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1.
Hypertension ; : HYPERTENSIONAHA11914217, 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008462

RESUMO

Our objective was to gain insight in the calculation and interpretation of population health metrics that inform disease prevention. Using as model environmental exposure to lead (ELE), a global pollutant, we assessed population health metrics derived from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988 to 1994), the GBD (Global Burden of Disease Study 2010), and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. In the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the hazard ratio relating mortality over 19.3 years of follow-up to a blood lead increase at baseline from 1.0 to 6.7 µg/dL (10th-90th percentile interval) was 1.37 (95% CI, 1.17-1.60). The population-attributable fraction of blood lead was 18.0% (10.9%-26.1%). The number of preventable ELE-related deaths in the United States would be 412 000 per year (250 000-598 000). In GBD 2010, deaths and disability-adjusted life-years globally lost due to ELE were 0.67 million (0.58-0.78 million) and 0.56% (0.47%-0.66%), respectively. According to the 2017 Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development statistics, ELE-related welfare costs were $1 676 224 million worldwide. Extrapolations from the foregoing metrics assumed causality and reversibility of the association between mortality and blood lead, which at present-day ELE levels in developed nations is not established. Other issues limiting the interpretation of ELE-related population health metrics are the inflation of relative risk based on outdated blood lead levels, not differentiating relative from absolute risk, clustering of risk factors and exposures within individuals, residual confounding, and disregarding noncardiovascular disease and immigration in national ELE-associated welfare estimates. In conclusion, this review highlights the importance of critical thinking in translating population health metrics into cost-effective preventive strategies.

2.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 10, 2020 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918764

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The urinary proteome reflects molecular drivers of disease. OBJECTIVES: To construct a urinary proteomic biomarker predicting 1-year post-ICU mortality. METHODS: In 1243 patients, the urinary proteome was measured on ICU admission, using capillary electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry along with clinical variables, circulating biomarkers (BNP, hsTnT, active ADM, and NGAL), and urinary albumin. Methods included support vector modeling to construct the classifier, Cox regression, the integrated discrimination (IDI), and net reclassification (NRI) improvement, and area under the curve (AUC) to assess predictive accuracy, and Proteasix and protein-proteome interactome analyses. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: In the discovery (deaths/survivors, 70/299) and test (175/699) datasets, the new classifier ACM128, mainly consisting of collagen fragments, yielding AUCs of 0.755 (95% CI, 0.708-0.798) and 0.688 (0.656-0.719), respectively. While accounting for study site and clinical risk factors, hazard ratios in 1243 patients were 2.41 (2.00-2.91) for ACM128 (+ 1 SD), 1.24 (1.16-1.32) for the Charlson Comorbidity Index (+ 1 point), and ≥ 1.19 (P ≤ 0.022) for other biomarkers (+ 1 SD). ACM128 improved (P ≤ 0.0001) IDI (≥ + 0.50), NRI (≥ + 53.7), and AUC (≥ + 0.037) over and beyond clinical risk indicators and other biomarkers. Interactome mapping, using parental proteins derived from sequenced peptides included in ACM128 and in silico predicted proteases, including/excluding urinary collagen fragments (63/35 peptides), revealed as top molecular pathways protein digestion and absorption, lysosomal activity, and apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS: The urinary proteomic classifier ACM128 predicts the 1-year post-ICU mortality over and beyond clinical risk factors and other biomarkers and revealed molecular pathways potentially contributing to a fatal outcome.

