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1.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 713322, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34630087

RESUMO

The ubiquitin-proteasome system regulates a variety of cellular processes including growth, differentiation and apoptosis. While E1, E2, and E3 are responsible for the conjugation of ubiquitin to substrates, deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) reverse the process to remove ubiquitin and edit ubiquitin chains, which have profound effects on substrates' degradation, localization, and activities. In the present study, we found that the deubiquitinating enzyme USP47 was markedly decreased in primary colorectal cancers (CRC). Its reduced expression was associated with shorter disease-free survival of CRC patients. In cultured CRC cells, knockdown of USP47 increased pyroptosis and apoptosis induced by chemotherapeutic doxorubicin. We found that USP47 was able to bind with transcription elongation factor a3 (TCEA3) and regulated its deubiquitination and intracellular level. While ectopic expression of USP47 increased cellular TCEA3 and resistance to doxorubicin, the effect was markedly attenuated by TCEA3 knockdown. Further analysis showed that the level of pro-apoptotic Bax was regulated by TCEA3. These results indicated that the USP47-TCEA3 axis modulates cell pyroptosis and apoptosis and may serve as a target for therapeutic intervention in CRC.

2.
Small ; : e2103422, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596324

RESUMO

1D rare earth-based nanomaterials have attracted significant attention due to their excellent photo/electro-catalytic performance. The corresponding challenge is how to synthesize shape and size-controlled nanostructures in an easy scale-up way. Herein, the authors present a facile one-step strategy to design 1D multifunctional protein-encapsulated cerium oxide nanorods (PCNRs) by utilizing bovine serum albumin as an efficient biotemplate. Remarkably, the PCNRs exhibit high chemical and interfacial adhesion stability with intriguing properties, resulting in an exceptionally high activity towards H2 evolution and CO2 reduction. The photocatalytic activity of PCNRs to produce H2 is about 10 times higher than conventional CeO2 nanorods. The incorporation of rhodamine B into the PCNRs brings unprecedentedly high photocatalytic H2 evolution rate being 123 times higher than that of conventional CeO2 nanorods. Further the presence of the -NH2 groups on the PCNRs facilitated the adsorption and activation of CO2 and efficiently suppressed the proton reduction, and as a result, the PCNRs photocatalyst is highly active in converting CO2 to CO and CH4 , with the evolution rates being 50 and 83 times higher than those of conventional CeO2 nanorods, respectively. Achieving such efficient photocatalyst is a critical step toward practical production of high-value renewable fuels using solar energy.

3.
ACS Nano ; 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596378

RESUMO

Stimuli-responsive nanomachines are attractive tools for biosensing, imaging, and drug delivery. Herein, we demonstrate that the orientation of macromolecules and subsequent dynamic interactions at the biomolecule-nanoparticle (bio-nano) interfaces can be rationally controlled to engineer stimuli-responsive DNA nanomachines. The success of this design principle was demonstrated by engineering a series of antibody-responsive DNA walkers capable of moving persistently on a three-dimensional track made of DNA functionalized gold nanoparticles. We show that drastically different responses to antibodies could be achieved using DNA walkers of identical sequences but with varying number or sites of modifications. We also show that multiple interfacial factors could be combined to engineer stimuli-responsive DNA nanomachines with high sensitivity and modularity. The potential of our strategy for practical uses was finally demonstrated for the amplified detection of antibodies and small molecules in both buffer and human serum samples. Unlike many DNA-based nanomachines, the performance of which could be significantly hindered by the matrix of serum, our system shows a matrix-enhanced sensitivity as a result of the engineering approach at the bio-nano interface.

5.
Am J Transl Res ; 13(9): 10178-10192, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34650689

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Osteosarcoma is a malignant bone tumor consisting of mesenchymal cells. This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (hBMSC)-derived miR-1913 on osteosarcoma. METHODS: Cell viability was determined using CCK8 and colony formation assays. The cell migration and invasion abilities were assessed using wound healing and transwell assays. RT-qPCR and western blot were used to measure the miR-1913, Neurensin-2 (NRSN2), N-cadherin, and E-cadherin expression levels. Dual luciferase reporter assays were conducted to identify the target relationship between miR-1913 and NRSN2. The exosomes were extracted and identified using TEM and NTA assays. RESULTS: In the osteosarcoma tumor tissues and cell lines, the NRSN2 expressions were up-regulated, which correlated with a poor osteosarcoma prognosis. MiR-1913 inhibited the cell viability, proliferation, migration, and invasion by negatively targeting NRSN2. Furthermore, the hBMSC-derived exosomes delivered miR-1913 to inhibit the NRSN2 expression in the osteosarcoma cells. CONCLUSION: The inhibitory role of hBMSC-derived miR-1913 on osteosarcoma progression was achieved by targeting NRSN2, indicating the potential therapeutic value of hBMSC-derived miR-1913.

