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1.
Talanta ; 235: 122747, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517615

RESUMO

Microchip capillary electrophoresis (MCE) is a powerful technique for rapid separation; however, its acceptance in routine laboratories is still limited. Compromises caused by the efforts for solving different problems, such as reducing its cost of fabrication and ensuring high separation efficiency, undermine the competitiveness of this technology compared to other separation techniques. Contrary to the conventional pursuit of narrow microchannels, this study investigated the suitability of microchips with channels at the sub-millimeter level, targeting the simplification of the overall operation, cost reduction, and robustness improvement. To this effect, we considered the influence of pressurized flow and Joule heating on the separation. The suppression of pressurized flow with viscous solutions was confirmed through a combination of simulations and experimental results, indicating that the buffer viscosity was enough for successful separation. We fabricated channels of 200 µm × 230 µm using computer numerical controlled (CNC) machining and obtained theoretical plate numbers of 4.8 × 105 m-1 and 5.3 × 105 m-1 for fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled small molecules and DNA fragments, respectively, with a buffer viscosity of 168 mPa s (0.5 % hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, HPMC). These values are comparable with that of narrow-bore microchips. Furthermore, we did not observe any deleterious effects with low-conductivity buffers. We investigated the rapid and highly sensitive detection of mycoplasma contamination and the real samples of circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA), which gave a limit of detection (LOD) as low as 2.3 ng mL-1. Owing to the significant reduction in cost, ease of operation, and fast separation capabilities demonstrated in this work, MCE can be a viable alternative to the usual slab gel electrophoresis running in most biological laboratories.


Assuntos
Eletroforese em Microchip , DNA , Eletroforese Capilar , Derivados da Hipromelose , Limite de Detecção
2.
Chemosphere ; 272: 129622, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482512

RESUMO

Efficient adsorption of organic dyes from effluent has great importance for ecological and environmental protection. Herein, covalent triazine frameworks (CTFs) were constructed via the polycondensation of melamine and cyanuric chloride directly. Due to the numerous basic nitrogen atoms as high as 58.98 wt%, high BET surface area (670.2 m g-1), and hierarchical pore structure, CTFs demonstrated selective adsorption of anionic dyes in high capacity (e.g., a maximum adsorption capacity of 1581 mg g-1 for Congo red at 30 °C). The mechanism of the outstanding adsorption performance was carefully verified and ascribed to the electrostatic attraction and hydrogen bonding between CTFs and anionic dyes. The amine groups linking two adjacent triazine rings have primary responsibility for the superior performance. Unexpectedly, CTFs expressed a tuning synergetic effect for removing cationic dyes in aqueous solution coexisting with anionic dyes, exhibiting a great superiority in the specific and comprehensive treatment of organic dyes contaminated water. Furthermore, CTFs were stable and had long-periodic availability for more than 6 times, ensuring the adsorption rate higher than 90%. For better operation, hybrid monolithic aerogels were constructed by incorporating CTFs into polyvinylidene fluoride then casting in melamine resin foams. The obtained aerogels expressed high-efficient removal of anionic dyes coupled with convenient operation. This well-established metal-free porous material is a promising adsorbent candidate for anionic dyes selectively and even synergetic adsorption of cationic dyes in water remediation.


Assuntos
Corantes , Nitrogênio , Adsorção , Ânions , Triazinas
3.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(1): 504-512, 2021 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370533

