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JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 9(9): e24402, 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473067


BACKGROUND: For rehabilitation training systems, it is essential to automatically record and recognize exercises, especially when more than one type of exercise is performed without a predefined sequence. Most motion recognition methods are based on feature engineering and machine learning algorithms. Time-domain and frequency-domain features are extracted from original time series data collected by sensor nodes. For high-dimensional data, feature selection plays an important role in improving the performance of motion recognition. Existing feature selection methods can be categorized into filter and wrapper methods. Wrapper methods usually achieve better performance than filter methods; however, in most cases, they are computationally intensive, and the feature subset obtained is usually optimized only for the specific learning algorithm. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to provide a feature selection method for motion recognition of upper-limb exercises and improve the recognition performance. METHODS: Motion data from 5 types of upper-limb exercises performed by 21 participants were collected by a customized inertial measurement unit (IMU) node. A total of 60 time-domain and frequency-domain features were extracted from the original sensor data. A hybrid feature selection method by combining filter and wrapper methods (FESCOM) was proposed to eliminate irrelevant features for motion recognition of upper-limb exercises. In the filter stage, candidate features were first selected from the original feature set according to the significance for motion recognition. In the wrapper stage, k-nearest neighbors (kNN), Naïve Bayes (NB), and random forest (RF) were evaluated as the wrapping components to further refine the features from the candidate feature set. The performance of the proposed FESCOM method was verified using experiments on motion recognition of upper-limb exercises and compared with the traditional wrapper method. RESULTS: Using kNN, NB, and RF as the wrapping components, the classification error rates of the proposed FESCOM method were 1.7%, 8.9%, and 7.4%, respectively, and the feature selection time in each iteration was 13 seconds, 71 seconds, and 541 seconds, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The experimental results demonstrated that, in the case of 5 motion types performed by 21 healthy participants, the proposed FESCOM method using kNN and NB as the wrapping components achieved better recognition performance than the traditional wrapper method. The FESCOM method dramatically reduces the search time in the feature selection process. The results also demonstrated that the optimal number of features depends on the classifier. This approach serves to improve feature selection and classification algorithm selection for upper-limb motion recognition based on wearable sensor data, which can be extended to motion recognition of more motion types and participants.

IEEE Trans Cybern ; 51(4): 1981-1992, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30794522


Manifold learning has been widely used for dimensionality reduction and feature extraction of data recently. However, in the application of the related algorithms, it often suffers from noisy or unreliable data problems. For example, when the sample data have complex background, occlusions, and/or illuminations, the clustering of data is still a challenging task. To address these issues, we propose a family of novel algorithms for manifold regularized non-negative matrix factorization in this paper. In the algorithms, based on the alpha-beta-divergences, graph regularization with multiple segments is utilized to constrain the data transitivity in data decomposition. By adjusting two tuning parameters, we show that the proposed algorithms can significantly improve the robustness with respect to the images with complex background. The efficiency of the proposed algorithms is confirmed by the experiments on four different datasets. For different initializations and datasets, variations of cost functions and decomposition data elements in the learning are presented to show the convergent properties of the algorithms.

IEEE Trans Image Process ; 27(9): 4490-4502, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29897874


Learning-based hashing is a leading approach of approximate nearest neighbor search for large-scale image retrieval. In this paper, we develop a deep supervised hashing method for multi-label image retrieval, in which we propose to learn a binary "mask" map that can identify the approximate locations of objects in an image, so that we use this binary "mask" map to obtain length-limited hash codes which mainly focus on an image's objects but ignore the background. The proposed deep architecture consists of four parts: 1) a convolutional sub-network to generate effective image features; 2) a binary "mask" sub-network to identify image objects' approximate locations; 3) a weighted average pooling operation based on the binary "mask" to obtain feature representations and hash codes that pay most attention to foreground objects but ignore the background; and 4) the combination of a triplet ranking loss designed to preserve relative similarities among images and a cross entropy loss defined on image labels. We conduct comprehensive evaluations on four multi-label image data sets. The results indicate that the proposed hashing method achieves superior performance gains over the state-of-the-art supervised or unsupervised hashing baselines.

PLoS One ; 13(4): e0195226, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29668688


Anti-community detection in networks can discover negative relations among objects. However, a few researches pay attention to detecting anti-community structure and they do not consider the node degree and most of them require high computational cost. Block models are promising methods for exploring modular regularities, but their results are highly dependent on the observed structure. In this paper, we first propose a Degree-based Block Model (DBM) for anti-community structure. DBM takes the node degree into consideration and evolves a new objective function Q(C) for evaluation. And then, a Local Expansion Optimization Algorithm (LEOA), which preferentially considers the nodes with high degree, is proposed for anti-community detection. LEOA consists of three stages: structural center detection, local anti-community expansion and group membership adjustment. Based on the formulation of DBM, we develop a synthetic benchmark DBM-Net for evaluating comparison algorithms in detecting known anti-community structures. Experiments on DBM-Net with up to 100000 nodes and 17 real-world networks demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of LEOA for anti-community detection in networks.

Modelos Teóricos , Algoritmos
IEEE Trans Image Process ; 24(12): 5302-14, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26186793


Multiplicative update algorithms are important tools for information retrieval, image processing, and pattern recognition. However, when the graph regularization is added to the cost function, different classes of sample data may be mapped to the same subspace, which leads to the increase of data clustering error rate. In this paper, an improved nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) cost function is introduced. Based on the cost function, a class of novel graph regularized NMF algorithms is developed, which results in a class of extended multiplicative update algorithms with manifold structure regularization. Analysis shows that in the learning, the proposed algorithms can efficiently minimize the rank of the data representation matrix. Theoretical results presented in this paper are confirmed by simulations. For different initializations and data sets, variation curves of cost functions and decomposition data are presented to show the convergence features of the proposed update rules. Basis images, reconstructed images, and clustering results are utilized to present the efficiency of the new algorithms. Last, the clustering accuracies of different algorithms are also investigated, which shows that the proposed algorithms can achieve state-of-the-art performance in applications of image clustering.

Nat Genet ; 43(9): 875-8, 2011 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21822268


Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the most common type of bladder cancer. Here we sequenced the exomes of nine individuals with TCC and screened all the somatically mutated genes in a prevalence set of 88 additional individuals with TCC with different tumor stages and grades. In our study, we discovered a variety of genes previously unknown to be mutated in TCC. Notably, we identified genetic aberrations of the chromatin remodeling genes (UTX, MLL-MLL3, CREBBP-EP300, NCOR1, ARID1A and CHD6) in 59% of our 97 subjects with TCC. Of these genes, we showed UTX to be altered substantially more frequently in tumors of low stages and grades, highlighting its potential role in the classification and diagnosis of bladder cancer. Our results provide an overview of the genetic basis of TCC and suggest that aberration of chromatin regulation might be a hallmark of bladder cancer.

Carcinoma de Células de Transição/genética , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Mutação , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Humanos