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1.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1191: 339282, 2022 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35033257

RESUMO

Accurate detection of circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) plays a vital role in the diagnosis of various diseases. However, enzyme-free amplification detection remains challenging. Here, we report an enzyme-free fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay termed "3C-TASK" (cyclic click chemical-triggered hairpin stacking kit) for the detection of circulating miRNA. In this strategy, the miRNA could initiate copper-free click chemical ligation reactions and the ligated products then trigger another hairpin stacking circuit. The first signal amplification was achieved through the recycling of the target miRNA in the click chemical ligation circuit, and the second signal amplification was realized through the recycling of ligated probes in a hairpin stacking circuit driven by thermodynamics. The two-step chain reaction event triggered by miRNAs was quantified by the fluorescence signal value so that accurate detection of target miRNA could be achieved. The 3C-TASK was easily controlled because no enzyme was involved in the entire procedure. Although simple, this strategy showed sensitivity with a detection limit of 8.63 pM and specificity for distinguishing miRNA sequences with single-base variations. In addition, the applicability of this method in complex biological samples was verified by detecting target miRNA in diluted plasma samples. Hence, our method achieved sensitive and specific detection of miRNA and may offer a new perspective for the broader application of enzyme-free chemical reaction and DNA circuits in biosensing.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , MicroRNA Circulante , MicroRNAs , DNA , Limite de Detecção , MicroRNAs/genética , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico
2.
Bioact Mater ; 10: 68-78, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34901530

RESUMO

Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is a critical biomarker not only important for the early detection of tumors but also invaluable for personalized treatments. Currently ctDNA detection relies on sequencing. Here, a platform termed three-dimensional-coded interlocked DNA rings (3D-coded ID rings) was created for multiplexed ctDNA identification. The ID rings provide a ctDNA recognition ring that is physically interlocked with a reporter ring. The specific binding of ctDNA to the recognition ring initiates target-responsive cutting via a restriction endonuclease; the cutting then triggers rolling circle amplification on the reporter ring. The signals are further integrated with internal 3D codes for multiplexed readouts. ctDNAs from non-invasive clinical specimens including plasma, feces, and urine were detected and validated at a sensitivity much higher than those obtained through sequencing. This 3D-coded ID ring platform can detect any multiple DNA fragments simultaneously without sequencing. We envision that our platform will facilitate the implementation of future personalized/precision medicine.

3.
Front Chem ; 9: 763495, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34869206

RESUMO

Near-Infrared-II (NIR-II) bioimaging is a newly emerging visualization modality in real-time investigations of biological processes research. Owning to advances in reducing photon scattering and low tissue autofluorescence levels in NIR-II region (1,000-1700 nm), NIR-II bioimaging affords high resolution with increasing tissue penetration depth, and it shows greater application potential for in vivo detection to obtain more detailed qualitative and quantitative parameters. Herein, this review summarizes recent progresses made on NIR-II bioimaging for quantitative analysis. These emergences of various NIR-II fluorescence, photoacoustic (PA), luminescence lifetime imaging probes and their quantitative analysis applications are comprehensively discussed, and perspectives on potential challenges facing in this direction are also raised.

5.
J Infect ; 2021 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34902448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To systematically evaluate the prevalence of post-sequelae and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease assessment test (CAT) scoring one year after hospital discharge among older COVID-19 patients, as well as potential risk factors. METHODS: A multi-center prospective cohort study involving 1,233 eligible older COVID-19 patients was conducted. All patients were followed-up between Mar 1, 2021 and Mar 20, 2021. CAT scoring was adopted to measure symptom burden in COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: Of the 1233 eligible cases, 630 (51.1%) reported at least one sequelae. The top six post-sequelae included fatigue (32.4%), sweating (20.0%), chest tightness (15.8%), anxiety (11.4%), myalgia (9.0%), and cough (5.8%). Severe patients had significantly higher percentage of fatigue, sweating, chest tightness, myalgia, and cough (P<0.05), while anxiety was universal in all subjects. Sweating, anxiety, palpitation, edema of lower limbs, smell reduction, and taste change were emerging sequelae. Disease severity during hospitalization (OR: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.15-1.84, P = 0.002), and follow-up time (OR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.50-0.99, P = 0.043) were independently associated with risk of post-sequelae, while disease severity during hospitalization was significantly associated with increased risk of emerging sequelae (OR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.03-1.71, P = 0.029). The median of CAT score was 2 (0-5) in all patients, and a total of 120 patients (9.7%) had CAT scores ≥10. Disease severity during hospitalization (OR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.23-2.67, P = 0.003) and age (OR: 1.07, 95% CI: 1.04-1.09, P<0.001) were significantly associated with increased risk of CAT scores ≥10. CONCLUSIONS: While the dramatic decline in the prevalence rate of persistent symptoms is reassuring, new sequelae among older COVID-19 patients cannot be ignored. Disease severity during hospitalization, age, and follow-up time contributed to the risk of post-sequelae and CAT scoring one year after hospital discharge among older COVID-19 patients. Our study provides valuable clues for long-term post-sequelae of the older COVID-19 patients, as well as their risk factors.