RESUMO

The successful use of electrochemiluminescence (ECL) in immunoassay for clinical diagnosis requires development of novel ECL signal probes. Herein, we report lanthanide (Ln) metal-organic frameworks (LMOFs) as ECL signal emitters in the ECL immunoassay. The LMOFs were prepared from precursors containing Eu (III) ions and 5-boronoisophthalic acid (5-bop), which could be utilized to adjust optical properties. Investigations of ECL emission mechanisms revealed that 5-bop was excited with ultraviolet photons to generate a triplet-state, which then triggered Eu (III) ions for red emission. The electron-deficient boric acid decreased the energy-transfer efficiency from the triplet-state of 5-bop to Eu (III) ions; consequently, both were excited with high-efficiency at single excitation. In addition, by progressively tailoring the atomic ratios of Ni/Fe, NiFe composites (Ni/Fe 1:1) were synthesized with more available active sites, enhanced stability, and excellent conductivity. As a result, the self-luminescent europium LMOFs displayed excellent performance characteristics in an ECL immunoassay with a minimum detectable limit of 0.126 pg mL-1, using Cytokeratins21-1 (cyfra21-1) as the target detection model. The probability of false positive/false negative was reduced dramatically by using LMOFs as signal probes. This proposed strategy provides more possibilities for the application of lanthanide metals in analytical chemistry, especially in the detection of other disease markers.


Assuntos
Substâncias Luminescentes/química , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Anticorpos Imobilizados/imunologia , Antígenos de Neoplasias/sangue , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Európio/química , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Ferro/química , Queratina-19/sangue , Queratina-19/imunologia , Limite de Detecção , Luminescência , Medições Luminescentes , Nanoestruturas/química , Níquel/química
4.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 10592, 2020 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601317

RESUMO

High-altitude Tajiks (HA-Tajiks), Tibetans and Sherpas are three groups of high-altitude native people in China. The differences in the mtDNA genome between the three populations and the role of the mtDNA genome in the high-altitude adaptation of HA-Tajiks were seldom investigated. In this study, 80 HA-Tajiks were enrolled, and their whole mtDNA genomes were sequenced. The haplogroup of each subject was determined by comparison to the revised Cambridge Reference Sequence (rCRS). Ten additional populations from East Asia and Central Asia, including Tibetans and Sherpas, were selected as references. The top haplogroup was U, followed by H, T and J. Principle component analysis and genetic distance analysis indicated that HA-Tajiks showed a close relationship with Wakhi Tajiks, Pamiri Tajiks and Sarikoli Tajiks, indicating that they should be considered one nation scattered around the Pamirs. The difference in the mtDNA genome between HA-Tajiks and Sherpas was significantly greater than that between HA-Tajiks and Tibetans. Among the 13 genes related to the OXPHOS pathway encoded by the mtDNA genome, HA-Tajiks showed more significant differences in ND3 and CYTB compared to Tibetans. Compared to Sherpas, HA-Tajiks showed more significant differences in ND1, ND2, COX1, ATP8, ATP6, ND3, ND4L, ND4, ND5 and CYTB. The associated functional changes and underlying molecular mechanisms should be explored by molecular and biochemical investigations in further studies.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Altitude , Doença da Altitude/genética , Ásia Central , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , China , DNA Mitocondrial/análise , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Extremo Oriente , Genética Populacional/métodos , Haplótipos/genética , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Tibet
5.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1111: 147-154, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32312391

RESUMO

For decades, researches have been involving in improving and optimizing solid-phase microextraction (SPME) technique to fit the growing environmental analysis demand. But it is more significant now to introduce meaningful information into the analysis line instead of improving every step in SPME. Herein, we design a carbon dots (CDs) based SPME platform and report its unique application in selective early screening and sensitive detection of 2-nitroaniline. The fluorescence quenching state of the CDs fiber after extraction could be used to prejudge whether an environmental sample contains 2-nitroaniline exceeding the maximum permitted level (30 µg L-1) regulated by the Chinese Ministry of Environmental Protection or not. Photo-induced electron transfer (PET) is believed to be the primary quenching route that leads to electron transfer from the electron-rich CDs to the electron-deficient analyte. A preliminary in vivo study on Daphnia magna and a 2-nitroaniline assay in environmental water and biofluid samples suggested the safety and the excellent qualitative ability of the proposed platform. As a result, the innovative incorporation of fluorescence sensing and SPME not only achieves the information imbedding of environmental analysis system, but also combines the advantages of two techniques including early visual-screening, reusability (≥50 times), high specificity and excellent quantitative ability (detection limit: 0.011 µg L-1). We believe this study can open new avenues in the field of environmental toxicant monitoring.

