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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048773

RESUMO

AIM: We aimed to estimate the network structures of depressive symptoms using network analysis and evaluated the geographic regional differences in theses network structures among Asian patients with depressive disorders. METHODS: Using data from the Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Patterns for Antidepressants (REAP-AD), the network of the ICD-10 diagnostic criteria for depressive episode was estimated from 1174 Asian patients with depressive disorders. The node strength centrality of all ICD-10 diagnostic criteria for a depressive episode was estimated using a community-detection algorithm. In addition, networks of depressive symptoms were estimated separately among East Asian patients and South or Southeast Asian patients. Moreover, networks were estimated separately among Asian patients from high-income countries and those from middle-income countries. RESULTS: Persistent sadness, fatigue, and loss of interest were the most centrally situated within the network of depressive symptoms in Asian patients with depressive disorders overall. A community-detection algorithm estimated that when excluding psychomotor disturbance as an outlier, the other nine symptoms formed the largest clinically meaningful cluster. Geographic and economic variations in networks of depressive symptoms were evaluated. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrated that the typical symptoms of the ICD-10 diagnostic criteria for depressive episode are the most centrally situated within the network of depressive symptoms. Furthermore, our findings suggested that cultural influences related to geographic and economic distributions of participants could influence the estimated depressive symptom network in Asian patients with depressive disorders.

2.
Ther Adv Chronic Dis ; 10: 2040622319879602, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31632624

RESUMO

Background: Explicit criteria for potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) developed for other countries are difficult to apply to a specific territory. This study aimed to update the PIM-Taiwan criteria from a qualitative review of several published PIM criteria, followed by consensus among regional experts in Taiwan. Methods: After a review of the literature, we selected four sets of published PIM criteria to construct preliminary core PIMs. The Beers criteria, Fit fOR The Aged (FORTA), and Japan criteria were used for PIMs, without consideration of chronic diseases. The Beers criteria, Screening Tool of Older Persons' Prescriptions (STOPP) criteria, and Japan criteria were used for PIMs with respect to chronic diseases. We asked experts (n = 24) to rate their agreement with each statement, including in the final PIM criteria, after two rounds of modified Delphi methods. The intraclass coefficient (ICC) was used to examine the reliability of the modified Delphi method. Results: Overall, two categories of PIMs were established: 131 individual drugs and 9 drugs with combinations that should generally be avoided; and 9 chronic diseases with their corresponding PIMs that have drug-disease interactions. The ICC estimates for PIMs to be avoided generally were 0.634 and 0.557 (round 1 and 2) and those for PIMs with respect to chronic diseases were 0.866 and 0.775 (round 1 and 2) of the Delphi method, respectively. Conclusions: The 2018 version of PIM-Taiwan criteria was established and several modifications were made to keep the criteria updated and relevant. Clinicians can use them to reduce polypharmacy and PIMs among older patients.

3.
J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol ; 32(6): 304-311, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Antipsychotic polypharmacy (APP) is a controversial topic in the treatment of older adults with schizophrenia. The objective of this study was to examine the use of APP in older adult Asian patients with schizophrenia and its associated demographic and clinical factors. METHODS: This study was based on the fourth survey of the consortium known as the Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Pattern for Antipsychotics. Fifteen Asian countries/territories participated in this survey, including Bangladesh, Mainland China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. Basic demographic and clinical characteristics were collected using a standardized data collection form. RESULTS: Among the 879 older adults with schizophrenia included in the survey, the rate of APP was 40.5%. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that higher antipsychotic doses (P < .001, odds ratio [OR] = 1.003, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.002-1.003), longer duration of illness (P = .02, OR = 1.845, 95% CI: 1.087-3.132), and the prescription of anticholinergics (P < .001, OR = 1.871, 95% CI: 1.329-2.635), second-generation antipsychotics (P = .001, OR = 2.264, 95% CI: 1.453-3.529), and first-generation antipsychotics (P < .001, OR = 3.344, 95% CI: 2.307-4.847) were significantly associated with APP. CONCLUSION: Antipsychotic polypharmacy was common in older adult Asian patients with schizophrenia. Compared to the results of previous surveys, the use of APP showed a declining trend over time. Considering the general poor health status of older patients with schizophrenia and their increased risk of drug-induced adverse events, the use of APP in this population needs careful consideration.

