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1.
Endocr Connect ; 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596577

RESUMO

The adverse effects of hypercortisolism on the human brain have been highlighted in previous studies of Cushing's disease (CD). However, the relative alterations in regional hypercortisolism in the brain remain unclear. Thus, we investigated regional volumetric alterations in CD patients. We also analyzed the associations between these volumetric changes and clinical characteristics. The study participants comprised of active CD (n = 60), short-term-remitted CD (n = 28), and long-term-remitted CD (n = 32) patients as well as healthy control subjects (n = 66). Gray matter volumes (GMVs) were measured via voxel-based morphometry. The GMVs of substructures were defined using the automated anatomical labeling (AAL) atlas. Trends for partial reversibility of GMVs were found in 87 brain substructures of CD patients. However, significantly different trends, including enlarged, irreversible, and unburden trends, were observed in the rest of the brain substructures. Trends toward normalization in GMV were found in most brain substructures of CD patients. Different trends, including enlarged, irreversible, and unburden GMVs, were observed in the other subregions, such as the amygdala, thalamus, and caudate. Morphological changes in GMVs after the resolution of hypercortisolism are a complex phenomenon; the characteristics of these changes significantly differ within the brain substructures.

2.
Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol ; 251: 109197, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601086

RESUMO

The insects have different physiological and morphological characteristics in various developmental stages. The difference in the characteristics may be related to the different sensitivity of insects to insecticides. In avermectin resistant strain screening assay, we found that the Drosophila larvae displayed a higher sensitivity to the insecticidal effect of avermectin, compared with adults. In this study, we found that the Drosophila larvae have relatively thicker chitin layer, faster avermectin metabolism and lower P-glycoprotein (P-gp) level, when compared with the adults. Besides, the expression levels of the molecular targets of avermectin, glutamate-gated chloride channel and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-gated chloride channel, are lower in the larval stage than the adult. These results suggested that lower P-gp level in the body especially in brain may be the major reason for the higher sensitivity of Drosophila larvae to the insecticide. In summary, these results shed new light on the concept that different developmental stages of insects display different sensitivity to the same insecticide, which also provided a physiological explanation of the relevant mechanism of the difference of sensitivity of insect at its larval and adult stages to insecticide.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Syphilis is a chronic infectious disease caused by Treponema pallidum (Tp) infection, which causes local inflammation in the host. TpF1 is an oligomeric protein expressed by the Tp-infected host that can induce the host immune response. There are few studies regarding the role of TpF1 in macrophage activation and the subsequent release of cytokines. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the effects of TpF1 on the pathological process of Syphilis. In addition, we explored how purinergic 2X7 (P2X7R) induced NOD-like receptor family protein 3 (NLRP3) -dependent release of interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) and the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: We explored the influence of TpF1 on cytokine release by macrophages using qRT-PCR and ELISA. The specific phenotype of activated macrophages was determined by flow cytometry. RESULTS: TpF1 was able to activate macrophages and induce the M1 macrophage phenotype. Moreover, TpF1 activated the NLRP3 inflammasome in macrophages, which was mediated by P2X7R. CONCLUSIONS: The Tp-induced protein TpF1 is able to induce macrophage activation and P2X7R-induced NLRP3-dependent release of IL-1ß. Our findings provide a theoretical basis for clarifying the clinical symptoms and pathogenesis of syphilis.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613910

RESUMO

In the past decade, object detection has achieved significant progress in natural images but not in aerial images, due to the massive variations in the scale and orientation of objects caused by the bird's-eye view of aerial images. More importantly, the lack of large-scale benchmarks has become a major obstacle to the development of object detection in aerial images (ODAI). In this paper, we present a large-scale Dataset of Object deTection in Aerial images (DOTA) and comprehensive baselines for ODAI. The proposed DOTA dataset contains 1,793,658 object instances of 18 categories of oriented-bounding-box annotations collected from 11,268 aerial images. Based on this large-scale and well-annotated dataset, we build baselines covering 10 state-of-the-art algorithms with over 70 configurations, where the speed and accuracy performances of each model have been evaluated. Furthermore, we provide a code library for ODAI and build a website for evaluating different algorithms. Previous challenges run on DOTA have attracted more than 1300 teams worldwide. We believe that the expanded large-scale DOTA dataset, the extensive baselines, the code library and the challenges can facilitate the designs of robust algorithms and reproducible research on the problem of object detection in aerial images.

