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1.
Mol Pharm ; 19(5): 1410-1421, 2022 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35441510

RESUMO

This study investigates the protective effect of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with scutellarin (SCU), a flavone isolated from the traditional Chinese medicineErigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand.-Mazz., in reducing cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in vivo. The focal cerebral I/R injury model was established by occluding the middle cerebral artery for 1 h in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Our SCU-PLGA NPs exhibited an extended in vitro release profile and prolonged blood circulation in rats with cerebral ischemia. More importantly, when administered intravenously once a day for 3 days, SCU-PLGA NPs increased the SCU level in the ischemic brain, compared to free SCU, resulting in a significant reduction of the cerebral infarct volume after cerebral I/R. Furthermore, SCU-PLGA NPs reversed the histopathological changes caused by cerebral I/R injury, as well as attenuated cell apoptosis in the brain tissue, as confirmed by hematoxylin and eosin, and TUNEL staining. Our findings have revealed that our injectable SCU-PLGA NPs provide promising protective effects against cerebral I/R injury, which could be used in combination with the existing conventional thrombolytic therapies to improve stroke management.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Nanopartículas , Traumatismo por Reperfusão , Administração Intravenosa , Animais , Apigenina , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Glucuronatos , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle
2.
J Immunol Res ; 2022: 6004047, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35465351

RESUMO

This study is aimed at assessing the efficacy and safety of antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) inhibitors in treating age-related macular degeneration (AMD). PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane library were searched. Weighted mean difference (WMD) and relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were applied to assess outcomes. Eighteen randomized controlled trials involved 8,847 neovascular AMD patients were selected for the meta-analysis. Pegaptanib (WMD: 6.70; P < 0.001) and ranibizumab (WMD: 17.80; P < 0.001) were associated with greater BCVA changes than control after 1 year. Bevacizumab was linked with less changes in central macular thickness after 1 year compared to control (WMD: -38.50; P < 0.001), but more changes compared to ranibizumab (WMD: 10.69; P = 0.024). The incidence of gain of 15 or more letter visual acuity after 1 year was increased when compared with bevacizumab versus control (RR: 7.80; P = 0.001), pegaptanib versus control (RR: 2.83; P = 0.015), and ranibizumab versus control (RR: 3.92; P = 0.003). Moreover, ranibizumab was associated with more BCVA changes and an increased incidence of gain of 15 or more letter visual acuity after 2 years compared with control (RR: 5.77; P < 0.001). This study found that most anti-VEGF inhibitors provided better efficacy than non-anti-VEGF intervention, and the treatment effectiveness among various anti-VEGF agents was equally effective.


Assuntos
Ranibizumab , Degeneração Macular Exsudativa , Inibidores da Angiogênese/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Bevacizumab/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Crescimento Endotelial , Humanos , Injeções Intravítreas , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Ranibizumab/efeitos adversos , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular , Acuidade Visual , Degeneração Macular Exsudativa/tratamento farmacológico
3.
Infect Dis Ther ; 2022 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35471766

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to determine whether there is a difference in the risk of death/critical illness between different stages of hepatitis B virus (HBV) (resolved hepatitis B, HBeAg (-) chronic hepatitis B [CHB]/infection, HBeAg (+) CHB/infection, and HBV reactivation) coinfected with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); and if there is a difference, whether it is due to abnormal liver function and to what extent. METHODS: This cohort study included all COVID-19 inpatients of a single-center tertiary care academic hospital in Wuhan, Hubei, China, between February 4, 2020, and follow-up to April 14, 2020. A total of 2899 patients with COVID-19 were included as participants in this study, and they were divided into five groups based on hepatitis B infection status. Follow-up was conducted for mortality and ICU admission during hospitalization. RESULTS: The median follow-up time was 39 days (IQR, 30-50), with 66 deaths and 126 ICU admissions. After adjustment, compared with patients without CHB, the hazard ratio (HR) for ICU admission was 1.86 (95% CI: 1.05-3.31) for patients with HBeAg (+) CHB/infection. The HR for death was 3.19 (95% CI: 1.62-6.25) for patients with HBeAg (+) CHB/infection. The results for the mediating effect indicated that the total effect of HBeAg (+) CHB/infection on death/ICU stay was partially mediated by abnormal liver function, which accounted for 79.60% and 73.53%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Patients with COVID-19 coinfected with HBV at the HBeAg (+) CHB/infection stage have an increased risk of poor prognosis, and abnormal liver function partially mediates this increased risk of poor prognosis caused by the coinfection.