6.
Inorg Chem ; 57(24): 15361-15369, 2018 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30480436

RESUMO

Luminescence efficiency of trivalent lanthanide-doped upconversion (UC) materials is significantly limited by luminescence concentration quenching. In this work, red UC emission is dramatically enhanced in Er3+-sensitized NaLuF4 UC crystals through energy trapping under multiple excitation wavelengths. Cross-relaxation quenching and the energy migration to internal lattice defects are simultaneously suppressed by confining the excitation energy in the Er3+ activator after introducing the Tm3+ or Ho3+ energy trapping center. The enhanced red UC emission (Er3+: 660 nm) mainly comes from the effective excitation energy confinement by Tm3+ and Ho3+ trapping centers through an easy energy transfer between Er3+ and Tm3+/Ho3+: 4I11/2 (Er3+) → 3H5 (Tm3+) → 4I13/2 (Er3+) and 4I11/2 (Er3+) → 5I6 (Ho3+) → 4I13/2 (Er3+). It is found that the confining efficiency of excitation energy in Er3+-sensitized NaLuF4 crystals is higher than that in Yb3+/Er3+ cosensitized NaLuF4 crystals, and the luminescence efficiency of Er3+-sensitized NaLuF4 crystals is much higher than that of Er3+-based host sensitization UC crystals (NaErF4). Moreover, Er3+-sensitized UC particles can be efficiently excited by three different wavelengths (808, 980, and 1532 nm), indicating huge advantages for applications in bioimaging, anticounterfeiting, and solar cells.

7.
Talanta ; 186: 80-87, 2018 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29784423

RESUMO

Fluorescent carbon nanoparticles (FCNPs) have been deeply researched and widely applied in recent years due to their good optics performance, chemical stability and biocompatibility. Herein, a green and rapid microwave-assisted solid-phase synthesis (solvent-free) approach was proposed for the fabrication of highly FCNPs in a very short period of time, 4 min. The as-prepared FCNPs can emit a blue emission with quantum yield of up to 63.2% in water solution and show yellow fluorescence in the solid state. The FCNPs also exhibit special solvent effect that the fluorescence emission can be adjusted by controlling the solvent ratio of ethanol and water. Most importantly, the FCNPs possess a narrow-range pH response. The probe responds linearly and rapidly to minor pH fluctuations within the range of 3.47-5.10 and the correlation coefficient is above 0.99. The proposed FCNPs also exhibit high photostability and reusability. As expected, the cell imaging and intracellular pH monitoring was achieved successfully in living SMMC 7721 hepatoma cells by this probe. The FCNPs is promising as a convenient and general fluorescent pH sensor for bioimaging applications.


Assuntos
Carbono/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Micro-Ondas , Nanopartículas/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Corantes Fluorescentes/síntese química , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Imagem Óptica
8.
Cancer Discov ; 8(3): 276-287, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29317452

RESUMO

Autophagy has been shown to be elevated in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), and its role in promoting established tumor growth has made it a promising therapeutic target. However, due to limitations of prior mouse models as well as the lack of potent and selective autophagy inhibitors, the ability to fully assess the mechanistic basis of how autophagy supports pancreatic cancer has been limited. To test the feasibility of treating PDAC using autophagy inhibition and further our understanding of the mechanisms of protumor effects of autophagy, we developed a mouse model that allowed the acute and reversible inhibition of autophagy. We observed that autophagy inhibition causes significant tumor regression in an autochthonous mouse model of PDAC. A detailed analysis of these effects indicated that the tumor regression was likely multifactorial, involving both tumor cell-intrinsic and host effects. Thus, our study supports that autophagy inhibition in PDAC may have future utility in the treatment of pancreatic cancer and illustrates the importance of assessing complex biological processes in relevant autochthonous models.Significance: This work demonstrates that autophagy is critical pancreatic tumor maintenance through tumor cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic mechanisms. These results have direct clinical relevance to ongoing clinical trials as well as drug-development initiatives. Cancer Discov; 8(3); 276-87. ©2018 AACR.See related commentary by Noguera-Ortega and Amaravadi, p. 266This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 253.