8.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 608(Pt 1): 90-102, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626999

RESUMO

Defect engineering through induction of dislocations is an efficient strategy to design and develop an electrode material with enhanced electrochemical performance in energy storage technology. Yet, synthesis, comprehension, identification, and effect of dislocation in electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are still elusive. Herein, we propose an ethanol-thermal method mediated with surfactant-template and subsequent annealing under air atmosphere to induce dislocation into titanium niobium oxide (Ti2Nb14O39), resultant nanoscale-dislocated-Ti2Nb14O39 (Nano-dl-TNO). High-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), fast Fourier transform (FFT), and Geometrical phase analysis (GPA) denote that the high dislocation density engraved with stacking faults forms into the Ti2Nb14O39 lattice. The presence of dislocation could offer an additional active site for lithium-ion storage and tune the electrical and ionic properties of the Ti2Nb14O39. The resultant Nano-dl-TNO delivers superior rate capability, high specific capacity, better cycling stability, and making Ti2Nb14O39 a suitable candidate among fast-charging anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Moreover, In-situ High-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and Geometrical phase analysis (GPA) evinces that the removal of the dislocated area in the Nano-dl-TNO leads to the contraction of the lattice, alleviation of the total volume expansion, causing the symmetrization and preserves structural stability. The present findings and designed approach reveal the rose-colored perspective of dislocation engineering into mixed transition metal oxides as next-generation anodes for advanced lithium-ion batteries and all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries.

9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638650

RESUMO

Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced vascular endothelial cell apoptosis is strongly associated with atherosclerosis progression. Herein, we aimed to examine whether Kansuinine A (KA), extracted from Euphorbia kansui L., prevents atherosclerosis development in a mouse model and inhibits cell apoptosis through oxidative stress reduction. Atherosclerosis development was analyzed in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) using Oil Red O staining and H&E staining. Human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) were treated with KA, followed by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), to investigate the KA-mediated inhibition of ROS-induced oxidative stress and cell apoptosis. Oil Red O staining and H&E staining showed that atherosclerotic lesion size was significantly smaller in the aortic arch of ApoE-/- mice in the HFD+KA group than that in the aortic arch of those in the HFD group. Further, KA (0.1-1.0 µM) blocked the H2O2-induced death of HAECs and ROS generation. The H2O2-mediated upregulation of phosphorylated IKKß, phosphorylated IκBα, and phosphorylated NF-κB was suppressed by KA. KA also reduced the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and cleaved caspase-3 expression, preventing H2O2-induced vascular endothelial cell apoptosis. Our results indicate that KA may protect against ROS-induced endothelial cell apoptosis and has considerable clinical potential in the prevention of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases.

10.
Clin Nurs Res ; : 10547738211051881, 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628980

RESUMO

To evaluate the current situation and associated factors of informational support for older adults with chronic diseases in transitional care. Study was conducted in five hospitals of five different cities in Jiangsu Province, China. A random cluster sample of 800 older adults with chronic diseases responded to the informational support questionnaire of transitional care survey. Descriptive analysis, t-tests, variance analysis, and stepwise multiple linear regression were used to analyze data. The STROBE statement for observational studies was applied. Total score of ISQTC for older adults with chronic diseases was (44.05 ± 17.21). Marital status, educational level, past occupation, close friends, medical insurance, complications, and exercise habits were significantly correlated with informational support. The level of informational support in transitional care for older adults with chronic diseases was low. Clinical staff should periodically and primarily assess their informational support, help find information resources for those who have low initial informational support, and identify which information they preferred to carry out accurate transitional care.

11.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641374

RESUMO

This paper reports the influence of submicron hydrophilic fibers on the hydration and microstructure of Portland cement paste. Submicron fibrillated cellulose (SMC) fibers was prepared by the acid hydrolysis of cotton fibers in H2SO4 solution (55% v/v) for 1.5 h at a temperature of 50 °C. The SMC fibers were added into cement with a dosage of 0.03 wt.%, and the effect of SMC on the hydration and microstructure of cement paste was investigated by calorimeter analysis, XRD, FT-IR, DSC-TG, and SEM. Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) fibers were used as the contrast admixture with the same dosage in this study. The results show that the addition of SMC fibers can accelerate the cement hydration rate during the first 20 h of the hydration process and improve the hydration process of cement paste in later stages. These results are because the scale of SMC fibers more closely matches the size of the C-S-H gel compared to MCC fibers, given that the primary role of the SMC is to provide potential heterogeneous nucleation sites for the hydration products, which is conducive to an accelerated and continuous hydration reaction. Furthermore, the induction and bridging effects of the SMC fibers make the cement paste microstructure more homogeneous and compact.