6.
Cancer Cell Int ; 21(1): 681, 2021 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34923980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several treatments are available for treatment of early and very early-stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma, also known as small Hepatocellular Carcinoma (SHCC). However, there is no consensus with regards to the efficacies of these methods. We aimed at identifying the most effective initial treatment strategy for SHCC through Bayesian network meta-analyses. METHODS: Studies published between January, 2010, and February, 2021 were searched in EMBASE, Cochrane Library, PubMed and Web of science databases, and conference proceedings for trials. The included studies reported the survival outcomes of very early and early Hepatocellular Carcinoma patients subjected to radiofrequency ablation (RFA), microwave ablation (MWA), surgical resection (SR), transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI), minimally invasive liver surgery (MIS), stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) and cryoablation (CA). Then, data were extracted from studies that met the inclusion criteria. Patient survival data were retrieved from the published Kaplan-Meier curves and pooled. A Bayesian random-effects model was used to combine direct and indirect evidence. RESULTS: A total of 2058 articles were retrieved and screened, from which 45 studies assessing the efficacies of 8 different treatments in 11,364 patients were selected. The included studies had high methodological quality. Recurrence free survival* (progression/recurrence/relapse/disease/tumor-free survival were combined and redefined as RFS*) and overall survival (OS) outcomes were highest in MIS-treated patients (HR 0·57, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 0·38-0·85; HR 0.48,95% CI 0.36-0.64, respectively), followed by SR-treated patients (HR 0.60, 95% CI 0.50-0.74; HR 0.62, 95% CI 0.55-0.72, respectively). TACE was highly efficacious (58.9%) at decreasing the rates of major complications. Similar findings were obtained through sensitivity analysis, and in most of the prognostic subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: MIS and SR exhibited the highest clinical efficacies, however, they were associated with higher rates of complications. Ablation is effective in small tumors, whereas SBRT is a relatively promising treatment option for SHCC. More well-designed, large-scale randomized controlled trials should be performed to validate our findings.

8.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 42(18): 5985-5999, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533251

RESUMO

The aberrant static functional connectivity of brain network has been widely investigated in patients with functional constipation (FCon). However, the dynamics of brain functional connectivity in FCon patients remained unknown. This study aimed to detect the brain dynamics of functional connectivity states and network topological organizations of FCon patients and investigate the correlations of the aberrant brain dynamics with symptom severity. Eighty-three FCon patients and 80 healthy subjects (HS) were included in data analysis. The spatial group independent component analysis, sliding-window approach, k-means clustering, and graph-theoretic analysis were applied to investigate the dynamic temporal properties and coupling patterns of functional connectivity states, as well as the time-variation of network topological organizations in FCon patients. Four reoccurring functional connectivity states were identified in k-means clustering analysis. Compared to HS, FCon patients manifested the lower occurrence rate and mean dwell time in the state with a complex connection between default mode network and cognitive control network, as well as the aberrant anterior insula-cortical coupling patterns in this state, which were significantly correlated with the symptom severity. The graph-theoretic analysis demonstrated that FCon patients had higher sample entropy at the nodal efficiency of anterior insula than HS. The current findings provided dynamic perspectives for understanding the brain connectome of FCon and laid the foundation for the potential treatment of FCon based on brain connectomics.