4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(14): 4256-4266, 2022 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35362951

RESUMO

As our further research, a series of new 7-chloro-9-methyl-2-phenyl-3,4-dihydro-ß-carbolin-2-iums were designed and synthesized. Twelve compounds were found with excellent inhibition activity in vitro on three to five out of six phytopathogenic fungi, superior to standard drugs thiabendazole and/or azoxystrobin. Especially, 18 displayed the highest activity against three out of the fungi and the highest comprehensive activity for all of the fungi. The test in vivo revealed that 18 at 50 µg/mL was able to completely control Physalospora piricola infections in apples over 8 days. Scanning/transmission electron microscopic observations found that 18 could damage the hyphal integrity and cell membrane structure of P. piricola. The safety evaluation showed that 18 had no effect on the germination rate of cowpea seed at ≤200 µg/mL. The SAR revealed that the combination of 7-Cl and 2'- or 4'-alkyl is conducive to improvement of the activity. Thus, 7-chloro-9-methyl-2-phenyl-3,4-dihydro-ß-carbolin-2-ium is a promising antifungal lead scaffold.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Doenças das Plantas , Antifúngicos/química , Fungos , Fungicidas Industriais/química , Estrutura Molecular , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
5.
Int J Biol Markers ; : 3936155221091832, 2022 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35435763

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune-related long non-coding RNAs (irlncRNAs) are known to hold great promise as superior biomarkers for cervical cancer-related immunotherapeutic response and the tumor immune microenvironment. Here, we constructed a prognostic signature based on irlncRNA pairs (IRLPs). METHODS: The samples were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas and the Genotype-Tissue Expression databases. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator Cox regression was performed to construct the prognostic model. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and nomogram were plotted to validate accuracy of the model. Next, we estimated the immune cell infiltration and the correlation between risk score and the expression of genes related to immune checkpoint. Finally, we calculated the score of the Tumor Immune Dysfunction and Exclusion (TIDE) algorithm and the half maximal inhibitory concentration of the chemotherapeutic agent to evaluate the response to immunotherapy and chemotherapy. RESULTS: We constructed a prognostic signature that consisted of 11 irlncRNAs. The area under the curve values of the 1-, 3-, and 5-year ROC curves were 0.844, 0.891, and 0.871, respectively. The expression of CTLA-4, HAVCR2, IDO1, LAG3, and PDCD1 were negatively correlated with risk scores. The score of TIDE in the high-risk group was significantly higher than in the low-risk group (P < 0.01). Patients in the low-risk subgroup were more sensitive to chemotherapeutic agents, such as axitinib and docetaxel, whereas patients in the low-risk subgroup were more sensitive to mitomycin C. CONCLUSION: Our study highlighted the value of the 11 IRLPs signatures to predict the prognosis and the response to immunotherapy and chemotherapeutics for patients with cervical cancer.

6.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 846441, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35479644

RESUMO

Marine euphotic zone is the pivotal region for interplay of light-mineral-microorganism and elements cycle, in which semiconducting minerals exist widely and iron-bearing goethite is a typical and widespread one. In this work, we have conducted in-depth researches on the effect of ferrous [Fe(II)] ions dissolved by photoreduction of goethite on microbial community structure and diversity. The mineral phase, structure and morphology of synthesized goethite were characterized by Raman, X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS), environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM), and atomic force microscope (AFM). Photoelectrochemical measurements tested photoelectric response and redox activity of goethite, having proved its significant property of photoelectric response with 44.11% increment of the average photocurrent density relative to the dark current density. The photoreduction experiments of goethite were conducted under light condition in simulated seawater. It has suggested the photoreduction of goethite could occur and Fe(III) was reduced to Fe(II). The dissolved Fe(II) from the photoreduction of goethite under light condition was nearly 11 times than that group without light after a 10-day reaction. Furthermore, results of microbial community sequencing analysis indicated that dissolved Fe(II) could affect the structure and regulate the decrease of microbial community diversity. The emergence of dominant bacteria associated with iron oxidation and transport protein has suggested their obvious selectivity and adaptability in the environment with adding dissolved Fe(II). This work revealed the photoreduction process of semiconducting goethite was remarkable, giving rise to a non-negligible dissolved Fe(II) and its selective effect on the structure, diversity, as well as the function of microbial community. This light-induced interaction between minerals and microorganisms may also further regulate correlative metabolic pathways of carbon cycle in the marine euphotic zone.

