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3.
Pest Manag Sci ; 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31943722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The intensifying weed resistance has challenged the use of existing acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS)-inhibiting herbicides. Hence, there is currently an urgent requirement for the discovery of new AHAS inhibitor to effectively control AHAS herbicide-resistant weed species caused by target mutation. RESULTS: To combat weed resistance caused by AHAS with P197L mutation, we built a structure library consisting of pyrimidinyl-salicylic acid derivatives in this work. Using pharmacophore-linked fragment virtual screening (PFVS) approach, hit compound 8 bearing 6-phenoxymethyl substituent was identified as a potential AHAS inhibitor with antiresistance effect. Subsequently, derivatives of compound 8 were synthesized and evaluated for their inhibitory activities. The study of the enzyme-based structure-activity relationship and structure-resistance relationship studies led to the discovery of a qualified candidate 28. This compound not only significantly inhibited the activity of wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana (At) AHAS and P197L mutant, but also exhibited good antiresistance property (RF= 0.79). Notably, compared with bispyribac at 37.5-150 grams of active ingredient per hectare (g ai/ha), compound 27 exhibited higher growth inhibition against both sensitive and resistant Descurainia sophia, CONCLUSION: The title compounds have great potential to be developed as new leads to effectively control herbicide-resistant weeds comprising AHAS with P197L mutation. Also, our study provided a positive case of discovery of novel, potent and antiresistance inhibitors using fragment-based drug design approach. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

4.
Int J Mol Med ; 45(2): 688, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894291

RESUMO

Following the publication of the above paper, the authors noted that the third author affiliation was presented incorrectly. The third author affiliation should have been written as 'Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, and Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan'. Therefore, the author and affiliation details for this paper should have been presented as follows (the changes are highlighted in bold): YI CHANg1­3*, WEN­HsIEN HsU2,4*, WEN­BIN YANg5, THANAsEKARAN JAYAKUMAR3, TZU­YIN LEE3, JOEN­RONg sHEU3, WAN­JUNg LU3,6 and JIUN­YI LI3,7. 1Department of Anesthesiology, Shin Kong Wu Ho­Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei 111; 2School of Medicine, Fu­Jen Catholic University, Xin Zhuang, New Taipei City 242; 3Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, and Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110; 4Department of Surgery, Wan­Fang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 116; 5Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115; 6Department of Medical Research and Translational Laboratory, Research Department, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei 110; 7Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Mackay Memorial Hospital, and Mackay Medical College, Taipei 104, Taiwan, R.O.C.. The authors regret that the error with the third author affiliation was not noticed prior to the publication of their paper, and apologize for any inconvenience caused. [The original article was published in International Journal of Molecular Medicine 40: 1520­1528, 2017; DOI: 10.3892/ijmm.2017.3133].

5.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 40(1): 68-74, 2020 Jan 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31930902

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of early intervention electroacupuncture (EA) at "Baihui" (GV 20), "Dazhui" (GV 14) and "Shenshu" (BL 23) on the learning-memory ability and the expression of phosphorylated Tau protein in the hippocampus of SAMP8 mice, so as to provide reference for the intervening period of EA for Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: A total of 36 3-month old SAMP8 mice were randomly divided into a model group, a 3-month-old EA group and a 9-month-old EA group, 12 mice in each group. Twelve normal SAMR1 mice with the same age were taken as the control group. The mice in the 3-month-old EA group and 9-month-old EA group were treated with EA at "Baihui" (GV 20), "Dazhui" (GV 14) and "Shenshu" (BL 23) separately 3 months old and 9 months old (continuous wave, 2 Hz, 1.5-2 mA), 20 min each time, once a day, 8 days as a course of treatment, with an interval of 2 days between courses, totally 3 courses of treatment were given. The mice sample in each group was collected at the age of 10 months after the learning-memory ability tested by Morris water maze. The expression of phosphorylated Tau protein in the hippocampus was detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot, and the expression of Tau mRNA was detected by real-time PCR. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, in the model group, the escape latency was significantly increased (P<0.01), the time of stay in the original platform quadrant and the number of crossing the platform quadrant were reduced (P<0.01), and the expressions of phosphorylated Tau protein and Tau mRNA in hippocampus were increased (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, in the 3-month-old EA group and 9-month-old EA group, the escape latency was significantly reduced (P<0.05), the time of stay in the original platform quadrant and the number of crossing the platform quadrant were increased (P<0.05), and the expressions of phosphorylated Tau protein and Tau mRNA in hippocampus were reduced (P<0.05). Compared with the 9-month-old EA group, in the 3-month-old EA group, the escape latency was significantly reduced (P<0.05), the time of stay in the original platform quadrant and the number of crossing the platform quadrant were increased (P<0.05), and the expressions of phosphorylated Tau protein and Tau mRNA were reduced (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: The early EA intervention could more effectively improve the learning-memory ability and inhibit phosphorylation of Tau protein in the hippocampus of SAMP8 mice.