Assuntos
Autofagia/fisiologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Neoplasias Experimentais/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Animais , Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia/genética , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Cisteína Endopeptidases/genética , Doxiciclina/farmacologia , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neoplasias Experimentais/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética
9.
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi ; 34(4): 336-339, 2018 Apr 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30788941

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of chronic mountain sickness (CMS) and its predisposing factors in Pamirs plateau and analysis clinical feature and risk factors. METHODS: Eight hundred and twenty-four individuals in Pamirs plateau were surveyed used Qinghai CMS scoring system. Demographics, BP, SaO2, heart rate and specified symptoms of CMS were recorded, Hb level was estimated. RESULTS: Overall CMS prevalence was 22.08%, including 21.84% mild and 0.24% moderate without severe patient. Gender, nation, age, immigration time, altitude, occupation and accommodation mode were risk factors for CMS (P<0.05 or P<0.01), CMS prevalence was higher than HAPC rate both in male and female (χ2=90.59 and 44.13, P<0.01). Multiple linear regression analysis showed age, BMI, SaO2 and systolic pressure correlated with CMS (P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Chronic mountain sickness prevalence in Pamirs plateau is rather high but high altitude polycythemia prevalence is low, so the disease type is high altitude deterioration. Work and exercise more reasonable to avoid overtiredness, oxygen inhalation to raise blood oxygen saturation, control blood pressure and resting therapy can improve CMS symptom and decrease prevalence.


Assuntos
Doença da Altitude , Altitude , Doença da Altitude/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Hemoglobinas , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
10.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 13762, 2017 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29062116

RESUMO

A series of Y3+-absent/doped NaLuF4:Yb3+, Tm3+ nano/micro-crystals were prepared via a hydrothermal process with the assistance of citric acid. Cubic nanospheres, hexagonal microdisks, and hexagonal microprisms can be achieved by simply adjusting the reaction temperature. The effect of Y3+ doping on the morphology and upconversion (UC) emission of the as-prepared samples were systematically investigated. Compared to their Y3+-free counterpart, the integrated spectral intensities in the range of 445-495 nm from α-, ß-, and α/ß-mixed NaLuF4:Yb3+, Tm3+ crystals with 40 mol% Y3+ doping are increased by 9.7, 4.4, and 24.3 times, respectively; red UC luminescence intensities in the range of 630-725 nm are enhanced by 4.6, 2.4, and 24.9 times, respectively. It is proposed that the increased UC emission intensity is mainly ascribed to the deformation of crystal lattice, due to the electron cloud distortion in host lattice after Y3+ doping. This paper provides a facile route to achieve nano/micro-structures with intense UC luminescence, which may have potential applications in optoelectronic devices.

11.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 175: 219-225, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28915491

RESUMO

Green, economical and effective method was developed for synthesis of fluorescent carbon dots (CDs), using one-pot hydrothermal treatment of Lycii Fructus. Optical and structural properties of the CDs have been extensively studied by UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopic, x-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution TEM (HRTEM). Surface functionality and composition of CDs has been illustrated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra and elemental analysis. The fabricated CDs possess stable fluorescent properties. The fluorescent quantum yield of the CDs can reach 17.2%. The prepared CDs emitted a broad fluorescence between 415 and 545nm and their fluorescence was tuned by changing excitation wavelength. Meanwhile, the fluorescence intensity of the CDs could be significantly quenched by Fe3+ (turn-off). The CDs exhibit captivating sensitivity and selectivity toward Fe3+ with a linear range from 0 to 30µM and a detection limit of 21nM. The prepared CDs were successfully applied to the determination of Fe3+ in the urine samples, the water samples from the from the Yellow River and living HeLa (Henrietta Lacks) cells. Moreover, the low-toxicity and excellent biocompatibility of the CDs were evaluated through MTT assay on HeLa cells. The CDs were also employed as fluorescent probes for multicolor imaging of HeLa cells successfully.