12.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 43(4): 590-594, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494531

RESUMO

Objective To investigate the oral health status and awareness of urban children in Lhasa,aiming to provide a data basis for the prevention and treatment of children's caries and the promotion of oral health education. Methods A total of 504 Tibetan students were selected by cluster sampling from 2 primary schools in Chengguan District of Lhasa.All the participants were required to take oral health examination and complete a questionnaire about oral health awareness and behavior. Results The caries prevalence rate and mean decayed-missing-filled tooth(DMFT)of permanent teeth were 75.00% and 2.18±1.91,respectively.The rates of pit and fissure sealant and filling of permanent teeth were 3.77% and 6.81%,respectively.The caries prevalence rate of first permanent molars was 47.62%.The mean DMFT of permanent teeth and caries prevalence rate of first permanent molar were significantly higher in female group(P=0.001 and P=0.007,respectively).The prevalence rate of dental fluorosis was 61.51%,and the detection rate of dental calculus was 71.83%.Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that prevalence of caries was influenced by many independent factors including gender,oral health awareness,intention of dental intervention,and dental experience. Conclusion High caries prevalence rate,low filling rate,and poor oral hygiene and health awareness were found among the primary school students in Lhasa,which require continuous dentistry investment and oral health education for the local students and their parents.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Saúde Bucal , Criança , Índice CPO , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Higiene Bucal , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Am J Hypertens ; 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505630

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To address to what extent central hemodynamic measurements, improve risk stratification, and determine outcome-based diagnostic thresholds, we constructed the International Database of Central Arterial Properties for Risk Stratification (IDCARS), allowing a participant-level meta-analysis. The purpose of this article was to describe the characteristics of IDCARS participants and to highlight research perspectives. METHODS: Longitudinal or cross-sectional cohort studies with central blood pressure measured with the SphygmoCor devices and software were included. RESULTS: The database included 10930 subjects (54.8% women; median age 46.0 years) from thirteen studies in Europe, Africa, Asia and South America. The prevalence of office hypertension was 4446 (40.1%), of which 2713 (61.0%) were treated, and of diabetes mellitus was 629 (5.8%). The peripheral and central systolic/diastolic blood pressure averaged 129.5/78.7 mm Hg and 118.2/79.7 mm Hg, respectively. Mean aortic pulse wave velocity was 7.3 meter per seconds. Among 6871 participants enrolled in 9 longitudinal studies, the median follow-up was 4.2 years (5th-95th percentile interval, 1.3-12.2 years). During 38957 person-years of follow-up, 339 participants experienced a composite cardiovascular event and 212 died, 67 of cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS: IDCARS will provide a unique opportunity to investigate hypotheses on central hemodynamic measurements that could not reliably be studied in individual studies. The results of these analyses might inform guidelines and be of help to clinicians involved in the management of patients with suspected or established hypertension.

14.
Cancer Nurs ; 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34483287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Compression therapy is a common method for treating breast cancer-related lymphedema. However, no specific evidence exists to guide practitioners on the morbidity of lymphedema, limb volume, and range of motion. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to compare the effects of compression therapy and routine nursing during the treatment of breast cancer-related lymphedema and to provide a basis for better clinical decision-making. METHODS: The PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Web of Science, CBM, CNKI, Wanfang, and VIP databases were searched through January 21, 2021. Meta-analysis and description of the outcomes were performed by using the RevMan 5.3 software. RESULTS: A total of 17 studies were included. A meta-analysis of 13 studies was conducted. The experimental group had a lower morbidity of lymphedema, the difference was significant, and there was no heterogeneity (P < .05; odds ratio, 0.35, I2 = 31%). There was no significant difference between the experimental group and control group in limb volume, and there was significant heterogeneity (P = .44, mean difference = 4.51, I2 = 85%). Regarding range of motion, the standardized mean difference of shoulder adduction, shoulder lift, shoulder abduction, and shoulder extension were 1.37, 0.69, 0.56, and 0.87, respectively, and the differences were significant; there was heterogeneity (P < .05, I2 = 92%). CONCLUSIONS: Compression therapy can reduce the morbidity of lymphedema and improve limb movement, but the effect on limb volume needs to be further explored. IMPLICATION FOR PRACTICE: In terms of therapeutic effectiveness and limb function, the results provide evidence that physicians can reduce the morbidity of lymphedema, reduce the degree of limb, and increase limb mobility by applying compression therapy.

