively, the Pt-Co nanoframes also demonstrate remarkable stability under long-term testing, which could be attributed to the negligible electrochemical Co dissolution.

12.
Chem Rev ; 120(2): 1184-1249, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580651

RESUMO

The surface and interfaces of heterogeneous catalysts are essential to their performance as they are often considered to be active sites for catalytic reactions. With the development of nanoscience, the ability to tune surface and interface of nanostructures has provided a versatile tool for the development and optimization of a heterogeneous catalyst. In this Review, we present the surface and interface control of nanoparticle catalysts in the context of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), electrochemical CO2 reduction reaction (CO2 RR), and tandem catalysis in three sections. In the first section, we start with the activity of ORR on the nanoscale surface and then focus on the approaches to optimize the performance of Pt-based catalyst including using alloying, core-shell structure, and high surface area open structures. In the section of CO2 RR, where the surface composition of the catalysts plays a dominant role, we cover its reaction fundamentals and the performance of different nanosized metal catalysts. For tandem catalysis, where adjacent catalytic interfaces in a single nanostructure catalyze sequential reactions, we describe its concept and principle, catalyst synthesis methodology, and application in different reactions.

13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(47): 23404-23409, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685626

RESUMO

Phase transitions in halide perovskites triggered by external stimuli generate significantly different material properties, providing a great opportunity for broad applications. Here, we demonstrate an In-based, charge-ordered (In+/In3+) inorganic halide perovskite with the composition of Cs2In(I)In(III)Cl6 in which a pressure-driven semiconductor-to-metal phase transition exists. The single crystals, synthesized via a solid-state reaction method, crystallize in a distorted perovskite structure with space group I4/m with a = 17.2604(12) Å, c = 11.0113(16) Å if both the strong reflections and superstructures are considered. The supercell was further confirmed by rotation electron diffraction measurement. The pressure-induced semiconductor-to-metal phase transition was demonstrated by high-pressure Raman and absorbance spectroscopies and was consistent with theoretical modeling. This type of charge-ordered inorganic halide perovskite with a pressure-induced semiconductor-to-metal phase transition may inspire a range of potential applications.

14.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(43): 17081-17085, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613614

RESUMO

The synthesis of a new anionic 3D metal-catecholate framework, termed MOF-1992, is achieved by linking tetratopic cobalt phthalocyanin-2,3,9,10,16,17,23,24-octaol linkers with Fe3(-C2O2-)6(OH2)2 trimers into an extended framework of roc topology. MOF-1992 exhibits sterically accessible Co active sites together with charge transfer properties. Cathodes based on MOF-1992 and carbon black (CB) display a high coverage of electroactive sites (270 nmol cm-2) and a high current density (-16.5 mA cm-2; overpotential, -0.52 V) for the CO2 to CO reduction reaction in water (faradaic efficiency, 80%). Over the 6 h experiment, MOF-1992/CB cathodes reach turnover numbers of 5800 with turnover frequencies of 0.20 s-1 per active site.

15.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 14(11): 1002-1003, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641236
17.
Chem Rev ; 119(15): 8955-8957, 2019 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409075
18.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(33): 13028-13032, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386354

RESUMO

The self-assembly of nanoparticles, a process whereby nanocrystal building blocks organize into even more ordered superstructures, is of great interest to nanoscience. Here we report the layer-by-layer assembly of 2D perovskite nanosheet building blocks. Structural analysis reveals that the assembled superlattice nanocrystals match with the layered Ruddlesden-Popper perovskite phase. This assembly proves reversible, as these superlattice nanocrystals can be reversibly exfoliated back into their building blocks via sonication. This study demonstrates the opportunity to further understand and exploit thermodynamics to increase order in a system of nanoparticles and to study emergent optical properties of a superlattice from 2D, weakly attracted, perovskite building blocks.

19.
Chem Rev ; 119(15): 9221-9259, 2019 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31333018

RESUMO

Recent applications of photoelectrochemistry at the semiconductor/liquid interface provide a renewable route of mimicking natural photosynthesis and yielding chemicals from sunlight, water, and air. Nanowires, defined as one-dimensional nanostructures, exhibit multiple unique features for photoelectrochemical applications and promise better performance as compared to their bulk counterparts. This article reviews the use of semiconductor nanowires in photoelectrochemistry. After introducing fundamental concepts essential to understanding nanowires and photoelectrochemistry, the review considers answers to the following questions: (1) How can we interface semiconductor nanowires with other building blocks for enhanced photoelectrochemical responses? (2) How are nanowires utilized for photoelectrochemical half reactions? (3) What are the techniques that allow us to obtain fundamental insights of photoelectrochemistry at single-nanowire level? (4) What are the design strategies for an integrated nanosystem that mimics a closed cycle in artificial photosynthesis? This framework should help readers evaluate the salient features of nanowires for photoelectrochemical applications, promoting the sustainable development of solar-powered chemical plants that will benefit our society in the long run.

20.
Chem Rev ; 119(15): 9153-9169, 2019 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282661

RESUMO

All-photonic integrated circuits are promising platforms for future systems beyond the limitation of Moore's law. Over the last several decades, one-dimensional (1D) nanowires have demonstrated great potential in photonic circuitry because of their unique 1D structure to effectively generate and tightly confine optical signals as well as easily tunable optical properties. In this Review, we categorize nanowires based on the optical properties (i.e., semiconducting, metallic, and dielectric nanowires) for their potential photonic applications (as light emitters or plasmonic and photonic waveguides). We further discuss the recent efforts in integration of nanowire-based photonic elements toward next-generation optical information processors. However, there are still several challenges remaining before the nanowires are fully utilized as photonic building blocks. The scientific and technical challenges and outlooks are provided to indicate the future directions.

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