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1.
J Org Chem ; 2020 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32567860

RESUMO

The merger of photoredox-initiated enamine-imine tautomerization and nucleophilic addition processes to access -substituted pyrroles from pyrrolidines has been achieved. The significant advantage of this method is suppressing the Friedel-Crafts reaction, which usually occurs between N-aryl pyrrolidines and the highly electrophilic ketoesters. The good functional group tolerance, high atom-economy and high regioselectivity as well as easy handling conditions make it appealing alternative to synthesize -substituted pyrroles.

3.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491831

RESUMO

The sluggish reaction kinetics at the cathode/electrolyte interface of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries limits their commercialization. Herein, we show that a dual-regulation system of iron phthalocyanine (FePc) and octafluoronaphthalene (OFN) decorated on graphene (Gh), denoted as Gh/FePc+OFN, accelerates the interfacial reaction kinetics of lithium polysulfides (LiPSs). Multiple in situ spectroscopy techniques and ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy combined with density functional theory calculations demonstrate that FePc acts as an efficient anchor and scissor for the LiPSs through Fe···S coordination, mainly facilitating their liquid-liquid transformation, whereas OFN enables Li-bond interaction with the LiPSs, accelerating the kinetics of the liquid-solid nucleation and growth of Li2S. This dual-regulation system promotes the smooth conversion reaction of sulfur, thereby improving the battery performance. A Gh/FePc+OFN-based Li-S cathode delivered an ultrahigh initial capacity of 1604 mAh g-1 at 0.2 C, with an ultralow capacity decay rate of 0.055% per cycle at 1 C over 1000 cycles.

4.
Hemodial Int ; 2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520445

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Long-term use of unfractionated heparin (UFH) or low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) causes bone loss and osteoporosis in patients not receiving hemodialysis. This study aimed to investigate the effect of UFH and LMWH on bone mineral density (BMD) in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). METHODS: Patients undergoing MHD using UFH or LMWH as anticoagulants were enrolled. BMD (in g/cm2 ), T-score and Z-score (BMDs) were measured at the lumbar spine and femur neck using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at baseline and 2 years later. Patient demographics and clinical indices were collected. Correlation analysis was used to identify significant predictors of bone loss. Multiple linear regression was used to explore the relationship between heparin type and bone loss progression. FINDINGS: A total of 104 patients were enrolled and completed the baseline BMD test; 72 completed the test again 2 years later. Six patients were excluded because they used both UFH and LMWH. Although BMD decreased in some patients in the UFH group, a slight increase in the BMD was observed on an average in the LMWH group after 2 years. The mean change in BMD (in g/cm2 ) [0(-0.03,0.04) vs. 0.04(0,0.06), P = 0.023], T-score [0(-0.40,0.30) vs. 0.35(-0.03,0.53), P = 0.038], and Z-score [0.10(-0.30,0.40) vs. 0.45(0.08,0.63), P = 0.031] in the lumbar spine in the UFH group was lower than those in the LMWH group. Femur neck BMD did not change significantly. In a linear regression model, after adjusting for diabetes mellitus, parathyroid hormone, and serum phosphate, we did not find an association between heparin substances and BMD. DISCUSSION: UFH might be associated with loss of lumbar spine BMD in patients undergoing MHD.

5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(11)2020 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481764

RESUMO

This paper proposes a method for designing a 77 GHz series-fed patch array antenna. Based on the traditional genetic algorithm, the study explores different array topologies consisting of the same microstrip patches to optimize the design. The main optimization goal is to reduce the maximum sidelobe level (SLL). A 77 GHz series-fed patch array antenna for automotive radar was simulated, fabricated, and measured by employing this method. The antenna length was limited to no longer than 3 cm, and the array only had a single compact series with the radiation patch about 1.54 mm wide. In the genetic algorithm used for optimization, the maximum sidelobe level was set equal to or less than -14 dB. The measurement results show that the gain of the proposed antenna was about 15.6 dBi, E-plane half-power beamwidth was about ±3.8°, maximum sidelobe level was about -14.8 dB, and H-plane half-power beamwidth was about ±30° at 77 GHz. The electromagnetic simulation and the measurement results show that the 77 GHz antenna designed with the proposed method has a better sidelobe suppression by over 4 dB than the traditional one of the same length in this paper.