6.
J Invasive Cardiol ; 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Patients with chronic dialysis dependency undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are at a greater risk of hemorrhagic and ischemic events. Due to their exclusion from randomized clinical trials, the optimal antithrombotic regimen for this population remains unknown. Bivalirudin has been associated with fewer hemorrhagic complications than unfractionated heparin (UFH) in patients undergoing PCI. We evaluated major adverse cardiac event (MACE) and hemorrhagic event rates for an antithrombotic regimen using bivalirudin or UFH during PCI in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients with chronic dialysis dependency. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed, including 211 patients on dialysis undergoing PCI due to ACS from January 2014 to April 2019 at the China-Japan Friendship Hospital. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on anticoagulation regimen: the bivalirudin group (86 cases) or the UFH group (125 cases) during and after PCI. Statistical analyses were used to compare MACE and hemorrhagic events between groups at 30 days after PCI. RESULTS: No patients experienced stent thrombosis within 30 days after PCI regardless of anticoagulant. There was no difference in the incidence of MACE in the bivalirudin group compared with the UFH group (6.98% vs 8.80%, respectively; P>.05). The rate of hemorrhagic events in the bivalirudin group was significantly lower than in the UHP group (5.81% vs 18.4%, respectively; P<.05), particularly for rates of mild bleeding (4.65% vs 15.2%, respectively; P<.05). There were no significant differences in rates of severe bleeding between the bivalirudin and UFH groups (1.16% vs 4.00%, respectively; P>.05), although fewer severe hemorrhagic events occurred in the bivalirudin group. CONCLUSION: Bivalirudin was associated with fewer bleeding events following PCI in individuals with end-stage renal disease on dialysis.

8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5835, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611149

RESUMO

Recently developed solid-state catalysts can mediate carbon dioxide (CO2) electroreduction to valuable products at high rates and selectivities. However, under commercially relevant current densities of > 200 milliamperes per square centimeter (mA cm-2), catalysts often undergo particle agglomeration, active-phase change, and/or element dissolution, making the long-term operational stability a considerable challenge. Here we report an indium sulfide catalyst that is stabilized by adding zinc in the structure and shows dramatically improved stability. The obtained ZnIn2S4 catalyst can reduce CO2 to formate with 99.3% Faradaic efficiency at 300 mA cm-2 over 60 h of continuous operation without decay. By contrast, similarly synthesized indium sulfide without zinc participation deteriorates quickly under the same conditions. Combining experimental and theoretical studies, we unveil that the introduction of zinc largely enhances the covalency of In-S bonds, which "locks" sulfur-a catalytic site that can activate H2O to react with CO2, yielding HCOO* intermediates-from being dissolved during high-rate electrolysis.

9.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 29(5): 1631-1636, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627452

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of high mobility group protein 1(HMGB1) on the proliferation and cytokine expression of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). METHODS: Different concentrations of recombinant human HMGB1 protein (100, 200, 400, 800 and 1000 ng/ml) were incubated with MSC for 24, 48, 72 h and the proliferation of MSC were detected respectively by using the CCK-8 method and flow cytometry. The best concentrations of HMGB1 incubated with MSC was determined (200 ng/ml, 1000 ng/ml), and the flow cytomerty was used to determine the effect of HMGB1 on the proliferation of MSC. The mRNA expression levels of IL-10, TGF- ß1, TSG-6 and IFN-γ in MSC incubated with HMGB1 protein were detected by real-time quantitative PCR and ELISA. RESULTS: The result of MSC identification and flow cytometry showed that the CD105, CD73 and CD90 were expressed, but did not expression CD45, CD34, CD11b, CD19 and HLA-DR; CCK-8 showed that HMGB1 at the concentrations of 100 ng/ml, 200 ng/ml and 400 ng/ml could promote the proliferation of MSC incubated for 24, 48 and 72 h as compared with the control group (P<0.05), and the most effective concentration was 200 ng/ml; flow cytometry showed that the compared with the control group, HMGB1 200 ng/ml could induce MSC from G1 phase to S phase to promote the proliferation of MSC; QPCR showed that the mRNA expression of MSC cytokines IL-10, TGF-ß1, TSG-6 increased while IFN-γ decreased at the concentration of 200 ng/ml HMGB1 as compared with the control group. ELISA experiments showed that the HMGB1 200 ng/ml acting on MSC for 48 h could significantly promoted the secretion of IL-10, TGF-ß 1 and TSG-6(P<0.05), while IFN-γ showed no significant difference as compared with control group. CONCLUSION: Recombinant human HMGB1 can promote the proliferation and secretion of MSC in healthy people.