4.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 45: 74-80, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520884

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Regular surveys are important to monitor the use of psychotropic medications in clinical practice. This study examined the psychotropic prescription patterns in adult Asian schizophrenia patients based on the data of the Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription (REAP) 2016 survey. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey across 15 Asian countries/territories collected socio-demographic and clinical data with standardized procedures between March and May 2016. The socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients were recorded with a standardized questionnaire. RESULTS: Altogether 3,537 adult patients with schizophrenia were consecutively screened and enrolled in the survey. The mean age was 38.66 ±â€¯11.55 years and 59.7% of the sample were male. The mean dose of antipsychotics in chlorpromazine equivalents (CPZeq) was 424 ±â€¯376 mg/day; 31.3% and 80.8% received first- and second- generation antipsychotics, respectively and 42.6% had antipsychotic polypharmacy, 11.7% had antidepressants, 13.7% had mood stabilizers, 27.8% had benzodiazepines, and 45.6% had anticholinergics. CONCLUSIONS: Psychotropic prescription patterns in Asian adult patients with schizophrenia varied across countries. Regular surveys on psychotropic medications for schizophrenia are important to monitor pharmacotherapy practice in Asia.

5.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0217323, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112583

RESUMO

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0179424.].

6.
Psychiatry Res ; 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885383

RESUMO

Clozapine is an effective antipsychotic medication for treatment resistant schizophrenia and is widely used in Asian countries. This study investigated clozapine prescription patterns and their associated factors in Asian countries and territories based on the database of the Research on Asian Psychotropic prescription study (REAP) conducted in 2016. Demographic and clinical information of 3744 schizophrenia patients in 15 Asian countries and territories was collected with a standardized data collection form. In total, 18.4% of the sample received clozapine, ranging from 2.6% in Japan to 32.3% in Hong Kong. Binary logistic regression analysis revealed that higher antipsychotic dose (OR = 1.002, P < 0.001), less frequent first admission in the sample (OR = 0.6, P < 0.001), more severe negative symptoms (OR = 1.4, P = 0.001) and less first generation antipsychotics (FGAs) (OR = 0.2, P < 0.001) were independently and significantly associated with clozapine prescription. Clozapine is frequently and increasingly prescribed for schizophrenia in Asia, with large variation across countries and territories. Given the diverse prescription patterns of clozapine found in Asian countries/territories, the clinical rationale of clozapine prescription needs careful consideration in Asia with more local input.

7.
Psychogeriatrics ; 19(4): 333-339, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30734411

RESUMO

AIM: Depressive disorders are common in old age. Antipsychotics (APs) are often used as an adjunctive treatment with antidepressants (ADs) in this population but its patterns of use in Asia are not known. This study explored the rate of combination of APs and ADs in older adult psychiatric patients in Asia. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of the database of a multicentre study which recorded participants' basic demographical and clinical data in standardised format in 10 Asian countries and territories. The data were analysed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: A total of 955 older adult psychiatric in- and outpatients were included in this study. The proportion of concurrent AP and AD use was 32.0%, ranging from 23.3% in Korea to 44.0% in Taiwan. Multivariate logistic regression analysis found that younger age, inpatient status and diagnosis of schizophrenia, anxiety and other mental disorders were significantly related to a higher proportion of concurrent use of APs and ADs. CONCLUSION: Around a third of older adult psychiatric patients had concurrent AP and AD use in the Asian countries/regions surveyed. Considering the uncertain effectiveness and questionable safety of the AP and AD combination in this patient population, such should be cautiously used.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Depressivo/tratamento farmacológico , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Hong Kong , Humanos , Índia , Indonésia , Japão , Malásia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia , Singapura , Taiwan , Tailândia
8.
Saudi Pharm J ; 27(2): 246-253, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30766437