6.
J Glaucoma ; 29(7): 542-549, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433095

RESUMO

PRECIS: The study compared 1-year effectiveness of single trabecular microbypass stent (iStent) implantation with phacoemulsification among glaucoma severities in primary open-angle glaucoma. The study found that mild glaucoma had greater success rate and lower number of medications compared with moderate and severe glaucoma. PURPOSE: To evaluate the effectiveness of iStent implantation in combination with cataract surgery in moderate to severe glaucoma compared with mild glaucoma. METHODS: Medical charts of primary open-angle glaucoma subjects undergoing 1 iStent implantation were retrospectively reviewed. Glaucoma was classified on the basis of mean deviation (MD) of the preoperative standard automated perimetry into mild (MD>-6 dB), moderate (MD -6 to -12 dB), and severe (MD<-12 dB). Mixed effect regression models were performed to determine the effect of iStent at 1 year. The outcomes included as follows: (1) intraocular pressure (IOP) and the number of medications, (2) eyes with IOP ≤ severity-based target (18 mm Hg for mild, 15 mm Hg for moderate, 12 mm Hg for severe) (2A) without medication, and (2B) with medication reduction. RESULTS: In total, 104 eyes from 89 subjects were analyzed. Cataract combined with iStent surgery significantly lowered the number of medications in all groups and significantly decreased IOP in moderate and severe glaucoma (P<0.05). There was significantly higher number of medications in moderate (ß: 0.58, P=0.002) and severe (ß: 1.20, P<0.001) compared with mild glaucoma. Eyes with moderate glaucoma had significantly lower rate of success (criterion 2A) compared with mild glaucoma [odds ratio (OR): 0.008, P=0.047]. Eyes with moderate and severe glaucoma had significantly lower rates of success (criterion 2B) (moderate vs. mild OR: 0.002, P=0.028; severe vs. mild OR: 0.026, P=0.026). CONCLUSIONS: Combined phacoemulsification with iStent seems to have a better IOP-lowering and medication-lowering effect in mild glaucoma cases versus those with moderate and severe glaucoma. This difference was found in real-world data over one-year follow-up period. Long-term studies with defined IOP goals and medication removal protocols are warranted.

7.
J Hazard Mater ; 396: 122657, 2020 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361622

RESUMO

17ß-Estradiol (17ß-E2) as a non-conventional pollutant with high damage, the effective removal of 17ß-E2 had been studied wildly. In recent years, nano materials application enabled the rapid removal of 17ß-E2. Nano zero valent iron (nZVI) as one of the most widely used nano materials could also be used to degrade 17ß-E2. But, the degradation performance of nZVI was limited by oxidation and aggregation. Therefore, this study explored the degradation mechanisms of 17ß-E2 by nZVI and the enhancement mechanisms of nZVI by citrate. Firstly, 17ß-E2 could be effectively degraded under acidic conditions without the addition of citrate. Citrate had protective effect on nZVI, so the degradation efficiency in neutral condition and degradation rate at all pH values of 17ß-E2 were enhanced greatly in nZVI-citrate system. 17ß-E2 degradation was mainly about group change and cleavage of ring A, as well as dominated by O2-▪ and OH∙ in the absence and presence of citrate. The formation of dimers and trimers proved the existence of laccase-like reaction during the 17ß-E2 degradation process by nZVI. In nZVI-citrate system, the laccase-like reaction was replaced by specific cross-coupling of 17ß-E2, E1, and citrate. Overall, the study proved that citrate could enhance the degradation of 17ß-E2 by nZVI.