Assuntos
Proteína HMGB1 , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Células da Medula Óssea , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Humanos
10.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(9): 9993-10004, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prognosis of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for chronic total occlusion (CTO) between patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and those without DM is unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether DM has adverse effects on CTO PCI patients. METHODS: This single-center retrospective study included consecutive patients who underwent PCI for CTO at the China-Japan Friendship Hospital (Beijing, China) between January 2016 and April 2019. The clinical outcomes during follow-up were compared between patients with DM and those without DM. RESULTS: The analysis included 187 patients (152 males) aged 62.6±11.5 years. A total of 99 participants (52.9%) had DM, which involved a higher body mass index (BMI) and triglyceride level than those without DM (P<0.05). Participants with DM and those without DM had similar PCI success rates (89.9% vs. 95.4%, respectively) and complete revascularization rates (82.8% vs. 84.1%, respectively). There were no significant differences between groups in the rates of all-cause mortality, cardiac death, major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs), readmission, recurrence of angina, target vessel revascularization (TVR), or myocardial infarction (MI) during a median follow-up of 20.5 months. Multivariable logistic regression revealed that CTO in a coronary branch vessel was associated with higher odds of all-cause death (odds ratio (OR): 53.56; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.48 to 1,155.41; P<0.05) and failure of PCI for CTO (OR: 5.40; 95% CI: 1.263 to 23.098; P<0.05). Additionally, PCI for single CTO was associated with lower odds of MACEs (OR: 0.300; 95% CI: 0.118 to 0.765; P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The performance of PCI for CTO has a high success rate in both patients with DM and those without DM, and clinical outcomes are comparable between groups.


Assuntos
Oclusão Coronária , Diabetes Mellitus , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Doença Crônica , Angiografia Coronária , Oclusão Coronária/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
J Med Chem ; 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34644502

RESUMO

Icaritin is an active ingredient in Epimedium, which has a variety of pharmacological activities. However, the low activity of Icaritin and the unclear target greatly limit its application. Therefore, based on the structure of Icaritin, we adopted the strategy of replacing toxic groups and introducing active groups to design and synthesize a series of new analogues. The top compound C3 exhibited better antimultiple myeloma activity with an IC50 of 1.09 µM for RPMI 8226 cells, induced RPMI 8226 apoptosis, and blocked the cell cycle in the S phase. Importantly, transcriptome analysis, cellular thermal shift assay, and microscale thermophoresis assay confirmed that DEPTOR was the target of C3. Moreover, we explored its binding mode with C3. Especially, C3 displayed satisfactory inhibition of tumor growth in RPMI 8226 xenografts without obvious side effects. In summary, C3 was discovered as a novel putative inhibitor of DEPTOR for the treatment of multiple myeloma.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648060

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Nicotine use disorder can alter synaptic plasticity correlated with learning and memory process. G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55), a novel cannabinoid receptor, which is highly expressed in the central nervous system, plays a prominent role in learning and memory. However, the role of GPR55 in nicotine use disorder remains unclear. METHODS: In this study, we used the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm, a standard and well-established model for evaluating the rewarding effect of drug abuse, to investigate nicotine use disorder behavior in mice. After behavioral tests, the effect of GPR55 on nicotine response was evaluated using Western blotting, immunofluorescence staining, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, and ELISA. RESULTS: GPR55 activation significantly reduced nicotine-CPP behavior by decreasing the spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents frequency in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the release of dopamine in serum. Furthermore, we found that the inhibition effects of nicotine response were mediated by phosphorylation of AMPAR. The PI3K-Akt signaling was involved in nicotine-CPP via GPR55 activation. CONCLUSION: Our findings showed that GPR55 in the NAc plays a specific role in blocking nicotine-CPP behavior and might be a potential target for the treatment of nicotine use disorder.