9.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 691628, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34568361

RESUMO

Background: There is no uniform treatment for pathological scars, including keloids and hypertrophic scars, in clinic currently. Previously, multiple randomized controlled trials have examined the clinical efficacy of different treatments. Nonetheless, the results are inconsistent, and many treatments have not been directly compared. This makes it difficult to conclude which approach is more favorable, in terms of efficacy and safety, for the treatment of pathological scarring. This study aimed at evaluating the efficacy of different injection and topical treatment strategies for hypertrophic scar and keloid. Methods: Relevant literature from PubMed, Medline, Embase, Scopus, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CCRCT), and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO-ICTRP) were searched, from database inception through November 2020. Randomized clinical trials evaluating different treatment strategies of pathological scars, including triamcinolone acetonide (TAC), verapamil (VER), 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), botulinum toxin A (BTA), bleomycin (BLM), and silicone gels were included in the study. Results: The network meta-analysis included a total of 2,009 patients from 29 studies. A network meta-analysis of injection and topical treatment strategies showed that the efficacy of TAC combined with BTA was best in the treatment of pathological scars. Combination therapies of TAC with 5-FU and TAC with BTA significantly improved the clinical efficiency. However, there was no statistically significant difference between other treatment strategies. The order of efficacy predicted by the surface under the cumulative ranking (SUCRA) curve was as follows: TAC+BTA (82.2%) > TAC+5-FU (69.8%) > BTA (67.3%) > 5-FU+silicone (59.4%) > TAC+silicone (58.3%) > 5-FU (49.8%) > BLM (42.0%) > TAC (26.7%) > VER (26.2%) > silicone (18.3%). There was no publication bias revealed based on the funnel diagram. Conclusion: This study recommends intralesional injection of TAC-BTA and TAC-5-FU combined therapies. But for patients who cannot tolerate the side effects, the use of silicone gels in combination with TAC is recommended. However, these conclusions need to be further confirmed by more randomized controlled trials.

10.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(37): 15224-15232, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498861

RESUMO

Atomically precise noble metal nanoclusters provide a critical benchmark for the fundamental research of the origin of condensed matter because they retain the original state of the metal bonds. Also, knowledge about the transition from organometallic complexes to a nanoclusters is important for understanding the structural evolution of the nanoclusters, particularly their nucleation mechanism. Herein, three transition-size gold nanoclusters are prepared via a controlled diphosphine-mediated top-down routine. Starting from small-size nanoclusters, three new nanoclusters including Au13(SAdm)8(L4)2(BPh4) (Au13), Au14(S-c-C6H11)10L4 (Au14), and Au16(S-c-C6H11)11LPh* (Au16) are obtained by controlled clipping on the surface and kernel of initial nanoclusters. Combining their atomically precise structures with DFT theoretical calculations, the overall atom-by-atom structural evolution process from Au12(SR)12 (0 e-) to Au18(SR)14 (4 e-) is mapped out. In addition, studies on their electronic structures show that the evolution from an organometallic complex to nanoclusters is accompanied by a dramatic decrease in the HOMO-LUMO gaps. Most importantly, the formation of the first Au-Au bond is captured in the "Au4S4 to Au5" nucleation process from Au12(SR)12 complex to the Au13 nanocluster. This work provides a deep insight into the origin of inner core in Au NCs and their structural transition relationship with metal complexes.

11.
Front Surg ; 8: 696391, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34532337

RESUMO

Background: Traumatic fracture is a common orthopaedic disease, and application of 3D printing technology in fracture treatment, which entails utilisation of pre-operative printed anatomic fracture model, is increasingly gaining popularity. However, effectiveness of 3D printing-assisted surgery lacks evidence-based findings to support its application. Materials and Methods: Embase, PubMed and Cochrane Library databases were systematically searched until October, 2020 to identify relevant studies. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing efficacy of 3D printing-assisted surgery vs. conventional surgery for traumatic fractures were reviewed. RevMan V.5.3 software was used to conduct meta-analysis. Results: A total of 12 RCTs involving 641 patients were included. Pooled findings showed that 3D printing-assisted surgery had shorter operation duration [standardised mean difference (SMD) = -1.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) - 1.70 ~ -1.34, P < 0.00001], less intraoperative blood loss (SMD = 1.34, 95% CI 1.74 ~ 0.94, P < 0.00001), fewer intraoperative fluoroscopies (SMD = 1.25, 95% CI 1.64 ~ 0.87, P < 0.00001), shorter fracture union time (SMD = -0.15, 95% CI -0.25 ~ -0.05, P = 0.003), and higher rate of excellent outcomes (OR = 2.40, 95% CI 1.07 ~ 5.37, P = 0.03) compared with conventional surgery. No significant differences in complication rates were observed between the two types of surgery (OR = 0.69, 95% CI 0.69 ~ 1.42, P = 0.32). Conclusions: Indicators including operation duration, intraoperative blood loss, number of intraoperative fluoroscopies, fracture union time, and rates of excellent outcomes showed that 3D printing-assisted surgery is a superior alternative in treatment of traumatic fractures compared with conventional surgery. Moreover, the current study did not report significant differences in incidence of complications between the two approaches. Systematic Review Registration: CRD42021239507.