7.
Sci Total Environ ; 828: 154458, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35278547

RESUMO

Yellow and dark mealworms (Tenebrio molitor and Tenebrio obscurus) biodegrade commercial polyethylene (PE) materials at a high rate. We examined the impact of physical and chemical properties on biodegradation using high purity microplastics (MPs). These included high-density polyethylene (HDPE), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), and linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE), all with different weight average molecular weights (Mw) and different crystallinity degrees in T. molitor and T. obscurus larvae. The biodegradation extent in the two mealworms was similar but strongly depended on the polymer type in sequence, since LDPE > LLDPE> HDPE (with respective Mw of 222.5, 110.5 and 182 kDa). When LDPE MPs with Mw of 0.84, 6.4 and 106.8 kDa and HDPE with Mw of 52, 105 and 132.7 kDa were tested, the PE MPs with lower Mw showed a greater extent of depolymerization. The results of dominance analysis indicated that less branching structure and higher crystallinity degree negatively impacted depolymerization and biodegradation. Py-GC/MS analysis confirmed the breaking of the macromolecule backbone as well as the formation of oxidized functional groups after all the tested PE materials passed through the mealworm intestine. The results demonstrated that molecular weight, PE type, branching, and crystallinity degree significantly affect the biodegradation capability of PE by the mealworms, and possibly by other biological systems as well.


Assuntos
Tenebrio , Animais , Biodegradação Ambiental , Larva/metabolismo , Microplásticos , Plásticos/metabolismo , Polietileno/metabolismo , Poliestirenos/metabolismo , Tenebrio/metabolismo
8.
J Hazard Mater ; 432: 128715, 2022 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35305418

RESUMO

Microplastics (MPs) and nanoplastics (NPs), as emerging pollutants, are frequently detected in wastewater treatment plants. However, studies comparing the effects of MPs versus NPs on nitrogen removal by activated sludge are rarely reported. Here, the responses of nitrogen removal performance, microbial community and functional genes to MPs and NPs in sequencing batch reactors were investigated. Results revealed that MPs (10 and 1000 µg/L) had no effects on nitrogen removal. While upon exposure to NPs, although low concentration (10 µg/L) of NPs showed no remarkable influence on nitrogen removal, high level (1000 µg/L) of NPs decreased NH4+-N removal efficiency by 24.48% and caused accumulation of NO3--N and NO2--N. These inhibitory probably due to the acute toxicity of NPs to activated sludge, which was reflected by the increasing reactive oxygen species generation and lactate dehydrogenase release. The toxic effects of NPs further declined the relative abundance of nitrifiers (e.g., Nitrospira) and denitrifiers (e.g., Dechloromonas). These negative effects, accompanied by a decrease in abundance of amoA and nxrA genes related to nitrification (30.01% and 65.24% of control) and narG, nirK and nirS genes associated with denitrification (78.59%, 61.39%, and 86.17% of control), directly illustrated the attenuate phenomenon observed in nitrogen removal.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Microplásticos , Reatores Biológicos , Desnitrificação , Microbiota/genética , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Nitrificação , Nitrogênio/análise , Plásticos , Esgotos
9.
Environ Microbiol ; 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35229433

RESUMO

Dead wood quantity and quality is important for forest biodiversity, by determining wood-inhabiting fungal assemblages. We therefore evaluated how fungal communities were regulated by stem traits and compartments (i.e. bark, outer- and inner wood) of 14 common temperate tree species. Fresh logs were incubated in a common garden experiment in a forest site in the Netherlands. After 1 and 4 years of decay, the fungal composition of different compartments was assessed using Internal Transcribed Spacer amplicon sequencing. We found that fungal alpha diversity differed significantly across tree species and stem compartments, with bark showing significantly higher fungal diversity than wood. Gymnosperms and Angiosperms hold different fungal communities, and distinct fungi were found between inner wood and other compartments. Stem traits showed significant afterlife effects on fungal communities; traits associated with accessibility (e.g. conduit diameter), stem chemistry (e.g. C, N, lignin) and physical defence (e.g. density) were important factors shaping fungal community structure in decaying stems. Overall, stem traits vary substantially across stem compartments and tree species, thus regulating fungal communities and the long-term carbon dynamics of dead trees.