13.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(undefined)2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607973

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Allicin is an allyl 2-propenethiosulfinate or diallyl thiosulfinate acid with cardioprotective effects in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury. This study aims to examine the underlying mechanism by which Allicin protects against MI/R. METHODS: C57BL6 mice were subjected to either sham or MI/R surgery, and mice in the Allicin group were injected with Allicin (5 mg/ml) before the induction of ischemia. The cardiac function and histopathology of experimental mice were evaluated by ultrasound quantification and Masson staining. We next measured the capillary angiogenesis of the peri-infarct area by Masson staining and immunohistochemical staining. The miRNA microarray was carried out to examine the expressed miRNAs in MI/R tissues and corresponding normal tissues. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) was performed to validate the selected miRNA-19α-3p gene expression. Besides, we evaluated the myocardial lactate dehydrogenase and COX-2 by immunofluorescence staining. The western blot analysis was used to evaluate the protein levels of p-AKT, p-PI3K, p-mTOR, COX-2, and VEGF protein in the Allicin and Model group. In vitro study, LPS stimulated Tie2 expressing macrophages were cultured in an ischemic buffer. We evaluated the accumulation of VEGF by fura-2/AM fluorescence. Besides, Western blotting was performed to examine the protein levels of p-PI3K, p-AKT, p-mTOR, VEGF, COX2, and MMP2. The PI3K inhibitor was applied to investigate whether Allicin-induced myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury protection is mediated via the PI3K/AKT pathway. And the miR-19α-3p mimic/inhibitor were transfected to promote/inhibit the expression of miR-19a-3p for verifying the regulation of miR-19a-3p on PI3K pathway. RESULTS: Allicin pretreatment significantly improved I/R-induced cardiac function damage. Furthermore, Allicin could repress cardiac fibrosis, as evidenced by reduced areas of cardiac fibrosis. Allicin's effect on the MI/R was associated with increased capillary angiogenesis. Microarray analysis exposed that miR-19a-3p down-regulated PIK3CA (PI3K) expression by directly targeting the PIK3CA gene. The regulation of the angiogenesis pathway and gene miRNA-19a-3p might affect the Allicin-induced MI/R protection. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that COX-2 and myocardial lactate dehydrogenase were significantly increased after Allicin treatment. Furthermore, western blot analysis demonstrated that p-AKT, p-PI3K, p-mTOR, COX-2, and VEGF protein levels were also increased in the Allicin group. In vitro study, the protein levels of p-PI3K, p-AKT, p-mTOR, VEGF, COX2, and MMP2 were significantly increased in the Allicin-treated Tie2 expressing macrophages. These effects were partially reversed by PI3K inhibitor (Wortmannin) treatment. MiR-19α-3p plays an important role in myocardial I/R injury. It could regulate the activity of the PI3K-AKT pathway. And inhibition of miR-19a-3p promoted angiogenesis by regulating PI3K/AKT pathway. CONCLUSIONS: Allicin pretreatment protects against myocardial I/R and activating the miR-19a-3p/PI3K/AKT pathway.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608743

RESUMO

The authors sought to explore whether hypertension classification was risk factor for lobar and non-lobar hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage (HICH) and the prognosis in patients with hematoma. This retrospective cohort study was conducted on HICH patients admitted at the First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University. Observations with first-ever intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) were recruited. The authors divided the brain image into three groups according to the location of ICH to predict whether there were significant differences between lobar and non-lobar ICH. A Mann-Whitney U test was used and this retrospective trial also compared the operation and mortality rates. Our cohort included 209 patients (73.7% male; median age:60.5±16.7). The overall incidence of lobar HICH was less than non-lobar HICH (24.4% vs. 68.4%), 7.2% cases of mixed HICH was included in this analysis. In a Mann-Whitney U test analyze, it indicated that there were significant differences in hypertension classification between lobar and non-lobar HICH (Z = -3.3, p<.05). And the percentage of hematoma in lobar areas with relatively slightly high blood pressure (BP) (high normal and grade 1 hypertension) accounts for 52.9% versus 30.1% in non-lobar areas. The increasing trends of the prevalent rate of lobar ICH with BP rising were not remarkable. The non-lobar HICH showed a sharper increase in the condition of grade 3 hypertension compared with lobar HICH. During the period of research, the fatality of lobar hemorrhage was 2.9% versus 7.7% (non-lobar). Besides, the fatality incidence of HICH with relatively slightly high BP (high normal and grade 1 hypertension) was lower than poorly controlled hypertensive patients (grade 2 and grade 3 hypertension). (8.0% vs. 15.7%). The increase of hypertension classification will aggravate the occurrence of non-lobar ICH and positively corrected with BP, but not in lobar areas. It is essential to understand the distinction influence of hypertension classification between lobar and non-lobar ICH.