15.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5473959, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34485514

RESUMO

Background: The hypercoagulable status, which forms a vicious cycle with hematogenous metastasis, is a common systemic alteration in cancers. As modeling is a key approach in research, a model which is suitable for studying how the hypercoagulable status promotes hematogenous metastasis in breast cancer is urgently needed. Methods: Based on the tumor-bearing period (TBP) and postoperative incubation period (PIP), 4T1-breast cancer models were constructed to evaluate coagulation and tumor burden to generate multiple linear regression-based lung metastasis prediction formula. Platelets and 4T1 cells were cocultured for 30 min or 24 h in vitro to evaluate the early and late phases of their crosstalk, and then the physical characteristics (concentration and size) and procoagulant activity of the coculture supernatants were assayed. Results: The multiple linear regression model was constructed as log10 (photon number) = 0.147 TBP + 0.14 PIP + 3.303 (TBP ≤ 25 and PIP ≤ 17) to predict lung metastasis. Coculture of platelets and 4T1 cells contributed to the release of extracellular vesicles (EVs) and the development of the hypercoagulable status. Conclusions: In vivo and in vitro hypercoagulable status models were developed to explore the mechanism of hypercoagulable status which is characterized by platelet activation and promotes hematogenous metastasis in breast cancer.

16.
Oncogene ; 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489551

RESUMO

The leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 6 (LGR6) is considered to be a stem cell marker in many normal tissues and promotes tissue development, regeneration, and repair. LGR6 is also related to the initiation and progression of some malignant tumors. However, the role of LGR6 in cervical cancer has not been reported. Here, immunohistochemistry and western blotting showed that LGR6 was significantly upregulated in cervical cancer, compared with the normal cervix. By analyzing The Cancer Genome Atlas database, LGR6 was found to be correlated with a poor prognosis of cervical cancer. Then, a small population of LGR6high cells isolated by using the fluorescence-activated cell sorting exhibited enhanced properties of cancer stem cells including self-renewal, differentiation, and tumorigenicity. Moreover, RNA sequencing revealed that LGR6 was correlated with the Wnt signaling pathway and TOP/FOP, reverse transcription-PCR, and western blotting further proved that LGR6 could activate the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway. Interestingly, LGR6 upregulated the expression of TCF7L2 by activating the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway. Then, TCF7L2 combining with ß-catenin in the nucleus enhanced LGR6 transcription by binding the promoter of LGR6, which further activated the Wnt signaling to form a positive feedback loop. Thus, our study demonstrated that LGR6 activated a novel ß-catenin/TCF7L2/LGR6-positive feedback loop in LGR6high cervical cancer stem cells (CSCs), which provided a new therapeutic strategy for targeting cervical CSCs to improve the prognosis of cervical cancer patients.