Assuntos
Carbono/química , Compostos Férricos/química , Pontos Quânticos/química , Solanaceae/química , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Química Verde , Células HeLa , Humanos , Íons/química , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Espectroscopia Fotoeletrônica , Pontos Quânticos/toxicidade , Solanaceae/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
12.
Anal Chim Acta ; 987: 38-46, 2017 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28916038

RESUMO

This study presents the preparation and the characterizations of six tri-metal centered metal-organic frameworks (tM-MOFs) as solid-phase microextraction (SPME) adsorbents. Possessing different proportions of Al, Ga and In atoms in their frameworks, the tM-MOF-based SPME coatings exhibited different extraction performance towards the organic pollutants. Extraction results showed that the M4 (Al0.593Ga0.167In0.240(O2C2H4)(h2fipbb)) coating exhibited the best enrichment ability among six tM-MOFs. In addition, it showed better extraction efficiency towards the analytes than three single-metal centered MOFs coatings and a commercial polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coating. The adsorption process of the M4 coating was physical adsorption and it was mainly affected by the diffusion process of the compound from the sample to the material, which is the same with the adsorption processes of the single-metal centered MOFs coatings. Under optimal conditions (extraction time, 3 min; NaCl concentration, 25% (w/v); desorption temperature, 270 °C; extraction temperature, 30 °C), the M4 coating achieved low detection limits (0.13-0.88 ng L-1) and good linearity (5-2000 and 5-5000 ng L-1) for benzene series compounds. The repeatabilities (n = 5) for single fiber were between 4.3 and 8.1%, while the reproducibilities (n = 3) of fiber-to-fiber were in the range of 7.9-12.7%. Finally, a M4 coated SPME fiber was successfully applied to the analysis of environmental water samples with satisfactory recoveries (80.8%-119.5%).

13.
Anal Sci ; 33(7): 761-767, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28690251

RESUMO

An "on-off-on" mode was developed for the detection of mercury ion (Hg2+) and glutathione (GSH) with high sensitivity and selectivity based on the nitrogen-doped carbon dots (N-CDs) fluorescent probe. The N-CDs were synthesized through microwave treatment of citric acid and diethylenetriamine for 2 min, and exhibited excellent fluorescence properties and high quantum yield (27.7%). The fluorescence intensity of the N-CDs could be significantly quenched by Hg2+ (turn-off). Upon addition of GSH, the fluorescence intensity of the N-CDs-Hg2+ system could be recovered clearly (turn-on). The limit of detection of Hg2+ and GSH was 23 and 59 nM, respectively. Moreover, the "on-off-on" probe was successfully applied to the determination of Hg2+ in tap water and water from the Yellow River. Meanwhile, due to bright luminescence, good biocompatibility and low cytotoxicity, the N-CDs-based probe was successfully employed as visualizing the intracellular Hg2+ and GSH sensors in live HeLa cell.


Assuntos
Carbono/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Glutationa/análise , Mercúrio/análise , Pontos Quânticos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Células HeLa , Humanos , Íons/análise
14.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 19(24): 15693-15700, 2017 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28540953