RESUMO

Background: Although disorganized speech is seen as one of the nuclear features of schizophrenia, there have been few reports of disorganized speech-associated psychotropic drug-prescribing patterns in large samples of schizophrenia patients. Objective: We aimed to examine the prevalence of disorganized speech and its correlates in terms of psychotropic drug prescribing, using the data from the Research on Asian Psychotropic Patterns for Antipsychotics (REAP-AP) study. Method: A total of 3744 patients with the ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia were enrolled from 71 survey centers in 15 Asian countries/areas. An essential criterion of disorganized speech was that it was "severe enough to impair substantially effective communication" as defined in the DSM-5. A binary logistic model was fitted to identify the psychotropic drug-prescribing correlates of disorganized speech. Results: After adjusting for the potential effects of confounding variables, the binary logistic regression model showed that the presence of disorganized speech was directly associated with adjunctive use of mood stabilizers (P < 0.001) and cumulative diazepam equivalent dose (P < 0.0001), and inversely associated with adjunctive use of anti-Parkinson drugs (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: The association between disorganized speech and adjunctive use of mood stabilizers could perhaps be understood in the context of a relationship with impulsiveness/aggressiveness, or in terms of deconstructing the Kraepelinian dualism.

9.
Int Psychogeriatr ; 31(5): 685-691, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29212560

RESUMO

ABSTRACTBackground:Little is known about the combined use of benzodiazepines and antidepressants in older psychiatric patients. This study examined the prescription pattern of concurrent benzodiazepines in older adults treated with antidepressants in Asia, and explored its demographic and clinical correlates. METHODS: The data of 955 older adults with any type of psychiatric disorders were extracted from the database of the Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Patterns for Antidepressants (REAP-AD) project. Demographic and clinical characteristics were recorded using a standardized protocol and data collection procedure. Both univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: The proportion of benzodiazepine and antidepressant combination in this cohort was 44.3%. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that higher doses of antidepressants, younger age (<65 years), inpatients, public hospital, major comorbid medical conditions, antidepressant types, and country/territory were significantly associated with more frequent co-prescription of benzodiazepines and antidepressants. CONCLUSIONS: Nearly, half of the older adults treated with antidepressants in Asia are prescribed concurrent benzodiazepines. Given the potentially adverse effects of benzodiazepines, the rationale of benzodiazepines and antidepressants co-prescription needs to be revisited.

10.
Ther Adv Drug Saf ; 9(12): 699-709, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30546864

RESUMO

Background: PIM-Taiwan criteria were first established in 2010 for potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs). Currently, updating of PIM criteria is mandatory because of newly established evidence and newly developed medications. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of PIM based on country-specific PIM criteria and factors associated with PIM use by applying 2010 version and newly updating PIM-Taiwan criteria in a cohort with polypharmacy. Methods: The baseline data of Medication Safety Review Clinic Taiwan (MSRC-Taiwan) study were used to investigate the prevalence of PIMs. Older patients (aged ⩾65 years) who were either having polypharmacy or visited ⩾3 different physicians were enrolled between August and October 2007. Bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regressions were used to evaluate the factors associated with PIM use. Results: The prevalence of having at least one PIM was 46.1% for 2010 version and increased to 74.6% for 2018 version. The average number of PIMs generally to be avoided per patient also increased for 2018 version (0.2 versus 1.2, p < 0.0001). In contrast, the average number of PIMs considering chronic conditions per patient decreased (0.6 versus 0.3, p < 0.001). The associated chronic conditions of PIM users were distinct between 2010 and 2018 version. The major leading PIMs were benzodiazepines (BZDs) in both versions of criteria. Conclusions: As there were significant differences in medication lists between PIM-Taiwan version 2010 and 2018, the prevalence of PIM and factors associated with PIM users varied accordingly. Physicians should pay special attention before prescribing BZDs which keep being the major leading PIM.

11.
Psychiatry Investig ; 15(10): 1007-1008, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30373360

RESUMO

The REAP-AP study recruited 3,746 patients with schizophrenia, in March and April 2016, from 71 centers in 15 Asian countries/territories namely Bangladesh, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam. Our findings reveal a trend according to which high dose antipsychotic prescription is more prevalent in Eastern Asia (especially, Japan and Korea) than in other regions of Asia. This historical factor may be associated with our finding of an Eastern Asian preponderance of high dose antipsychotic prescription.