10.
mBio ; 13(2): e0008722, 2022 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35229641

RESUMO

Cold seeps are a major methane source in marine systems, and microbe-mediated anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) serves as an effective barrier for preventing methane emissions from sediment to water. However, how the periodic eruption of cold seeps drives the microbial community shift and further affects carbon cycling has been largely neglected, mainly due to the technical challenge of analyzing the in situ communities undergoing such geological events. Using a continuously running high-pressure bioreactor to simulate these events, we found that under the condition of simulated eruptions, the abundance of AOM-related species decreased, and some methane was oxidized to methyl compounds to feed heterotrophs. The methanogenic archaeon Methanolobus replaced ANME-2a as the dominant archaeal group; moreover, the levels of methylotrophic bacteria, such as Pseudomonas, Halomonas, and Methylobacter, quickly increased, while those of sulfate-reducing bacteria decreased. According to the genomic analysis, Methylobacter played an important role in incomplete methane oxidation during eruptions; this process was catalyzed by the genes pmoABC under anaerobic conditions when the methane pressure was high, possibly generating organic carbon. Additionally, the findings showed that methyl compounds can also be released to the environment during methanogenesis and AOM under eruption conditions when the methane pressure is high. IMPORTANCE In the ocean, almost all of the emission and consumption of deeply buried methane occurs in cold seeps; therefore, understanding the methane cycling in cold seeps is crucial to estimating the oceanic methane budget. Cold-seep eruptions often lead to the dramatic destruction of microbial ecosystems that drive methane cycling. Because of technical challenges, the direct monitoring of these communities as well as the activity shifts during eruptions has never been achieved. In this study, we took an alternative approach by simulating cold-seep eruptions and using genome-resolved metagenomics to interpret the dynamic changes in the microbial community. The results show that the periodical cold-seep eruptions intensify organic carbon cycling, undermine the direct oxidation of methane to carbon dioxide, and drive microbial community shifts. These results further suggest that a more sophisticated calculation of the methane budget in cold seeps that considers their eruption status is needed.


Assuntos
Methylococcaceae , Microbiota , Ciclo do Carbono , Metagenômica , Metano
11.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 840406, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35308228

RESUMO

Rational: Cholesterol sulfate (CS) is the most abundant known sterol sulfate in human plasma, and it plays a significant role in the control of metabolism and inflammatory response, which contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, ß-cell dysfunction and the resultant development of diabetes. However, the role of CS in ß-cells and its effect on the development of diabetes remain unknown. Here, we determined the physiological function of CS in pancreatic ß-cell homeostasis. Materials and Methods: Blood CS levels in streptozotocin (STZ)- or high-fat diet-induced diabetic mice and patients with type 1 or 2 diabetes were determined by LC-MS/MS. The impact of CS on ß-cell mass and insulin secretion was investigated in vitro in isolated mouse islets and the ß-cell line INS-1 and in vivo in STZ-induced diabetic mice. The molecular mechanism of CS was explored by viability assay, EdU incorporation analysis, flow cytometry, intracellular Ca2+ influx analysis, mitochondrial membrane potential and cellular ROS assays, and metabolism assay kits. Results: Plasma CS levels in mice and humans were significantly elevated under diabetic conditions. CS attenuated diabetes in a low-dose STZ-induced mouse model. Mechanistically, CS promoted ß-cell proliferation and protected ß-cells against apoptosis under stressful conditions, which in turn preserved ß-cell mass. In addition, CS supported glucose transporter-2 (GLUT2) expression and mitochondrial integrity, which then resulted in a less reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and an increase in ATP production, thereby enabling insulin secretion machinery in the islets to function adequately. Conclusion: This study revealed a novel dual role of CS in integrating ß-cell survival and cell function, suggesting that CS might offer a physiologic approach to preserve ß-cells and protect against the development of diabetes mellitus.