12.
Neural Plast ; 2021: 9960304, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484327

RESUMO

Background: Memory loss and cognitive impairment characterize the neurodegenerative disorder, Alzheimer's disease (AD). Amyloid-ß (Aß) is the key factor that triggers the course of AD, and reducing the deposition of Aß in the brain has been considered as a potential target for the treatment of AD. In clinical and animal studies, electroacupuncture (EA) has been shown to be an effective treatment for AD. In recent years, substantial evidence has accumulated suggesting the important role of the glymphatic system in Aß clearance. Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore whether EA modifies the accumulation of Aß through the glymphatic system and may thus be applied to alleviate cognitive impairments. Methods: Seven-month-old SAMP8 mice were randomized into a control group (Pc) and an electroacupuncture group (Pe). Age-matched SAMR1 mice were used as normal controls (Rc). Mice in the Pe group were stimulated on Baihui (GV20) and Yintang (GV29) for 10 min and then pricked at Shuigou (GV26) for ten times. EA treatment lasted for 8 weeks. In each week, EA would be applied once a day for the first five consecutive days and ceased at the remaining two days. After EA treatment, Morris water maze (MWM) test was used to evaluate the cognitive function; HE and Nissl staining was performed to observe the brain histomorphology; ELISA, contrast-enhanced MRI, and immunofluorescence were applied to explore the mechanisms underlying EA effects from Aß accumulation, glymphatic system function, reactivity of astrocytes, and AQP4 polarization, respectively. Results: This EA regime could improve cognition and alleviate neuropathological damage to brain tissue. And EA treatment might reduce Aß accumulation, enhance paravascular influx in the glymphatic system, inhibit the reactivity of astrocytes, and improve AQP4 polarity. Conclusion: EA treatment might reduce Aß accumulation from the brain via improving clearance performance of the glymphatic system and thereby alleviating cognitive impairment.

13.
Nanoscale Horiz ; 6(11): 913-917, 2021 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486633

RESUMO

The hierarchical assemblies of well-defined structural nanoclusters can help to better understand those of biologically important molecules such as DNA and proteins. Herein, we disclose the synthesis and characterization of a new silver nanocluster, that is Ag70(SR)42(PPh3)5 (Ag70-TPP). Directed by the ligands, Ag70-TPP nanoclusters undergo self-hierarchical assembly into a highly space-efficient complex secondary structure of a double helical 4H (DH4H) close packing pattern. The chirality of Ag70-TPP, and the van der Waals forces interactions between the ligands are believed to drive its DH4H arrangement, and the observed interlocking of the phosphine ligands of adjacent Ag70-TPP nanoclusters also contributed. Overall, this work has yielded important and unprecedented insights into the internal structure and crystallographic arrangement of nanoclusters.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , DNA , Ligantes , Proteínas , Prata
14.
Reprod Fertil Dev ; 33(14): 760-771, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34585659