12.
J Clin Psychopharmacol ; 38(6): 598-603, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30273199

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Little is known regarding the trend of polypharmacy in Asia. We used data from 5 Asian countries to examine the patterns of antidepressant (AD) prescription and trends of psychotropic polypharmacy over time. METHODS: We used the cross-sectional, pharmacoepidemiological data from 2004 and 2013 REAP-AD (Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Patterns for Antidepressants) to examine the patterns of AD prescriptions in clinical settings in China, Japan, Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan. We compared the trend in polypharmacy (ie, concomitant use of ≥2 classes of psychotropic) among individuals receiving AD prescriptions in 2004 and 2013 using multivariable logistic regression models in different diagnostic categories. RESULTS: The proportion of patients with psychotropic polypharmacy decreased from 2004 to 2013 in all 3 diagnostic categories, including mood disorders (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.44 [0.35-0.56]; P < 0.001), anxiety disorders (aOR, 0.58 [0.36-0.94]; P = 0.028), and psychotic disorders (aOR, 0.18 [0.05-0.60]; P = 0.006). Among individuals with AD prescriptions, concomitant use of anxiolytics (including sedative-hypnotics) decreased in patients with mood disorders (aOR, 0.34 [0.27-0.42]; P < 0.001) and anxiety disorders (aOR, 0.43 [0.27-0.67]; P < 0.001). In contrast, concomitant use of antipsychotics in patients with mood disorders increased (aOR, 1.43 [1.15-1.77]; P = 0.001), and concomitant use of mood stabilizers in patients with psychotic disorders also increased (aOR, 3.49 [1.50-8.14]; P = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study examining trends in psychotropic polypharmacy in East Asia. We found a generally decreasing trend of psychotropic polypharmacy in contrast to the increasing trend reported from Western countries. These findings could offer significant implications for health system reform or policy making.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos do Humor/tratamento farmacológico , Polimedicação , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Psicóticos/tratamento farmacológico , Tranquilizantes/uso terapêutico , Adulto , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia , Singapura , Taiwan
13.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 235(11): 3329-3338, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30232530

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between benzodiazepine and risk of developing pneumonia in patients with schizophrenia, whose benzodiazepine dosage and usage frequency was higher than that of the general population. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study to assess the association between benzodiazepine use and pneumonia among patients with schizophrenia. By using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, we identified a schizophrenia cohort comprising 34,929 patients during 2000-2010. Within the schizophrenia cohort, 2501 cases of pneumonia and 9961 matched control patients (1:4 ratio) were identified. Benzodiazepine exposure was categorized by drug, treatment duration, and daily dose. Conditional logistic regression models were used to examine the association between benzodiazepine exposure and the risk of pneumonia. RESULTS: The current use (within 30 days) of midazolam led to the highest pneumonia risk (adjusted risk ratio = 6.56, P < 0.001), followed by diazepam (3.43, P < 0.001), lorazepam (2.16, P < 0.001), and triazolam (1.80, P = 0.019). Furthermore, nearly all the benzodiazepines under current use had a dose-dependent effect on pneumonia risk. The risk of pneumonia was correlated with the affinities of γ-aminobutyric acid A α1, α2, and α3 receptors. CONCLUSIONS: Benzodiazepines had a dose-dependent relationship with pneumonia in patients with schizophrenia. The differences in risk and mechanism of action of the individual drugs require further investigation. Clinicians should be aware of the early signs of pneumonia in patients with schizophrenia receiving benzodiazepines.


Assuntos
Benzodiazepinas/efeitos adversos , Formulário de Reclamação de Seguro/tendências , Pneumonia/induzido quimicamente , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Benzodiazepinas/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais/tendências , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Taiwan/epidemiologia
14.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 11727, 2018 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30082816

RESUMO

Potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) was associated with adverse clinical outcomes and higher healthcare resource utilization among older patients. In order to investigate the prevalence of PIM use based on three different sets of criteria and their associated factors among older patients in the emergency department (ED) in Taiwan. The National Health Insurance Research Database was used for this cross-sectional study. Older patients who visited the ED at least once in 2009 were enrolled. PIMs were identified based on the Beers Criteria, PIM-Taiwan criteria, and PRISCUS criteria. Average patient age was 76.7 ± 7.4 years and patients visited the ED 1.8 ± 2.1 times in 2009. The prevalence and frequency of being prescribed at least one PIM at each visit were high according to all three sets of criteria. Performance of the PIM-Taiwan criteria was only inferior to that of the Beers Criteria. The most important factor associated with PIM was the number of medications prescribed in the ED, and PIM use was associated with higher annual health resource utilization in the ED. PIM use was a significant issue and was associated with higher annual emergency care resource utilization in the ED.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Prescrição Inadequada/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Lista de Medicamentos Potencialmente Inapropriados/estatística & dados numéricos , Taiwan
15.
Psychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 72(10): 789-800, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29987915