RESUMO

We propose a novel and efficient F- anion doping strategy for enhancing upconversion luminescence in upconversion nanophosphors. NaGd(MoO4)2:Yb3+/Er3+ nanophosphors doped with different F- contents are synthesized hydrothermally. Rietveld refinement results obtained from X-ray diffraction data indicate that the Gd-O bond length decreases and the O-Gd-O bond angle varies with increasing F- content, resulting in augmented local crystal field strength and distorted local site symmetry of the dopant lanthanide sites. Judd-Ofelt analysis suggests that the calculated radiative quantum efficiency of the 4S3/2 level and the radiative branching ratio of 4S3/2 → 4I15/2 transition in F--doped NaGd(MoO4)2:Yb3+/Er3+ nanophosphors are much greater than those in F- anion-free samples. It is inferred that F- anion doping helps to reduce the nonradiative transition probabilities based on the luminescence dynamics. Rietveld refinement results and Judd-Ofelt analysis confirm jointly that doping of interstitial F- anions could enhance local crystal field strength with odd parity and modify site symmetry of the lanthanide activator ions, leading to enhanced radiative transitions and inhibited nonradiative transitions. A maximum of 17-fold enhancement of total emission intensity is found in NaGd(MoO4)2:Yb3+/Er3+/F- nanophosphors compared with F- anion-free counterparts. The proposed F- anion doping strategy provides an alternative approach for enhancing upconversion luminescence efficiency and could be extended to other inorganic upconversion nanomaterials.

16.
Sci Rep ; 7: 43189, 2017 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28230083

RESUMO

The development, design and the performance evaluation of rare-earth doped host materials is important for further optical investigation and industrial applications. Herein, we successfully fabricate KLu2F7 upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) through hydrothermal synthesis by controlling the fluorine-to-lanthanide-ion molar ratio. The structural and morphological results show that the samples are orthorhombic-phase hexagonal-prisms UCNPs, with average side length of 80 nm and average thickness of 110 nm. The reaction time dependent crystal growth experiment suggests that the phase transformation is a thermo-dynamical process and the increasing F-/Ln3+ ratio favors the formation of the thermo-dynamical stable phase - orthorhombic KLu2F7 structure. The upconversion luminescence (UCL) spectra display that the orthorhombic KLu2F7:Yb/Er UCNPs present stronger UCL as much as 280-fold than their cubic counterparts. The UCNPS also display better UCL performance compared with the popular hexagonal-phase NaREF4 (RE = Y, Gd). Our mechanistic investigation, including Judd-Ofelt analysis and time decay behaviors, suggests that the lanthanide tetrad clusters structure at sublattice level accounts for the saturated luminescence and highly efficient UCL in KLu2F7:Yb/Er UCNPs. Our research demonstrates that the orthorhombic KLu2F7 is a promising host material for UCL and can find potential applications in lasing, photovoltaics and biolabeling techniques.

17.
Mil Med Res ; 3: 37, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27980800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People rapidly ascending to high altitudes (>2500 m) may suffer from acute mountain sickness (AMS). The association between smoking and AMS risk remains unclear. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the association between smoking and AMS risk. METHODS: The association between smoking and AMS risk was determined according to predefined criteria established by our team. Meta-analysis was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines. We included all relevant studies listed in the PubMed and Embase databases as of September 2015 in this meta-analysis and performed systemic searches using the terms "smoking", "acute mountain sickness" and "risk factor". The included studies were required to provide clear explanations regarding their definitions of smoking, the final altitudes reached by their participants and the diagnostic criteria used to diagnose AMS. Odds ratios (ORs) were used to evaluate the association between smoking and AMS risk across the studies, and the Q statistic was used to test OR heterogeneity, which was considered significant when P < 0.05. We also computed 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Data extracted from the articles were analyzed with Review Manager 5.3 (Cochrane Collaboration, Oxford, UK). RESULTS: We used seven case-control studies including 694 smoking patients and 1986 non-smoking controls to analyze the association between smoking and AMS risk. We observed a significant association between AMS and smoking (OR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.52-0.96, P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: We determined that smoking may protect against AMS development. However, we do not advise smoking to prevent AMS. More studies are necessary to confirm the role of smoking in AMS risk.