6.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 10, 2020 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918764

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The urinary proteome reflects molecular drivers of disease. OBJECTIVES: To construct a urinary proteomic biomarker predicting 1-year post-ICU mortality. METHODS: In 1243 patients, the urinary proteome was measured on ICU admission, using capillary electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry along with clinical variables, circulating biomarkers (BNP, hsTnT, active ADM, and NGAL), and urinary albumin. Methods included support vector modeling to construct the classifier, Cox regression, the integrated discrimination (IDI), and net reclassification (NRI) improvement, and area under the curve (AUC) to assess predictive accuracy, and Proteasix and protein-proteome interactome analyses. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: In the discovery (deaths/survivors, 70/299) and test (175/699) datasets, the new classifier ACM128, mainly consisting of collagen fragments, yielding AUCs of 0.755 (95% CI, 0.708-0.798) and 0.688 (0.656-0.719), respectively. While accounting for study site and clinical risk factors, hazard ratios in 1243 patients were 2.41 (2.00-2.91) for ACM128 (+ 1 SD), 1.24 (1.16-1.32) for the Charlson Comorbidity Index (+ 1 point), and ≥ 1.19 (P ≤ 0.022) for other biomarkers (+ 1 SD). ACM128 improved (P ≤ 0.0001) IDI (≥ + 0.50), NRI (≥ + 53.7), and AUC (≥ + 0.037) over and beyond clinical risk indicators and other biomarkers. Interactome mapping, using parental proteins derived from sequenced peptides included in ACM128 and in silico predicted proteases, including/excluding urinary collagen fragments (63/35 peptides), revealed as top molecular pathways protein digestion and absorption, lysosomal activity, and apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS: The urinary proteomic classifier ACM128 predicts the 1-year post-ICU mortality over and beyond clinical risk factors and other biomarkers and revealed molecular pathways potentially contributing to a fatal outcome.

7.
Gene ; : 144359, 2020 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935509

RESUMO

FMRP is an RNA-binding protein, loss of which causes fragile X syndrome (FXS). FMRP has several isoforms resulted from alternative splicing (AS) of fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene, but their biological functions are still poorly understood. In the analysis of alternatively spliced FMR1 transcripts in the blood cells from a patient with FXS-like phenotypes (normal CGG repeats and no mutation in coding sequence of FMR1), we identified three novel FMR1 transcripts that include a previously unidentified microexon (46 bp), terming the exon 9a. This microexon exists widely in unaffected individuals, inclusion of which introduces an in-frame termination codon. To address whether these exon 9a-containing transcripts could produce protein by evading nonsense-mediated decay (NMD), Western blot was used to analysis blood cell lysate from unaffected individuals and a 34 kDa protein that consistent in size with the molecular weight of the predicted truncated protein produced from mRNA with this microexon was found. Meanwhile, treatment of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with an inhibitor of NMD (Cycloheximide) did not result in significant increase in exon 9a-containing transcripts. Using confocal immunofluorescence, we found the truncated protein displayed both nuclear and cytoplasmic localization in HEK293T and HeLa cells due to lacking C-terminal domains including KH2, NES, and RGG, while the full-length FMRP protein mainly localized in the cytoplasm. Therefore, we hypothesize that the inclusion of this microexon to generate exon 9a-containing transcripts may regulate the normal functionality of FMRP, and the dysregulation of normal FMRP due to increased exon 9a-containing alternatively spliced transcripts in that patient may be associated with the manifestation of FXS phenotype.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907538