8.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 238: 118430, 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438291

RESUMO

In this study, an ordered metal oxide-metal composite system was designed. By changing the thickness of film of Ag/Al2O3 nanoparticles (NPs), the red and blue shifts of local surface plasma resonance (LSPR) were realized in the proposed system and discussed by damping resonance theory and Mie's scattering theory to demonstrating the relationship between wavelength (λ) and particle diameter (D). With the increasing of sputtering time of Ag, the SPR of Ag was red shifted under the influence of damped vibration, obtaining that square of wavelength (λ2) is proportional to D. The surface plasma resonance (SPR) of Ag/Al2O3 showed an obvious blue shift, and then red shift suddenly, which is affected by the competition between damping resonance and refractive index. When the blue shift occurs, the change of wavelength (∆λ) is exponentially related to the diameter (D). The modulation of LSPR of the proposed composite nano-metal materials will have a potential application in SPR sensor and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS).

9.
Bioresour Technol ; 312: 123554, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460007

RESUMO

In this work, fate of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), heavy metal resistance genes (MRGs) and intI1 were investigated during mesophilic (mAD) and thermophilic anaerobic digestion (tAD) of swine manure with presence of Cu and Zn. Results showed that metal reduced the lag phase time. Cu showed stronger inhibition than Zn on archaea community and metals inhibited the growth of acetoclastic methanogens during mAD. Although total concentration of metals increased after AD, they were transformed into stable state. The abundance of qnrS, sul1, sul2 and drfA7 increased 1.2-5.7 times after mAD, while reduced after tAD, showed that tAD was effective in ARGs removal. Structural equation model analysis suggested that intI1 had the most standardized direct effects on ARGs variation in mAD (R = 0.85, p < 0.01), while the co-occurrence of MRGs with ARGs showed significantly positive influences on ARGs variation in tAD (R = 0.82, p < 0.01).


Assuntos
Esterco , Microbiota , Anaerobiose , Animais , Antibacterianos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Genes Bacterianos , Suínos , Zinco
10.
J Diabetes Res ; 2020: 4591938, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32377520

RESUMO

Objectives: To investigate the risk factors for cognitive impairment in Chinese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients of advanced age and to identify effective biomarkers of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in these patients. Methods: Chinese T2DM patients (n = 120) aged 50-70 years were divided into groups with impaired (mild, moderate, and severe) and normal cognitive function based on Montreal Cognitive Assessment and Mini-Mental State Examination scores. Data regarding demographic characteristics, clinical features of diabetes, biochemical markers, and metabolomics were collected. Results: Age, educational level, duration of diabetes, fasting blood glucose (FBG), HbA1c, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and 24-hour urine protein were significantly associated with cognitive impairment in T2DM patients of advanced age. The severity of fundus retinopathy and the incidence of macrovascular disease also differed significantly among the groups (P < 0.05). Metabolomics analysis suggested that increased levels of glutamate (Glu), phenylalanine (Phe), tyrosine (Tyr), proline (Pro), and homocysteine (Hcy) and a decreased level of glutamine (Gln) were significantly associated with cognitive impairment in the T2DM patients (P < 0.05). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated that Glu, Gln, Phe, and Pro levels were significant predictors of cognitive impairment in the T2DM patients. Conclusions: Age, educational level, duration of diabetes, and the levels of FBG, HbA1c, TC, TG, and 24-hour urine protein were considered as independent risk factors for cognitive impairment in older T2DM patients. Macrovascular and microvascular diseases also were closely associated with cognitive impairment in these patients. Together, Glu and Gln levels may represent a good predictive biomarker for the early diagnosis of cognitive impairment in T2DM patients.