15.
Biomater Sci ; 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596174

RESUMO

This paper reports antimicrobial metallopolymers containing biodegradable polycaprolactone as the backbone with boronic acid and cobaltocenium as the side chain. While boronic acid promotes interactions with bacterial cells via boronolectin with lipopolysaccharides, cationic cobaltocenium facilitates the unique complexation with anionic ß-lactam antibiotics. The synergistic interactions in these metallopolymer-antibiotic bioconjugates were evidenced by re-sensitized efficacy of penicillin-G against four different Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli, P. vulgaris, P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae). The degradability of the polyester backbone was validated through tests under physiological pH (7.4) and acidic pH (5.5) or under enzymatic conditions. These metallopolymers exhibited time-dependent uptake and reduction of cobalt metals in different organs of mice via in vivo absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) tests.

16.
ACS Nano ; 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34677929

RESUMO

It is known that the suspended liquid droplets in clouds can generate electrostatic charges, which finally results in the lightning. However, the detailed mechanism related to the contact-electrification process on the liquid-gas (L-G) interfaces is still poorly understood. Here, by introducing an acoustic levitation method for levitating a liquid droplet, we have studied the electrification mechanism at the L-G interface. The tribo-motion between water droplets and air induced by the ultrasound wave leads to the generation of positive charges on the surface of the droplets, and the charge amount of water droplets (20 µL) gradually reaches saturation within 30 s. The mixed solid particles in droplets can increase the amount of transferred charge, whereas the increase of ion concentration in the droplet can suppress the charge generation. This charge transfer phenomenon at L-G interfaces and the related analysis can be a guidance for the study in many fields, including anti-static, harvesting rainy energy, micro/nano fluidics, triboelectric power generator, surface engineering, and so on. Moreover, the surface charge generation due to L-G electrification is an inevitable effect during ultrasonic levitation, and thus, this study can also work for the applications of the ultrasonic technique.

17.
Virulence ; 12(1): 2703-2720, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34678131

RESUMO

Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae (MO) is a principle causative agent of chronic respiratory disease in ruminants, including sheep, goats, and deer, posing a great threat to the ruminant industry worldwide. However, the pathogenesis of MO infection still remains not well understood and needs further clarification. Here we report a time-dependent apoptosis in cultured murine alveolar macrophage (MH-S) cell lines in response to MO infection in vitro. Mechanistically, MO infection activated apoptosis in MH-S cells through caspase-8-dependent extrinsic pathway and through tumor protein 53 (p53)- and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent intrinsic mitochondrial pathways. Moreover, MO infection promoted both transcription and translation of proinflammatory cytokine genes including interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), IL-18, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), in a caspase-8-, p53-, and ROS-dependent manner, implying a potential link between MO-induced inflammation and apoptotic cell death. Collectively, our results suggest that MO infection induces the activation of extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways in cultured MH-S cells, which is related to upregulated expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Our findings will contribute to the elucidation of pathogenesis in MO infection and provide valuable reference for the development of new strategies for controlling MO infection.