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify major mineral and hormonal factors related to BMD in adult TM patients to provide human evidence for the proposed mechanisms. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Referral center. PATIENTS: Twenty-nine patients with ß-TM, aged 23-44 years, who were followed-up during 2017 to 2018 were enrolled. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Endocrine profiles, including thyroid, parathyroid, and pituitary function, glucose, vitamin D, calcium, phosphate, and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) were obtained. The relationships among the above parameters, body height, fractures, and BMD were analyzed. RESULTS: Abnormal BMD was observed in 42.9% of women and 23.1% of men. The mean final heights of women and men were 3.7 cm and 7.3 cm lower than the mean expected values, respectively. Fracture history was recorded in 26.7% of women and 35.7% of men. BMD was negatively correlated with parathyroid hormone, FGF23, thyrotropin, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, and positively correlated with testosterone, IGF-1, and corticotropin levels (all p<0.05). Moreover, hypothyroidism was associated with lower BMD in both the lumbar spine (p=0.024) and the femoral neck (p=0.004). Patients with hypothyroidism had a higher percentage of abnormal BMD (p=0.016). CONCLUSION: Hypothyroidism, higher HbA1c, and lower ACTH were predictors of abnormal BMD in patients with ß-TM. Whether the correction of these factors improves BMD warrants further research.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937118

RESUMO

Background - Asymptomatic cerebral emboli (ACE) are commonly seen on cerebral MRI after atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation, but the incidence in previous studies varies widely. No data exists to compare the effects of different diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) settings on detecting ablation-related ACE. This self-control study sought to compare the incidence and characteristics of ablation-related ACE between high-resolution DWI (hDWI) and conventional DWI (cDWI). Methods - A total of 55 consecutive patients referred for AF ablation between December 2017 and September 2018 were enrolled. Patients underwent hDWI one day prior to ablation and repeated hDWI and cDWI within 48 hours post-ablation. The incidence, number, size, and location of ACE were compared between two DWI settings in the same patients. Results The hDWI revealed a higher incidence of acute ACE compared to cDWI (67.3% vs. 41.8% of patients, P <0.001) and significantly more ACE (106 vs. 45 lesions, P = 0.001). For ACE seen on both scans, the size measured by hDWI was larger (5.42 vs. 4.21 mm, P <0.001). No patients had any impaired neurocognitive performance during follow-up. Impaired left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (P = 0.012) and low intraoperative activated clotting time (ACT) (P = 0.009) level were associated with the occurrence of ACE in a multivariate analysis. Conclusions - High-resolution DWI revealed a higher incidence and greater details of post-ablation ACE in AF patients. MRI settings significantly impact the detection of ACE and should be considered when comparing incidence rates of ACE amongst different studies. Clinical Trial Registration - ClinicalTrials.gov; Unique Identifier: NCT01761188.

10.
Environ Pollut ; 259: 113899, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927276

RESUMO

Straw amendment and plant root exudates modify the quality and quantities of soil dissolved organic matter (DOM) and then manipulate the fractions of soil selenium (Se) and its bioavailability. Two typical soils with distinct pH were selected to investigate the effect of different contributors on DOM-Se in soil. The mechanisms relying on the variation in DOM characteristics (quality, quantity and composition) were explored by UV-Vis, ATR-FTIR and 3D-EEM. Straw amendment significantly (p < 0.05) suppressed the selenate bioavailability. The reduction in wheat Se content was greater in krasnozems than in Lou soil, as more HA fraction appeared in krasnozems. The root exudates of wheat mainly elevated the low molecular hydrophilic compounds (Hy) in soil, which contributed to the SOL-Hy-Se fractions and thus grain Se in soils (p < 0.01). However, straw amendment promoted DOM transforming from small molecules (Hy and FA) to aromatic large molecules (HA), when accompanied with the reduction and retention of Se associated with these molecules. As a result, selenium bioavailability and toxicity reduced with DOM amendment and DOM-Se transformation.