12.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 769551, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35310622

RESUMO

A central paradigm in comparative ecology is that species sort out along a slow-fast resource economy spectrum of plant strategies, but this has been rarely tested for a comprehensive set of stem traits and compartments. We tested how stem traits vary across wood and bark of temperate tree species, whether a slow-fast strategy spectrum exists, and what traits make up this plant strategy spectrum. For 14 temperate tree species, 20 anatomical, chemical, and morphological traits belonging to six key stem functions were measured for three stem compartments (inner wood, outer wood, and bark). The trait variation was explained by major taxa (38%), stem compartments (24%), and species within major taxa (19%). A continuous plant strategy gradient was found across and within taxa, running from hydraulic safe gymnosperms to conductive angiosperms. Both groups showed a second strategy gradient related to chemical defense. Gymnosperms strongly converged in their trait strategies because of their uniform tracheids. Angiosperms strongly diverged because of their different vessel arrangement and tissue types. The bark had higher concentrations of nutrients and phenolics whereas the wood had stronger physical defense. The gymnosperms have a conservative strategy associated with strong hydraulic safety and physical defense, and a narrow, specialized range of trait values, which allow them to grow well in drier and unproductive habitats. The angiosperm species show a wider trait variation in all stem compartments, which makes them successful in marginal- and in mesic, productive habitats. The associations between multiple wood and bark traits collectively define a slow-fast stem strategy spectrum as is seen also for each stem compartment.

13.
PeerJ ; 10: e12939, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35282281

RESUMO

American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) is a perennial medicinal plant that has a long usage history in China. However, root rot, which is mainly caused by Fusarium solani can severely reduce the yield and quality of American ginseng, but no disease-resistant variety of American ginseng exists, and the resistance against this disease is not yet well understood. Thus, it is very urgent to analyze the interaction mechanism regulating the interactions between American ginseng and F. solani to mine disease resistance genes. Using transcriptome data and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), we screened the transcription factor PqbZIP1 in response to induction by chitin. Yeast self-activation and subcellular localization experiments proved that PqbZIP1 showed transcriptional activity and was localized in the plant nucleus. In addition, qPCR showed that the highest relative expression level was in the roots, wherein chitin and F. solani inhibited and activated the expression of PqbZIP1, respectively, in American ginseng. Additionally, PqbZIP1 significantly inhibited the growth of the Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato D36E strain in Nicotiana benthamiana, where expressing PqbZIP1 in N. benthamiana increased the jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, and abscisic acid content. Furthermore, PqbZIP1 expression was continually increased upon inoculation with F. solani. Hence, this study revealed that the PqbZIP1 transcription factor might mediate multiple hormonal signaling pathway to modulate root rot disease resistance in American ginseng, and provided important information to breed disease-resistant American ginseng.

14.
mSystems ; 7(2): e0122621, 2022 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35229647

RESUMO

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a seafood-borne pathogen that poses a great threat to public health worldwide. It is found in either a planktonic cell or a biofilm form in the natural environment. The cps locus has been the only extensively studied polysaccharide biosynthesis gene cluster involved in biofilm formation for this bacterium. In this study, we found that an additional polysaccharide biosynthesis locus, scv, is also necessary for biofilm maturation. The scv locus is composed of two operons, and a loss of their expression leads to a defective biofilm phenotype. The transcription of the scv locus is under the control of a sigma 54-dependent response regulator, ScvE. In contrast, the quorum-sensing regulator AphA stimulates the expression of the cps locus and the scvABCD operon found in the scv locus. Bioinformatic analyses demonstrated that scv loci are divergent and widely distributed among 28 genera, including 26 belonging to the Gammaproteobacteria and 2 within the Alphaproteobacteria. We also determined that all scv locus-positive species are water-dwelling. Some strains of Aeromonas, Aliivibrio salmonicida, Pseudomonas anguilliseptica, Vibrio breoganii, and Vibrio scophthalmi probably acquired scv loci through insertion sequences and/or integrase-mediated horizontal gene transfer. Gene duplication and fusion were also detected in some scv homologs. Together, our results suggest that the genome of V. parahaemolyticus harbors two distinct polysaccharide biosynthesis loci, which may play a role in fine-tuning biofilm development, and that scv loci likely evolved by horizontal gene transfer, gene loss, gene duplication, and fragment fusion. IMPORTANCE Polysaccharides are the major component of biofilms, which provide survival advantages for bacteria in aquatic environments. The seafood-borne pathogen V. parahaemolyticus possesses a functionally uncharacterized polysaccharide biosynthesis locus, scv. We demonstrated that the scv locus is important for biofilm maturation and that scv expression is positively regulated by ScvE. Strains from 148 aquatic bacterial species possess scv homolog loci. These bacterial species belong to 28 genera, most of which belong to the Gammaproteobacteria class. The evolution and diversification of scv loci are likely driven by horizontal gene transfer, gene loss, gene duplication, and fragment fusion. Our results provide new insights into the function and evolution of this widespread polysaccharide biosynthesis locus.