RESUMO

Melatonin (MT) increases oocyte maturation by reducing reactive oxygen species level and enhancing oocyte antioxidant capacity. However, the mechanisms via which MT works are still poorly understood. In the present study, the effects of MT on the maturation rate and development ability of bovine oocytes were investigated. Then, the transcriptome of oocytes treated by MT was sequenced. Finally, the expression of gap junction protein alpha 4 (GJA4) protein and cAMP level were detected in bovine oocytes, and isoprenaline (enhancer of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC)) and heptanol (inhibitor of GJIC) were used to investigate the effect of MT on GJIC activity in bovine oocytes. Our results showed that MT significantly improved the maturation, developmental ability and mRNA expression of GJA4 of bovine oocytes. Meanwhile, MT significantly increased GJA4 protein level and cAMP level in bovine oocytes. In contrast to heptanol, both isoproterenol and MT significantly increased GJIC activity, nuclear maturation and the development ability of bovine oocytes. However, MT significantly restored the nuclear maturation and developmental ability of oocytes treated by heptanol. In conclusion, our results showed that MT improves the maturation and developmental ability of bovine oocytes by enhancing GJIC activity via up-regulating GJA4 protein expression in IVM progress.

15.
Carbohydr Polym ; 270: 118367, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364612

RESUMO

Temperature-induced structural variations of retrograded starch gel during long-term storage were investigated in a real food system (wet starch noodles). Fresh starch noodles presented a B-type XRD pattern containing 8.82% crystallinity and 16.04% double helices. In the first 2 weeks, double helices of starch chain formed long-range ordered structure leading to increased crystallinity, and such structural transformation was positively correlated with increasing storage temperature (from 4 °C to 35 °C) and storage time. However, with the extension of storage time to 12 weeks, the disorganization of supra-molecular structure was likely to be observed by decreased crystallinity, double helix and water mobility. Besides, we propose that the area and intensity of Raman band at 2910 cm-1 can be a good indicator for evaluating perfection of crystallinity in starch noodles. These results contributed to a better understanding of mechanisms underlying molecular order changes of retrograded starch gel product during long-term storage.

16.
Chem Asian J ; 16(19): 2973-2977, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374215

RESUMO

The change in the valence state of nanocluster can induce remarkable changes in the properties and structure. However, achieving the valence state changes in nanoclusters is still a challenge. In this work, we use Cu2+ as dopant to "oxidize" [Ag62 S12 (SBut )32 ]2+ (4 free electrons) to obtain the new nanocluster: [Ag62-x Cux S12 (SBut )32 ]4+ with 2 free electrons. As revealed by its structure, the [Ag62-x Cux S12 (SBut )32 ]4+ (x=10∼21) has a similar structure to that of [Ag62 S12 (SBut )32 ]2+ precursor and all the Cu atoms occupy the surface site of nanocluster. It's worth noting that with the Cu atoms doping, the [Ag62-x Cux S12 (SBut )32 ]4+ nanocluster is more stable than [Ag62 S12 (SBut )32 ]2+ at higher temperature and in electrochemical cycle. This result has laid a foundation for the subsequent application and exploration. Overall, this work reveals crystals structure of a new Ag-Cu nanocluster and offers a new insight into the electron reduction/oxidation of nanocluster.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34335847

RESUMO

Objective: Primary dysmenorrhea (PD) is a common and high incidence disease in gynecology, which seriously affects the quality of life in young women. Our previous study found that mild moxibustion could treat abdominal pain of PD patients, but the mechanism is still unclear. Therefore, this study aims to partly investigate the treatment mechanism of moxibustion for PD, especially on uterine microcirculation. Methods: Forty 3-month-old Sprague Dawley female rats were randomly divided into four groups, including group A (saline control group, n = 10), group B (control plus moxibustion group, n = 10), group C (PD model group, n = 10), group D (PD. model plus moxibustion group, n = 10). The PD rat model was established by injecting estradiol benzoate and oxytocin. Mild moxibustion on Sanyinjiao (SP6) and Guanyuan (CV4) acupoints was once a day, 20 minutes per time, for 10 consecutive days. A vaginal smear was used to test the estrous cycle of rats. Uterine microvascular thickness was observed by stereomicroscope. And we detected the content of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α ) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in uterine tissue by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Mild moxibustion can enlarge the microvessels, improve the microcirculation disturbance, and relieve the swelling of the uterus in PD rats. During the mild moxibustion intervention, the contents of PGF2α and PGE2 in uterus issues were synchronous increases or decreases and the changes of PGE2 were more obvious, but the changes of uterine microvasculature and morphology caused by the decrease of PGF2α were greater than PGE2. Conclusion: Mild moxibustion at SP6 and CV4 acupoints may relax uterine microvascular obstacle by reducing the content of PGF2α in uterine tissue, improve the microcirculation disorder, and then alleviate the PD rat's uterine swelling.