11.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(2): 155-159, 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32386040

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore the therapeutic effect of myofascial trigger point electroacupuncture technology on treating female overactive bladder syndrome. METHODS: Forty female patients with overactive bladder were randomly divided into 2 groups: an experimental group and a control group. The experimental group was treated with myofascial trigger point electroacupuncture therapy combined with solifenacin succinate while the control group was only treated with solifenacin succinate. Patients in both groups were treated for 12 weeks. The overactive bladder symptom score (OABSS), urinary urgency score and urination frequency of 24 h in the 2 groups were compared to analyze the therapeutic effect. RESULTS: Before the comprehensive treatment, there was no significant difference between the experimental group and the control group (P>0.05). After 2 and 12 weeks of continuous treatment, the OABSS, urinary urgency symptoms score and 24 h urination frequency in the experimental group and the control group were lower than those before the treatment, and the degree of decline in the experimental group was more obvious, with significant difference (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Treating overactive bladder syndrome in women with myofascial trigger point electroacupuncture combined with solifenacin succinate can significantly improve the OABSS and improve the life quality of the patients.

12.
Cancer Med ; 2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Local lateral recurrence (LLR) in rectal cancer is increasingly becoming a significant clinical issue. Preoperative neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) and lateral lymph node dissection (LLND)-when each approach is separately executed-cannot cure lateral lymph node metastasis (LLNM). Here, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of nCRT plus total mesorectal excision (TME) vs TME plus LLND after nCRT for rectal cancer. METHODS: Standard databases (PubMed, Embase, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science) were searched to identify all relevant studies comparing nCRT+TME and nCRT+TME+LLND. Data in the included studies were extracted, and intraoperative outcomes, postoperative complications, and oncological outcomes were evaluated. RESULTS: Eight studies representing 1,896 patients (1,461 nCRT+TME vs 435 nCRT+TME+LLND) were included. We found that for patients with clinically suspected LLNM, the incidence of pathological LLNM was 27.8%, even after nCRT. LLND after nCRT was significantly associated with lower LLR (P = .02). Additional LLND yielded a longer operative time (P < .01) and increased the risk of urinary dysfunction (P < .01). Concerning other outcomes, no significant differences were identified between the two groups. CONCLUSION: This is the first meta-analysis and systematic review of studies comparing nCRT+TME and nCRT+TME+LLND for rectal cancer patients. Although increasing operative time and the risk of urinary dysfunction (which might be ameliorated by minimally invasive procedures), the pooled results support the use of LLND after nCRT and TME for reducing LLR in patients with clinically suspected LLNM and provide another treatment option for high-risk patients.

13.
Int J Biol Sci ; 16(11): 1767-1773, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32398947

RESUMO

B7-H3 (also known as CD276) is a newly found molecule of B7 family, which may be a promising target for cancer treatment. B7-H3 protein was demonstrated to be expressed in several kinds of tumor tissues including non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and prostate cancer. Its expression is highly associated with undesirable treatment outcomes and survival time, due to function of the immune checkpoint molecule. It was classified as either a co-stimulatory molecule for T cell activation or the nonimmunological role of regulating signaling pathways. Although there is still no agreed conclusion on the function of B7-H3, it may be a valuable target for cancer therapy. This review aims to provide a comprehensive, up-to-date summary of the advances in B7-H3 targeting approaches in cancer therapy. Although several challenges remain, B7-H3 offers a new therapeutic target with increased efficacy and less toxicity in future cancer treatment.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369340

RESUMO

Though CH3NH3PbBr3 single crystals are frequently applied in various optoelectronic devices due to their favorable cuboid geometry, superior optoelectronic properties, and better stability than CH3NH3PbI3, CH3NH3PbBr3 polycrystalline films normally show poorer morphology with scattered crystals than their iodide counterparts, inherently due to their different crystallization habits. In this work, a facile process based on a hot methylamine-based precursor with high viscosity and concentration is demonstrated to counteract rapid ion diffusion. The precursor also has special features including a large colloidal size, a solid form at room temperature, and fast crystallization offered by the easy evacuation of methylamine. CH3NH3PbBr3 films composed of tightly aligned CH3NH3PbBr3 cuboids on micron scale are obtained. Wide channel (100 µm) photodetectors made from the CH3NH3PbBr3 films show promising photoresponse and fast response speeds on par with those based on single crystals, suggesting high film quality and good optoelectronic connections between neighboring cuboids.