15.
J Hazard Mater ; 431: 128547, 2022 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35220117

RESUMO

Microplastics (MPs), nanoplastics (NPs) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), as emerging pollutants, have been frequently detected in wastewater treatment plants. However, the behavior of phosphorus and ARGs under MP and NP (MP/NP) pressure in biological phosphorus removal (BPR) system is still unknown. This study investigated the effects of MP/NPs on phosphorus removal and ARGs propagation in BPR system. Results showed that MP/NPs had no influence on phosphorus removal, but significantly promoted the amplification of tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs). Moreover, the TRG abundance were more facilitated by MPs than NPs, and the TRGs of efflux pump and enzymatic modification mechanism were mainly enriched. Meanwhile, MP/NPs increased the transmission risk of multiple resistance genes and mobile gene elements (MGEs). Microbial communities demonstrated the main polyphosphate accumulating organisms shifted from Acinetobacter to unclassified_Gammaproteobacteria, which explained why phosphorus removal efficiency was unaffected with MP/NP addition. Correlation analysis revealed there was no significant correlation between ARGs and MGEs (intI1 and intI2), but the abundances of potential hosts of ARGs were significantly increased with MP/NP addition, implying microbial community structure changes rather than gene horizontal transfer was the main factor promoting ARG propagation under MP/NP pressure.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Microplásticos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Fósforo , Plásticos
16.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(4): 6093-6101, 2022 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35061362

RESUMO

The structure and composition of copper surfaces in aqueous solutions of benzotriazole (BTAH) and NaCl was investigated by sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy as a function of concentration and bias during cyclic voltammetry experiments. We found that the protection provided by the BTAH films formed at the copper surface is effective for negative bias voltages below the open circuit potential (OCP) but not at positive voltages where Cl- displaces BTAH. By measuring the Gibbs adsorption energy of BTAH and Cl-, we found that a particularly stable Cl- structure is formed around the OCP, suggesting that electronegative additives that move the OCP to higher negative values can improve BTAH protection, which we confirmed by the addition of a negatively charged sodium dodecyl sulfate surfactant.

17.
Eur Radiol ; 32(6): 3649-3660, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34989842

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to develop and validate radiologic scores from [18F]FDG PET/CT and MRI to guide individualized induction chemotherapy (IC) for patients with T3N1M0 nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). METHODS: A total of 542 T3N1M0 patients who underwent pretreatment [18F]FDG PET/CT and MRI were enrolled in the training cohort. A total of 174 patients underwent biopsy of one or more cervical lymph nodes. Failure-free survival (FFS) was the primary endpoint. The radiologic score, which was calculated according to the number of risk factors from the multivariate model, was used for risk stratification. The survival difference of patients undergoing concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) with or without IC was then compared in risk-stratified subgroups. Another cohort from our prospective clinical trial (N = 353, NCT03003182) was applied for validation. RESULTS: The sensitivity of [18F]FDG PET/CT was better than that of MRI (97.7% vs. 87.1%, p < 0.001) for diagnosing histologically proven metastatic cervical lymph nodes. Radiologic lymph node characteristics were independent risk factors for FFS (all p < 0.05). High-risk patients (n = 329) stratified by radiologic score benefited from IC (5-year FFS: IC + CCRT 83.5% vs. CCRT 70.5%; p = 0.0044), while low-risk patients (n = 213) did not. These results were verified again in the validation cohort. CONCLUSIONS: T3N1M0 patients were accurately staged by both [18F]FDG PET/CT and MRI. The radiologic score can correctly identify high-risk patients who can gain additional survival benefit from IC and it can be used to guide individualized treatment of T3N1M0 NPC. KEY POINTS: • [18F]FDG PET/CT was more accurate than MRI in diagnosing histologically proven cervical lymph nodes. • Radiologic lymph node characteristics were reliable independent risk factors for FFS in T3N1M0 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients. • High-risk patients identified by the radiologic score based on [18F]FDG PET/CT and MRI could benefit from the addition of induction chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Humanos , Quimioterapia de Indução , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/patologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/tratamento farmacológico , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos
18.
Nanotechnology ; 33(17)2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35008083