RESUMO

AIM: Patients with schizophrenia have a higher incidence of tuberculosis than do people in the general population. Information is limited regarding the association between antipsychotic agents and the risk of tuberculosis in patients with schizophrenia. This exploratory study assessed the risk of tuberculosis among patients with schizophrenia on antipsychotic therapy. METHODS: Among a nationwide schizophrenia cohort derived from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan (n = 32 399), we identified 284 patients who had developed newly diagnosed tuberculosis after their first psychiatric admission. Ten or fewer matched controls were selected randomly from the cohort for each patient based on risk-set sampling. We categorized exposure to antipsychotic medications by type and defined daily dose. Using multivariate methods, we explored individual antipsychotic agents for the risk of tuberculosis and employed a propensity-scoring method in sensitivity analyses to validate any associations. RESULTS: Among the antipsychotic agents studied and after adjustment for covariates, current use of clozapine was the only antipsychotic agent associated with a 63% increased risk of tuberculosis (adjusted risk ratio = 1.63, P = 0.014). In addition, the association did not show a clear dose-dependent relationship. Clozapine combined with other antipsychotic agents showed a potential synergistic risk for tuberculosis (adjusted risk ratio = 2.30, P = 0.044). CONCLUSION: This exploratory study suggests the potential risk of clozapine on the risk of tuberculosis, especially for those on clozapine in combination with other antipsychotics. Future studies are needed to verify the association.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Clozapina/efeitos adversos , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/induzido quimicamente , Tuberculose/complicações , Adulto Jovem
16.
Psychogeriatrics ; 18(5): 351-356, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29989257

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study explored the patterns of physical comorbidities and their associated demographic and clinical factors in older psychiatric patients prescribed with antidepressants in Asia. METHODS: Demographic and clinical information of 955 older adults were extracted from the database of the Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Patterns for Antidepressants (REAP-AD) project. Standardized data collection procedure was used to record demographic and clinical data. RESULTS: Proportion of physical comorbidities in this cohort was 44%. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that older age (OR = 1.7, P < 0.001), higher number of depressive symptoms (OR = 1.09, P = 0.016), being treated in psychiatric hospital (OR = 0.5, P = 0.002), living in high income countries/territories (OR = 2.4, P = 0.002), use of benzodiazepines (OR = 1.4, P = 0.013) and diagnosis of 'other psychiatric disorders' (except mood, anxiety disorders and schizophrenia) (OR = 2.7, P < 0.001) were significantly associated with physical comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: Physical comorbidities in older patients prescribed with antidepressants were common in Asia. Integrating physical care into the treatment of older psychiatric patients should be urgently considered.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos do Humor/tratamento farmacológico , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ásia/epidemiologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Depressão/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos do Humor/epidemiologia , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia
17.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 37(1): 104, 2018 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29764469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Great progress has been achieved in the study of the aerobic glycolysis or the so-called Warburg effect in a variety of cancers; however, the regulation of the Warburg effect in Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has not been completely defined. METHODS: Gene expression pattern of NPC cells were used to test associations between Chibby and ß-catenin expression. Chibby siRNAs and over-expression vector were transfected into NPC cells to down-regulate or up-regulate Chibby expression. Loss- and gain-of function assays were performed to investigate the role of Chibby in NPC cells. Western blot, cell proliferation, Glucose uptake, Lactate release, ATP level, and O2 consumption assays were used to determine the mechanism of Chibby regulation of underlying targets. Finally, immunohistochemistry assay of fresh NPC and nasopharyngeal normal tissue sample were used to detect the expression of Chibby, ß-Catenin, and PDK1 by immunostaining. RESULTS: We observed that Chibby, a ß-catenin-associated antagonist, is down-regulated in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines and inhibits Wnt/ß-Catenin signaling induced Warburg effect. Mechanism study revealed that Chibby regulates aerobic glycolysis in NPC cells through pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1(PDK1), an important enzyme involved in glucose metabolism. Moreover, Chibby suppresses aerobic glycolysis of NPC via Wnt/ß-Catenin-Lin28/let7-PDK1 cascade. Chibby and PDK1 are critical for Wnt/ß-Catenin signaling induced NPC cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. Finally, immunostaining assay of tissue samples provides an important clinical relevance among Chibby, Wnt/ß-Catenin signaling and PDK1. CONCLUSIONS: Our study reveals an association between Chibby expression and cancer aerobic glycolysis, which highlights the importance of Wnt/ß-catenin pathway in regulation of energy metabolism of NPC. These results indicate that Chibby and PDK1 are the potential target for NPC treatment.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/genética , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Proteínas Wnt/metabolismo , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Aerobiose , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Glicólise , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Camundongos , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/patologia , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Wnt/genética , beta Catenina/genética
18.
Sensors (Basel) ; 18(5)2018 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29757261