11.
Org Lett ; 22(1): 249-252, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840516

RESUMO

An efficient organocatalytic enantioselective synthesis of chiral 1,4-benzodioxepines is described. By proper incorporation of an intramolecular oxetane desymmetrization process, a range of benzylic alcohols bearing an internal oxetane reacted in the presence of a suitable chiral phosphoric acid catalyst to form chiral 1,4-benzodioxepines with high enantioselectivity. This process provides a new catalytic asymmetric example of direct synthesis of seven-membered heterocycles with good stereocontrol.

12.
Toxicol Lett ; 318: 57-64, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585160

RESUMO

3-Bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) is a promising agent that has been widely studied in the treatment of cancer and pulmonary hypertension. Rotenone is a pesticide commonly used on farms and was shown to have anti-cancer activity and delay fibrosis progression in chronic kidney disease in a recent study. However, there are few studies showing the toxicity of rotenone and 3-BrPA in the myocardium. To support further medical exploration, it is necessary to clarify the side effects of these compounds on the heart. This study was designed to examine the cardiotoxicity of 3-BrPA and rotenone by investigating electrical and structural cardiac remodeling in rats. Forty male rats were divided into 4 groups (n = 10 in each group) and injected intraperitoneally with 3-BrPA, rotenone or a combination of 3-BrPA and rotenone. The ventricular effective refractory period (VERP), corrected QT interval (QTc), and ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation (VT/VF) inducibility were measured. The expression of Cx43, Kir2.1, Kir6.2, DHPRα1, KCNH2, caspase3, caspase9, Bax, Bcl2, and P53 was detected. Masson's trichrome, TUNEL, HE, and PAS staining and transmission electron microscopy were used to detect pathological and ultrastructural changes. Our results showed that rotenone alone and rotenone combined with 3-BrPA significantly increased the risk of ventricular arrhythmias. Rotenone combined with 3-BrPA caused myocardial apoptosis, and rotenone alone and rotenone combined with 3-BrPA caused electrical and structural cardiac remodeling in rats.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Ventrículos do Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Piruvatos/toxicidade , Rotenona/toxicidade , Taquicardia Ventricular/induzido quimicamente , Fibrilação Ventricular/induzido quimicamente , Remodelação Ventricular/efeitos dos fármacos , Potenciais de Ação/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Cardiotoxicidade , Conexina 43/genética , Conexina 43/metabolismo , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Ventrículos do Coração/metabolismo , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Ventrículos do Coração/ultraestrutura , Masculino , Canais de Potássio Corretores do Fluxo de Internalização/genética , Canais de Potássio Corretores do Fluxo de Internalização/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Período Refratário Eletrofisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Medição de Risco , Taquicardia Ventricular/metabolismo , Taquicardia Ventricular/patologia , Taquicardia Ventricular/fisiopatologia , Fibrilação Ventricular/metabolismo , Fibrilação Ventricular/patologia , Fibrilação Ventricular/fisiopatologia
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809020

RESUMO

Performance declination of nanofiltration (NF) membranes caused by concentration polarization (CP) and membrane fouling has severely restricted their practical application in many fields. This work reports the construction of a novel interlayer between the substrate and the selective layer of conventional composite membranes by coordinating regulation of carbon quantum dots (CQDs) and polydopamine (PDA). Unlike traditional methods that treat CP and fouling separately, the new strategy grants the membrane with dual functions at one time. First, the insertion of the PDA-CQDs layer reformulates the interfacial polymerization process that reduces the solute transport resistance and mitigates the CP issue. Second, the sandwiched photo active CQDs can degrade organic molecules adsorbed on the membrane surface under visible light, which is promising for low-cost fouling remediation. This study may offer valuable insights into the preparation of durable self-cleaning NF membranes for the effective treatment of complex wastewater in various industries.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784225