RESUMO

Graphene oxide has covalently modified by chito oligosaccharides andγ-polyglutamic acid to form GO-CO-γ-PGA, which exhibits excellent performance as a drug delivery carrier, but this carrier did not have the ability to actively target. In this study, the targeting property of breast cancer tumor cell exosomes was exploited to give GO-CO-γ-PGA the ability to target breast tumor cells (MDA-MB-231), and the drug mitoxantrone (MIT) was loaded to finally form EXO-GO-CO-γ-PGA-MIT with an encapsulation efficiency of 73.02%. The pH response of EXO-GO-CO-γ-PGA showed a maximum cumulative release rate of 56.59% (pH 5.0, 120 h) and 6.73% (pH 7.4, 120 h) for MIT at different pH conditions.In vitrocellular assays showed that EXO-GO-CO-γ-PGA-MIT was more potent in killing MDA-MB-231 cells due to its targeting ability and had a significantly higher pro-apoptotic capacity compared to GO-CO-γ-PGA-MIT. The results showed that this bionic nano-intelligent drug delivery system has good drug slow release function and it can increase the local drug concentration of tumor and enhance the pro-apoptotic ability of MIT, so this newly synthesized bionic drug delivery carriers (EXO-GO-CO-γ-PGA-MIT) has potential application in breast cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Exossomos/química , Grafite/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Exossomos/metabolismo , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Mitoxantrona/química , Mitoxantrona/farmacologia , Ácido Poliglutâmico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Poliglutâmico/química
19.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 135(4): 419-425, 2022 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35026771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension is associated with stroke-related mortality. However, the long-term association of blood pressure (BP) and the risk of stroke-related mortality and the influence path of BP on stroke-related death remain unknown. The current study aimed to estimate the long-term causal associations between BP and stroke-related mortality and the potential mediating and moderated mediating model of the associations. METHODS: This is a 45-year follow-up cohort study and a total of 1696 subjects were enrolled in 1976 and 1081 participants died by the latest follow-up in 2020. COX proportional hazard model was used to explore the associations of stroke-related death with baseline systolic blood pressure (SBP)/diastolic blood pressure (DBP) categories and BP changes from 1976 to 1994. The mediating and moderated mediating effects were performed to detect the possible influencing path from BP to stroke-related deaths. E value was calculated in the sensitivity analysis. RESULTS: Among 1696 participants, the average age was 44.38 ±â€Š6.10 years, and 1124 were men (66.3%). After a 45-year follow-up, a total of 201 (11.9%) stroke-related deaths occurred. After the adjustment, the COX proportional hazard model showed that among the participants with SBP ≥ 160 mmHg or DBP ≥ 100 mmHg in 1976, the risk of stroke-related death increased by 217.5% (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.175, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.297-4.388), and the adjusted HRs were higher in male participants. Among the participants with hypertension in 1976 and 1994, the risk of stroke-related death increased by 110.4% (HR = 2.104, 95% CI: 1.632-2.713), and the adjusted HRs of the BP changes were higher in male participants. Body mass index (BMI) significantly mediated the association of SBP and stroke-related deaths and this mediating effect was moderated by gender. CONCLUSIONS: In a 45-year follow-up, high BP and persistent hypertension are associated with stroke-related death, and these associations were even more pronounced in male participants. The paths of association are mediated by BMI and moderated by gender.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , China/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
20.
Environ Res ; 206: 112630, 2022 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34973940

RESUMO

With the acceleration of urbanization, the proportion of surface imperviousness is increasing continuously in cities, resulting in frequent waterlogging disasters. In this context, storm water management, based on the low-impact development (LID) concept, offers an effective measure for the management of urban storm waters. First, the storm water management model (SWMM) was built for a typical cold climate city (Changchun) in China. Next, the two-stage calibrated model was employed to explore the surface runoff and storm sewer control effects of four LID combination plans. Finally, these plans were put through a "cost-benefit" evaluation through an analytic hierarchy process. According to the results, after using four LID plans, the reduction rates of peak runoff exceeded 40% and the problem of overflow load of the storm sewage was significantly mitigated. The infiltration-oriented Plan I proved to be the optimal plan, with the lowest proportions of the overflow nodes and full-load pipe sections in each return period, as well as with maximum overall performance. This study offers technical and conformed methodological support to cold cities for the prevention and control of waterlogging disasters and recycling of rainwater resources.


Assuntos
Chuva , Movimentos da Água , China , Cidades , Clima Frio , Urbanização
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