RESUMO

Capturing hand motions for hand function evaluations is essential in the medical field. Various data gloves have been developed for rehabilitation and manual dexterity assessments. This study proposed a modular data glove with 9-axis inertial measurement units (IMUs) to obtain static and dynamic parameters during hand function evaluation. A sensor fusion algorithm is used to calculate the range of motion of joints. The data glove is designed to have low cost, easy wearability, and high reliability. Owing to the modular design, the IMU board is independent and extensible and can be used with various microcontrollers to realize more medical applications. This design greatly enhances the stability and maintainability of the glove.

19.
Psychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 72(8): 572-579, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29761577

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of the present study was to survey the prevalence of antipsychotic polypharmacy and combined medication use across 15 Asian countries and areas in 2016. METHODS: By using the results from the fourth survey of Research on Asian Prescription Patterns on antipsychotics, the rates of polypharmacy and combined medication use in each country were analyzed. Daily medications prescribed for the treatment of inpatients or outpatients with schizophrenia, including antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, anxiolytics, hypnotics, and antiparkinson agents, were collected. Fifteen countries from Asia participated in this study. RESULTS: A total of 3744 patients' prescription forms were examined. The prescription patterns differed across these Asian countries, with the highest rate of polypharmacy noted in Vietnam (59.1%) and the lowest in Myanmar (22.0%). Furthermore, the combined use of other medications, expressed as highest and lowest rate, respectively, was as follows: mood stabilizers, China (35.0%) and Bangladesh (1.0%); antidepressants, South Korea (36.6%) and Bangladesh (0%); anxiolytics, Pakistan (55.7%) and Myanmar (8.5%); hypnotics, Japan (61.1%) and, equally, Myanmar (0%) and Sri Lanka (0%); and antiparkinson agents, Bangladesh (87.9%) and Vietnam (10.9%). The average psychotropic drug loading of all patients was 2.01 ± 1.64, with the highest and lowest loadings noted in Japan (4.13 ± 3.13) and Indonesia (1.16 ± 0.68), respectively. CONCLUSION: Differences in psychiatrist training as well as the civil culture and health insurance system of each country may have contributed to the differences in these rates. The concept of drug loading can be applied to other medical fields.


Assuntos
Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Polimedicação , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Ásia , Feminino , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
20.
Oncol Lett ; 15(1): 447-452, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29387228

RESUMO

Insulin is associated with the progression of numerous different types of cancer. However, the association between insulin and non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of insulin in the proliferation, migration and drug resistance of NSCLC cells, and to determine whether the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) pathway was involved. NSCLC cells were treated with insulin in the absence or presence of LY294002, an inhibitor of the PI3K/Akt pathway. Following co-incubation with insulin, cell proliferation and drug resistance were measured by MTT; cell migration was examined by wound healing and Transwell assays; and the expression of cyclin A, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), p27, matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3), P-gp and proteins involved in the PI3K/Akt pathway were assessed via western blotting. The results of the current study demonstrated that insulin enhanced the proliferation, migration and drug resistance of NSCLC cells. Correspondingly, insulin upregulated the expression of cyclin A, PCNA, MMP3, P-gp and downregulated p27 expression in NSCLC cells. Following treatment with insulin, it was demonstrated that phospho-Akt expression increased in a dose-dependent manner. However, the effects of insulin on NSCLC cells was inhibited by the PI3K/Akt pathway inhibitor LY294002. Therefore, the results of the current study indicate that insulin is associated with the development of NSCLC by activating the PI3K/Akt pathway. This may improve understanding of the mechanism of action of insulin in NSCLC in the future.

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