15.
J Cell Physiol ; 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32372405

RESUMO

Breast cancer is a malignant tumor with the highest incidence in women of the world. CXCR4 and Skp2 are highly expressed in breast cancer cells and CXCR4 was positively correlated with Skp2 by interference or overexpression. The microRNA array was used to detect the differentially expressed spectrum of micro RNAs in breast cancer cells the changes of miR-7-5p after CXCR4 inhibitor (NT21MP) treatment to block the CXCR4/SDF-1 pathway was founded. MiR-7-5p has been found to be correlated with Skp2 in various tumors in the literature, and Skp2 expression can be regulated by transfection with miR-7-5p mimics or inhibitors. The expression level of miR-7-5p was upregulated or downregulated after CXCR4 interference or overexpression. Combined with the correlation between CXCR4 and miR-7-5p in the chip results, CXCR4 may regulate Skp2 through miR-7-5p. Epithelial cells have the morphological characteristics of mesenchymal cells for some reason called epithelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT). Transfection of miR-7-5p mimics into drug-resistant cells reduced Skp2 levels, decreased the expression of Vimentin, Snail, and slug, and increased the expression of E-cadherin. CXCR4 inhibitor (NT21MP) can reverse the EMT changes caused by miR-7-5p inhibitor. Similarly, in vivo results suggesting that CXCR4 inhibitors can reverse the EMT phenotype of drug-resistant breast cancer cells through the CXCR4/miR-7-5p/Skp2 pathway. In summary, the CXCR4/miR-7-5p/Skp2 signaling pathway plays an important role in the progression of breast cancer. This study provides a theoretical basis for the treatment of breast cancer by targeting the CXCR4 pathway.

16.
Environ Toxicol ; 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32420678

RESUMO

Breast cancer (BC) is the leading cause of cancer-related death in women worldwide and one of the most prevalent malignancy. In recent years, increasing evidence had illuminated that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) serve as critical factors in multiple tumor progression, including BC. Emerging references had indicated that the lncRNA H19 acts as significant roles in tumor progression and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms and biological roles of H19 in BC invasion, metastasis and EMT are still unclear. In this study, it was detected that the expression level of H19 was increased in BC paclitaxel-resistant (PR) cells subline (MCF-7/PR) in comparison with MCF-7 parental cells. In vitro, there were demonstrated that H19 overexpression promoted BC cells proliferation, metastasis, invasion and EMT procedures, and suppressed cells apoptosis. Whereas, H19 suppression resulted in the contrary biological effects. Besides, bioinformatics tools and dual-luciferase reporters assays indicated that miR-340-3p could act as a potential target gene of H19, the underlying mechanism studies proved that H19 could act as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) via competitively binding miR-340-3p to promote BC cell proliferation, metastasis and EMT by regulating tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein zeta (YWHAZ) and potentiate the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling in BC cells. In summary, our findings demonstrated that H19 could act as a ceRNA in BC progression, metastasis and EMT through modulating miR-340-3p/YWHAZ axis and activating the canonical Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway, indicating that H19 might act as an underlying therapeutic target and prognostic biomarker for BC therapy.

17.
Eur J Radiol ; 127: 108977, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330776

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To predict clinically significant prostate cancer (cs-PCa) by combining the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System version 2 (PI-RADS v2) score based on biparametric magnetic resonance imaging (bp-MRI) and clinical indicators in men with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in the gray zone of 4-10 ng/mL. METHOD: We retrospectively analyzed 364 patients with elevated PSA levels in the gray zone who had pathologically confirmed disease and had undergone MRI examinations from January 2015 to October 2019; a training group (n = 255) and validation group (n = 109) were randomly established. Multivariate logistic regression analysis of the training group was performed to identify the independent predictors for cs-PCa, thereby establishing a predictive model that was evaluated in the training and validation groups by analyzing the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. RESULTS: In the training group, the PI-RADS v2 score and prostate volume (PV) were independent predictors of cs-PCa (P < 0.05). The prediction model comprising the PI-RADS v2 score and PV had a larger AUC than the other predictors alone in the training group. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the prediction model were 84.1 % and 83.4 %, respectively. The prediction model was indicated to have better predictive performance in the validation group. CONCLUSIONS: The prediction model exhibits a satisfactory predictive value for cs-PCa in men with PSA levels in the gray zone. PI-RADS v2 is the strongest univariate predictor for the detection of cs-PCa in men with PSA in the gray zone, but combining this with the PV can provide superior predictive ability.