RESUMO

Multicolor emissive carbon dots (CDs) have potential applications in many fields such as photoelectric display, light-emitting devices, and bioimaging. Such CDs by heteroatom doping of nitrogen elements assisted with various solvents has achieved recently, yet generally low efficiency in red-light region. Herein, we developed a facile route to synthesize multicolor-emissive CDs governed by a solvothermal method of tetrahydrofuran solvent. The maximum emission locates at 432, 510, and 584 nm with the absolute FL QYs up to 21.1%, 11.0%, and 55.4% for selected B-CDs, G-CDs, and YG-CDs, respectively. By means of the analysis on their PL spectra, fluorescence lifetimes, and microstructures, the different graphitic degrees and surface states formed under the participation of S and N elements in as-prepared CDs determine the fluorescent color, and large sp2-conjugated domains within the YR-CDs is closely related to high QY. They, likewise, endow the YR-CDs with high sensitivity for ion detections of Ag+ and Fe3+, which was further illustrated to have different quenching mechanisms each other due to the affinity interaction with different surface groups of the CDs. High PL QYs of these CDs emission are beneficial to application in solid lighting, phosphors dried by these CDs solutions were mixed with PVP water solution to fabricate CDs/PVP films. The films exhibited stable fluorescence, and three phosphors were also mixed together in proportion to obtain white-light film with a CIE coordinates of (0.34, 0.34), which demonstrates that these CDs are potentially fluorescent nanomaterial in the solid-state lighting field.

15.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 17893, 2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784540

RESUMO

Croup is the leading infectious disease resulting in pediatric upper airway obstruction. Our purpose is to analyze diverse features of neck radiographs could be seen as an objective tool to predict outcomes in patients with croup. One hundred and ninety-two patients were prospectively recruited in pediatric emergency department with diagnosis of croup. The initial Westley score (WS), presence of steeple sign, extent of narrowing, and narrowing ratio on soft tissue neck radiographs were determined before and after treatments. The extent of frontal narrowing, extent of lateral narrowing, frontal ratio (FR), and lateral ratio (LR) were investigated to predict clinical outcomes in patients with croup. The extent of frontal/lateral narrowing and LR had significant correlation with outpatient status. Almost 71% of patients with FR values below 0.23 stayed in the hospital longer, whereas nearly 98% of patients with FR vales above 0.65 could be discharged. About 85% of patients with LR below 0.45 hospitalized longer. The LR and FR were significantly correlated with the severity and admission rate in croup. The LR > 0.6 and FR > 0.65 may indicate low risk in patients with croup, whereas the FR < 0.23 or LR < 0.45 may indicate the need of stay in hospital for further treatment and monitor.

16.
Eur J Cell Biol ; : 151057, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810635

RESUMO

Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), also named as complex II or succinate:quinone oxidoreductases (SQR) is a critical enzyme in bioenergetics and metabolism. This is because the enzyme is located at the intersection of oxidative phosphorylation and tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA); the two major pathways involved in generating energy within cells. SDH is composed of 4 subunits and is assembled through a multi-step process with the aid of assembly factors. Not surprisingly malfunction of this enzyme has marked repercussions in metabolism leading to devastating tumors such as paraganglioma and pheochromocytoma. It is already known that mutations in the genes encoding subunits lead to tumorigenesis, but recent discoveries have indicated that mutations in the genes encoding the assembly factors also contribute to tumorigenesis. The mechanisms of pathogenesis of tumorigenesis have not been fully understood. However, a multitude of signaling pathways including succinate signaling was determined. We, here discuss how defective SDH may lead to tumor development at the molecular level and describe how yeast, as a model system, has contributed to understanding the molecular pathogenesis of tumorigenesis resulting from defective SDH.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813546