18.
Strahlenther Onkol ; 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34476531

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Development of a safe and effective systemic chemotherapeutic agent for concurrent administration with definitive thoracic radiotherapy remains a major goal of lung cancer management. The synergistic effect of PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin and irradiation was evaluated in lung cancer cell lines both in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: In vitro radiosensitization of A549 and LLC cell lines was evaluated by colony formation assay, γH2AX fluorescent staining and western blot assay, and annexin V staining. A radiosensitization study with healthy human lung-derived cell line BEAS-2B was performed for comparative purposes. In vivo radiosensitization was evaluated by tumor ectopic growth, cell survival, pharmacokinetics, and biodistribution analyses. Cleaved caspase­3, the marker for apoptosis, was assessed immunohistochemically in A549 xenograft tumors. RESULTS: Treatment with PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin decreased A549 and LLC cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. In vitro studies revealed comparable radiosensitizer advantages of PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin and free doxorubicin, showing equivalent DNA double-strand breaks according to γH2AX fluorescent staining and western blot assays, similar numbers of apoptotic cells in the annexin­V staining assay, and moderately decreased clonogenic survival. In vivo studies demonstrated markedly slow ectopic tumor growth with prolonged survival following treatment with PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin plus irradiation in both A549 and LLC mouse models, suggesting that PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin is more effective as a radiosensitizer than free doxorubicin in vivo. Pharmacokinetics evaluation showed a longer half-life of approximately 40 h for PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin, confirming that the liposomal carrier achieved controlled release. Biodistribution evaluation of PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin confirmed high accumulation of doxorubicin in tumors, indicating the promising drug delivery attributes of PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin. Although free doxorubicin caused histopathologic myocarditis with the cardiac muscle fibers showing varying degrees of damage, PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin caused no such effects. The immunohistochemical expression of cleaved caspase-3-positive cells was greatest expressed in the irradiation and PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin combined treatment group, indicating prolonged tumoricidal effects. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides preclinical in vitro and in vivo evidence of the effectiveness of PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin as a radiosensitizer, supporting its potential clinical development as a component of chemoradiotherapy.

19.
J Food Sci ; 86(10): 4704-4716, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494660

RESUMO

Epidemiologic and preclinical studieshave shown that marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) elicit promising chemoprevention against breast cancer. Docosahexaenoic acid monoglyceride (MAG-DHA), a docosahexaenoic acid sn-1-monoacylglycerol does not required pancreatic lipase to be absorbed, eliciting a better bioavailability when compared with other formulations such as DHA-free fatty acid, DHA-triglycerol, or DHA-ethyl ester. However, the anticancer actions and underlying mechanisms of MAG-DHA on breast cancer remain to be assessed. In this study, MAG-DHA induced significant growth inhibition in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. MAG-DHA treatment (80 µM) led to 83.8 and 94.3% growth inhibition between MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, respectively. MAG-DHA-induced growth inhibition was tightly associated with apoptosis, as evidenced by increased active forms of caspase-3, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and caspase-12. In particular, MAG-DHA-induced apoptosis was triggered by oxidative stress-mediated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, as evidenced by activation of the PERK-eIF2α pathway in ER. MAG-DHA treatment also strongly suppressed the growth of E0771 murine breast cancer xenografts, significant differences of tumor volume were found between MAG-DHA group (0.271 cm3 ) and control group (0.875 cm3 ) after 15 daily MAG-DHA treatments. The in vitro antibreast cancer mechanism of MAG-DHA was supported by the in vivo xenograft model. In addition, MAG-DHA-induced ER stress concomitantly triggered autophagy in these cancer cells, and the induction of autophagy suppressed its ability to induce apoptotic cell death. Our data suggested that MAG-DHA as dietary supplement, in combination with autophagy inhibitors may be a useful therapeutic strategy in treating breast cancer.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Autofagia , Neoplasias da Mama , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Monoglicerídeos , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Células MCF-7 , Camundongos , Monoglicerídeos/farmacologia
20.
Biochim Biophys Acta Gene Regul Mech ; 1864(11-12): 194751, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500082

RESUMO

Transcription factors play a key role in maintaining cell identity. One mechanism of such cell memory after multiple rounds of cell division cycles is through persistent mitotic chromosome binding, although how individual transcription factors achieve mitotic chromosome retention is not completely understood. Here we show that PAX6, a lineage-determining transcription factor, coats mitotic chromosomes. Using deletion and point mutants associated with human ocular diseases in live-cell imaging analysis, we identified two regions, MCR-D1 and MCR-D2, that were responsible for mitotic chromosome retention of PAX6. We also identified three nuclear localization signals (NLSs) that contributed to mitotic chromosome retention independent of their nuclear import functions. Full mitotic chromosome retention required the presence of DNA-binding domains as well as NLSs within MCR-Ds. Furthermore, disease-associated mutations and NLS mutations changed the distribution of intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) in PAX6. Our findings not only identify PAX6 as a novel mitotic chromosome retention factor but also demonstrate that the mechanism of mitotic chromosome retention involves sequence-specific DNA binding, NLSs, and molecular conformation determined by IDRs. These findings link mitotic chromosome retention with PAX6-related pathogenesis and imply similar mechanisms for other lineage-determining factors in the PAX family.

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