18.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 3475289, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32258114

RESUMO

Background: Abdominal wall weakness occurs when the strength of muscle decreases due to physiological reason or iatrogenic injury. However, the treatment of this disease is complicated. Aim: To study the therapeutic effect of acellular tissue matrix (ACTM), compared with the polypropylene mesh. Methods: An abdominal wall weakness model was established in rabbits through motor nerves cutting. The polypropylene mesh and ACTM were implanted in the left and right abdomen sides, respectively. Mechanical testing of abdominal wall muscle and histology and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) evaluation of abdominal tissue explants were performed. Results: In animal model establishment, the abdominal length of healthy and weakened abdominal wall was 17.0 ± 0.7 cm and 19.0 ± 1.2 cm, respectively (P=0.022), and the weak abdominal wall group showed a significant decrease of 1.116 ± 0.221 MPa in tensile stress (P=0.022), and the weak abdominal wall group showed a significant decrease of 1.116 ± 0.221 MPa in tensile stress (P=0.022), and the weak abdominal wall group showed a significant decrease of 1.116 ± 0.221 MPa in tensile stress (P=0.022), and the weak abdominal wall group showed a significant decrease of 1.116 ± 0.221 MPa in tensile stress (P=0.022), and the weak abdominal wall group showed a significant decrease of 1.116 ± 0.221 MPa in tensile stress (P=0.022), and the weak abdominal wall group showed a significant decrease of 1.116 ± 0.221 MPa in tensile stress (P=0.022), and the weak abdominal wall group showed a significant decrease of 1.116 ± 0.221 MPa in tensile stress (. Conclusion: The abdominal wall weakness model in rabbits was successfully established. ACTM is a promising biological material to be possibly further applied in clinical surgery in patients with abdominal wall weakness.

19.
J Diabetes Res ; 2020: 7152176, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32258169

RESUMO

20(S)-Ginsenoside Rg3 (20(S)-Rg3) has been shown to induce apoptosis by interfering with several signaling pathways. Furthermore, it has been reported to have anticancer and antidiabetic effects. In order to detect the protective effect of 20(S)-Rg3 on diabetic kidney disease (DKD), diabetic rat models which were established by administering high-sugar, high-fat diet combined with intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ), and age-matched wild-type (WT) rat were given 20(S)-Rg3 for 12 weeks, with three groups: control group (normal adult rats with saline), diabetic group (diabetic rats with saline), and 20(S)-Rg3 treatment group (diabetic rats with 20(S)-Rg3 (10 mg/kg body weight/day)). The biochemical indicators and the changes in glomerular basement membrane and mesangial matrix were detected. TUNEL staining was used to detect glomerular and renal tubular cell apoptosis. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expression of fibrosis factors and inflammation factors in rat kidney tissues. Through periodic acid-Schiff staining, we observed that the change in renal histology was improved and renal tubular epithelial cell apoptosis decreased significantly by treatment with 20(S)-Rg3. Plus, the urine protein decreased in the rats with the 20(S)-Rg3 treatment. Fasting blood glucose, creatinine, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels in the 20(S)-Rg3 treatment group were all lower than those in the diabetic group. Mechanistically, 20(S)-Rg3 dramatically downregulated the expression of TGF-ß1, NF-κB65, and TNF-α in the kidney. These resulted in a significant prevention of renal damage from the inflammation. The results of the current study suggest that 20(S)-Rg3 could potentially be used as a novel treatment against DKD.

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