18.
Biomedicines ; 9(10)2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34680594

RESUMO

Background: Antibiotic-resistant type III/ST-17 Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS) strain is predominant in neonatal invasive GBS diseases. We aimed to investigate the antibiotic resistance profiles and genetic characteristics of type III/ST-17 GBS strains. Methods: A total of 681 non-duplicate GBS isolates were typed (MLST, capsular types) and their antibiotic resistances were performed. Several molecular methods (WGS, PCR, sequencing and sequence analysis) were used to determine the genetic context of antibiotic resistant genes and pili genes. Results: The antibiotic resistant rates were significantly higher in type Ib (90.1%) and type III (71.1%) GBS isolates. WGS revealed that the loss of PI-1 genes and absence of ISSag5 was found in antibiotic-resistant III/ST-17 GBS isolates, which is replaced by a ~75-kb integrative and conjugative element, ICESag37, comprising multiple antibiotic resistance and virulence genes. Among 190 serotype III GBS isolates, the most common pilus island was PI-2b (58.4%) alone, which was found in 81.3% of the III/ST-17 GBS isolates. Loss of PI-1 and ISSag5 was significantly associated with antibiotic resistance (95.5% vs. 27.8%, p < 0.001). The presence of ICESag37 was found in 83.6% of all III/ST-17 GBS isolates and 99.1% (105/106) of the antibiotic-resistant III/ST-17 GBS isolates. Conclusions: Loss of PI-1 and ISSag5, which is replaced by ICESag37 carrying multiple antibiotic resistance genes, accounts for the high antibiotic resistance rate in III/ST-17 GBS isolates. The emerging clonal expansion of this hypervirulent strain with antibiotic resistance after acquisition of ICESag37 highlights the urgent need for continuous surveillance of GBS infections.

19.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 9(10)2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34683013

RESUMO

(1) Background: Sleep problems have become one of the current serious public health issues. Pillow height affects the alignment of the cervical spine and is closely related to the mechanical environment of the cervical spine. An appropriate pillow height can provide adequate support for the head and neck to reduce the stress in the cervical spine and relax the muscles of the neck and shoulder, thereby relieving pain and improving sleep quality. (2) Methods: We reviewed the current trends, research methodologies, and determinants of pillow height evaluation, summarizing the evidences published since 1997. In particular, we scrutinized articles dealing with the physiological and mechanical characteristics of the head-neck-shoulder complex. (3) Results: Through the investigation and analysis of these articles, we presented several quantitative and objective determinants for pillow height evaluation, including cervical spine alignment, body dimension, contact pressure, and muscle activity. The measurement methods and selection criteria for these parameters are described in detail. However, the suggested range for achieving optimal cervical spine alignment, appropriate pressure distribution, and minimal muscle activity during sleep cannot yet be identified considering the lack of sufficient evidence. Moreover, there remain no firm conclusions about the optimal pillow height for the supine and lateral positions. (4) Conclusions: A comprehensive evaluation combining the above determinants provides a unique solution for ergonomic pillow design and proper pillow height selection, which can effectively promote the public sleep health. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a reasonable algorithm to weigh multiple determinants.

20.
Microorganisms ; 9(10)2021 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34683413

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Streptococcus agalactiae (also known as group B streptococcus, GBS) is associated with high mortality and morbidity rates in infants, especially those with complicated GBS sepsis, defined as those with meningitis, severe sepsis and/or septic shock. We aimed to characterize the clinical and molecular characteristics and risk factors for adverse outcomes of neonates with invasive GBS diseases. METHODS: From 2003 to 2020, all neonates with invasive GBS diseases who were hospitalized in a tertiary-level neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) were enrolled. The GBS isolates underwent serotyping, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and antibiotic susceptibility testing. We compared cases of complicated GBS sepsis with uncomplicated GBS bacteremia. RESULTS: During the study period, a total of 188 neonates (aged less than 6 months old) with invasive GBS diseases were identified and enrolled. Among them, 119 (63.3%) had uncomplicated GBS bacteremia and 69 (36.7%) neonates had complicated GBS sepsis, including meningitis (25.5%, n = 48) and severe sepsis or septic shock. Among neonates with complicated GBS sepsis, 45 (65.2%) had neurological complications, and 21 (42.0%) of 50 survivors had neurological sequelae at discharge. The overall final mortality rate was 10.1% (19 neonates died). Type III/ST-17 GBS isolates accounted for 56.5% of all complicated GBS sepsis and 68.8% of all GBS meningitis, but this strain was not significantly associated with worse outcomes. The antimicrobial resistance rate among the invasive GBS isolates was obviously increasing in the past two decades. After multivariate logistic regression analysis, neonates with thrombocytopenia and respiratory failure were independently associated with final adverse outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: a total of 36.7% of all neonatal invasive GBS diseases were associated with complicated sepsis with/without meningitis. Given the high mortality and morbidity rates in neonates with complicated GBS sepsis, further studies for early identification of specific strains, risk factors or genetic mechanisms that will cause complicated GBS sepsis are urgently needed in the future.

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