RESUMO

Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) induces cancer metastasis. We previously demonstrated that HIF-1α-induced membrane-type 4 matrix metalloproteinase (MT4-MMP) is involved in hypoxia-mediated metastasis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). However, the functions and detailed mechanisms of MT4-MMP in cancer metastasis are not well understood. In this study, we investigated whether MT4-MMP regulates invadopodia formation or individual cell movement-both critical to cancer migration and invasion-in three-dimensional (3D) environments. By expressing MT4-MMP in the HNSCC cell line FaDu, we demonstrated that MT4-MMP increases invadopodia formation and gelatin degradation. Furthermore, the amoeboid-like cell movement on collagen gel was increased by MT4-MMP expression in FaDu cells. Mechanistically, MT4-MMP may induce invadopodia formation by binding with Tks5 and PDGFRα to result in Src activation and promote amoeboid-like movement by stimulating the small GTPases Rho and Cdc42. Altogether, our data indicate that MT4-MMP induces two crucial mechanisms of cancer dissemination, invadopodia formation and amoeboid movement, and elucidate the prometastatic role of MT4-MMP in hypoxia-mediated cancer metastasis.

18.
Microsyst Nanoeng ; 5: 63, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814994

RESUMO

Changes in the deformability of red blood cells can reveal a range of pathologies. For example, cells which have been stored for transfusion are known to exhibit progressively impaired deformability. Thus, this aspect of red blood cells has been characterized previously using a range of techniques. In this paper, we show a novel approach for examining the biophysical response of the cells with quantitative phase imaging. Specifically, optical volume changes are observed as the cells transit restrictive channels of a microfluidic chip in a high refractive index medium. The optical volume changes indicate an increase of cell's internal density, ostensibly due to water displacement. Here, we characterize these changes over time for red blood cells from two subjects. By storage day 29, a significant decrease in the magnitude of optical volume change in response to mechanical stress was witnessed. The exchange of water with the environment due to mechanical stress is seen to modulate with storage time, suggesting a potential means for studying cell storage.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817631

RESUMO

Taiwan and a few Asian societies have had among the lowest fertility rates in the world for the past decade. Understanding the reasons behind the low fertility and designing policies accordingly to improve fertility has been a priority of governments in the region. It what follows we examine the low fertility rate in Taiwan by studying the trend of actual fertility rate and desired fertility rate in Taiwan using an age-period-cohort (APC) model. Using the Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice (KAP) of contraception survey data between 1973 and 2004, we applied APC analyses on the actual fertility rate and desired fertility rate of married women. We found that youngest cohorts (the mid-cohort year 1983) had 10% higher actual fertility and 15% higher desired fertility compared to those who were born in 1959-1965, respectively. Additionally, we attributed current lowest-low fertility (at or below 1.3) to late marriages. There is a lag between the actual and desired fertility rates in KAP survey due to tempo effect. Furthermore, the trends of the cohort effects of both fertility rates in KAP surveys are reversing in Taiwan. Consequently, increase total fertility rate (TFR) should encourage marriage among the marriageable population and reward married and childbearing households.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783493

RESUMO

The extensive use of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) leads to a continuous increase of their presence in urban wastewater. These pollutants are discharged into natural waters and pose a threat to human health and the ecological environment. This study focused on five sewage treatment plants in three cities of China's Yangtze River Delta as research sites to study the distribution and degradation of drugs and their conversion products in wastewater. The concentration of target compounds in the water ranged from 0 to 510.8 ng/L, and both positive and negative removal rates occurred during the treatment. Acetaminophen (ACE) and ibuprofen (IPF) can be completely removed in the biological treatment stage. The addition of flocculants and sand filtration has a positive effect on the removal of naproxen (NPX) and bezafibrate (BZB). Ultraviolet disinfection is beneficial for the removal of antipyrine (ATP) and diclofenac (DCF). A small amount of PPCPs were found in the sludge and particulate matter, which had little effect on removal. Finally, the risk quotients were used to evaluate the harmfulness of the PPCPs detected in the effluent to the ecological environment, and the results showed that there was little hazard.

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