Assuntos
Doença da Altitude/complicações , Doença da Altitude/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
18.
Anal Chem ; 88(21): 10437-10444, 2016 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27696821

RESUMO

The deposition kinetics of graphene oxide (GO) onto poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) layer was characterized in situ with pulsed streaming potential (SP) measurement, and it was found that the initial rate constant (ki) was dependent on the size of GO with same surface charge density at a fixed concentration under controlled experimental conditions. Assuming the deposition was controlled by diffusion at the initial stage, ki is proportional to Rh-2/3, where Rh is the hydrodynamic radius. By flushing a GO solution through a capillary coated with PEI, the initial change rate of relative SP (dEr/dt) was obtained in 20 s and ki was measured with five different concentrations in about 2 min. Three GO samples of different sizes obtained from the same batch of raw material were characterized with pulsed SP to get ki values, and their sizes were verified with atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The experimental results are consistent with the predicted effects of the size of NPs on their deposition kinetics.

19.
Sci Rep ; 6: 31366, 2016 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27506629

RESUMO

Pure tetragonal phase, uniform and well-crystallized sodium gadolinium molybdate (NaGd(MoO4)2) nanocrystals with diverse morphologies, e.g. nanocylinders, nanocubes and square nanoplates have been selectively synthesized via oleic acid-mediated hydrothermal method. The phase, structure, morphology and composition of the as-synthesized products are studied. Contents of both sodium molybdate and oleic acid of the precursor solutions are found to affect the morphologies of the products significantly, and oleic acid plays a key role in the morphology-controlled synthesis of NaGd(MoO4)2 nanocrystals with diverse morphologies. Growth mechanism of NaGd(MoO4)2 nanocrystals is proposed based on time-dependent morphology evolution and X-ray diffraction analysis. Morphology-dependent down-shifting photoluminescence properties of NaGd(MoO4)2: Eu(3+) nanocrystals, and upconversion photoluminescence properties of NaGd(MoO4)2: Yb(3+)/Er(3+) and Yb(3+)/Tm(3+) nanoplates are investigated in detail. Charge transfer band in the down-shifting excitation spectra shows a slight blue-shift, and the luminescence intensities and lifetimes of Eu(3+) are decreased gradually with the morphology of the nanocrystals varying from nanocubes to thin square nanoplates. Upconversion energy transfer mechanisms of NaGd(MoO4)2: Yb(3+)/Er(3+), Yb(3+)/Tm(3+) nanoplates are proposed based on the energy level scheme and power dependence of upconversion emissions. Thermometric properties of NaGd(MoO4)2: Yb(3+)/Er(3+) nanoplates are investigated, and the maximum sensitivity is determined to be 0.01333 K(-1) at 285 K.

20.
J Chromatogr A ; 1457: 144-50, 2016 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27371017

RESUMO

Plastic microchips can significantly reduce the fabrication cost but the adsorption of some analytes limits their application. In this work, background electrolyte containing ionic polymer and high content of organic solvent was adopted to eliminate the analyte adsorption and achieve highly efficient separation in microchip electrophoresis. Two dyes, rhodamine 6G (Rh6G) and rhodamine B (RhB) were used as the model analytes. By using methanol as the organic solvent and polyacrylic acid (PAA) as a multifunctional additive, successful separation of the two dyes within 75µm id. microchannels was realized. The role of PAA is multiple, including viscosity regulator, selectivity modifier and active additive for counteracting analyte adsorption on the microchannel surface. The number of theoretical plate of 7.0×10(5)/m was attained within an effective separation distance of 2cm using background electrolyte consisting 80% methanol, 0.36% PAA and 30mmol/L phosphate at pH 5.0. Under optimized conditions, relative standard deviations of Rh6G and RhB detection (n=5) were no more than 1.5% for migration time and 2.0% for peak area, respectively. The limit of detection (S/N=3) was 0.1nmol/L for Rh6G. The proposed technique was applied in the determination of both Rh6G and RhB in chilli powder and lipstick samples with satisfactory recoveries of 81.3-103.7%.


Assuntos
Corantes/análise , Cicloparafinas/química , Resinas Acrílicas , Adsorção , Cosméticos/análise , Eletroforese em Microchip/instrumentação , Eletroforese em Microchip/métodos , Análise de Alimentos , Metanol , Polieletrólitos , Rodaminas/análise , Solventes
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