18.
Pediatr Surg Int ; 37(10): 1323-1332, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34331107

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate effectiveness and safety of resistance training (RT). Data were retrieved from Medline, EMBASE, PubMed, CINAHL and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Central) databases from inception to April 2020. Quantitative studies on RT for muscle strength, lean body mass, cardiopulmonary function, metabolism, quality of life, and pain in burned children were included in this study. Twelve RCTs (379 patients) were identified. Meta-analysis showed RT significant increase in muscle strength [SMD = 2.18, 95% CI (0.79, 3.56), p = 0.002]. However, training showed no significant effect on muscle endurance [MD = 10.00, 95% CI (- 0.22, 20.22), p = 0.06]. Notably, training significantly increases total lean body mass [MD = 2.10, 95% CI (1.28, 2.92), p < 0.001]. In addition, training significantly increased leg lean body mass [MD = 2.10, 95% CI (1.28, 2.92), p < 0.001]. Moreover, training significantly increased VO2peak [MD = 5.83, 95% CI (3.52, 8.13), p < 0.001]. Meta-analysis showed that training significantly increases gait parameters, including stride length, step length, velocity and cadence. Furthermore, training significantly increased explosive capacity of lower limb muscles (p < 0.001). Meta-analysis of 6-min walking test results showed that training significantly improves walking speed (p = 0.0008). Notably, all studies showed unclear or high risk of bias; whereas, quality of the evidence was moderate or low. Analysis showed that RT significantly improves clinical outcomes. However, more high-quality, double-blind, randomized control trials should be performed to explore the effects of RT to ensure successful implementation in rehabilitation.


Assuntos
Queimaduras , Treinamento de Força , Queimaduras/terapia , Criança , Humanos , Força Muscular , Dor , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
19.
Front Neural Circuits ; 15: 716408, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34322002

RESUMO

Prefrontal cortical GABAergic interneurons (INs) and their innervations are essential for the execution of complex behaviors such as working memory, social behavior, and fear expression. These behavior regulations are highly dependent on primary long-range afferents originating from the subcortical structures such as mediodorsal thalamus (MD), ventral hippocampus (vHPC), and basolateral amygdala (BLA). In turn, the regulatory effects of these inputs are mediated by activation of parvalbumin-expressing (PV) and/or somatostatin expressing (SST) INs within the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Here we review how each of these long-range afferents from the MD, vHPC, or BLA recruits a subset of the prefrontal interneuron population to exert precise control of specific PFC-dependent behaviors. Specifically, we first summarize the anatomical connections of different long-range inputs formed on prefrontal GABAergic INs, focusing on PV versus SST cells. Next, we elaborate on the role of prefrontal PV- and SST- INs in regulating MD afferents-mediated cognitive behaviors. We also examine how prefrontal PV- and SST- INs gate vHPC afferents in spatial working memory and fear expression. Finally, we discuss the possibility that prefrontal PV-INs mediate fear conditioning, predominantly driven by the BLA-mPFC pathway. This review will provide a broad view of how multiple long-range inputs converge on prefrontal interneurons to regulate complex behaviors and novel future directions to understand how PFC controls different behaviors.

20.
Inorg Chem ; 60(12): 9050-9056, 2021 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34061506

RESUMO

Chiral metal nanoclusters have been widely reported, but their separation and optical stabilization remain challenging. We used a deracemization strategy to accomplish the enantioseparation of a racemic mixture of [Ag32Cu12(CH3COO)12(SAdm)12(P(CH3OPh)3)4] (M44) in a yield exceeding 50%, forming two optically active [Ag32Cu12(R/S-Cl(CH3)CHCOO)12(SAdm)12(P(CH3OPh)3)4] (R/S-M44') enantiomers. The optical activity of these products was conserved after exchange of the chiral carboxyl ligands with achiral ligand (Br-), to give two additional optically active nanoclusters R/S-[Ag28Cu16Br12(SAdm)12(P(CH3OPh)3)4] (R/S(Br)-M44). The crystal structures of the above nanoclusters were determined by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. Based on these structures, the chiral transformation and conservation are mapped out.

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