3.
Blood Press ; : 1-11, 2019 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833420

RESUMO

Purpose: Arterial stiffness predicts cardiovascular complications. The association between arterial stiffness and blood lead (BL) remains poorly documented. We aimed to assess the association of central hemodynamic measurements, including pulse wave velocity (aPWV), with blood lead in a Flemish population.Materials and Methods: In this Flemish population study (mean age, 37.0 years; 48.3% women), 267 participants had their whole BL and 24-h urinary cadmium (UCd) measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry in 1985-2005. After 9.4 years (median), they underwent applanation tonometry to estimate central pulse pressure (cPP), the augmentation index (AI), pressure amplification (PA), and aPWV. The amplitudes of the forward (Pf) and backward (Pb) pulse waves and reflection index (RI) were derived by a pressure-based wave separation algorithm.Results: BL averaged 2.93 µg/dL (interquartile range, 1.80-4.70) and UCd 4.79 µg (2.91-7.85). Mean values were 45.0 ± 15.2 mm Hg for cPP, 24.4 ± 12.4% for AI, 1.34 ± 0.21 for PA, 7.65 ± 1.74 m/s for aPWV, 32.7 ± 9.9 mm Hg for Pf, 21.8 ± 8.4 mm Hg for Pb, and 66.9 ± 18.4% for RI. The multivariable-adjusted association sizes for a 2-fold higher BL were: +3.03% (95% confidence interval, 1.56, 4.50) for AI; -0.06 (-0.08, -0.04) for PA; 1.02 mm Hg (0.02, 2.02) for Pb; and 3.98% (1.71, 6.24) for RI (p ≤ .045). In 206 participants never on antihypertensive drug treatment, association sizes were +2.59 mm Hg (0.39, 4.79) for cPP and +0.26 m/s (0.03, 0.50) for aPWV. Analyses adjusted for co-exposure to cadmium were consistent.Conclusion: In conclusion, low-level environmental lead exposure possibly contributes to arterial stiffening and wave reflection from peripheral sites.

5.
Hypertension ; 74(6): 1333-1342, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630575

RESUMO

Participant-level meta-analyses assessed the age-specific relevance of office blood pressure to cardiovascular complications, but this information is lacking for out-of-office blood pressure. At baseline, daytime ambulatory (n=12 624) or home (n=5297) blood pressure were measured in 17 921 participants (51.3% women; mean age, 54.2 years) from 17 population cohorts. Subsequently, mortality and cardiovascular events were recorded. Using multivariable Cox regression, floating absolute risk was computed across 4 age bands (≤60, 61-70, 71-80, and >80 years). Over 236 491 person-years, 3855 people died and 2942 cardiovascular events occurred. From levels as low as 110/65 mm Hg, risk log-linearly increased with higher out-of-office systolic/diastolic blood pressure. From the youngest to the oldest age group, rates expressed per 1000 person-years increased (P<0.001) from 4.4 (95% CI, 4.0-4.7) to 86.3 (76.1-96.5) for all-cause mortality and from 4.1 (3.9-4.6) to 59.8 (51.0-68.7) for cardiovascular events, whereas hazard ratios per 20-mm Hg increment in systolic out-of-office blood pressure decreased (P≤0.0033) from 1.42 (1.19-1.69) to 1.09 (1.05-1.12) and from 1.70 (1.51-1.92) to 1.12 (1.07-1.17), respectively. These age-related trends were similar for out-of-office diastolic pressure and were generally consistent in both sexes and across ethnicities. In conclusion, adverse outcomes were directly associated with out-of-office blood pressure in adults. At young age, the absolute risk associated with out-of-office blood pressure was low, but relative risk high, whereas with advancing age relative risk decreased and absolute risk increased. These observations highlight the need of a lifecourse approach for the management of hypertension.

6.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 151, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665082

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Platelet-endothelial aggregation receptor 1 (PEAR-1) is a transmembrane receptor involved in platelet activation and megakaryopoiesis whose expression is driven by DNA methylation. PEAR1 variants were associated with differential platelet response to activation and cardiovascular outcomes. We aimed at investigating the link between PEAR1 methylation and platelet and leukocyte function markers in a family-based population. RESULTS: We measured PEAR1 methylation in 605 Moli-family participants with available blood counts, plasma P-selectin and C-reactive protein, whole blood platelet P-selectin, and platelet-leukocyte mixed conjugate measurements. We performed principal component analysis (PCA) to identify groups of highly correlated CpG sites. We used linear mixed regression models (using age, gender, BMI, smoking, alcohol drinking, being a proband for family recruitment, being a member of myocardial infarction (MI) family as fixed effects, and family as a random effect) to evaluate associations between PEAR1 methylation and phenotypes. PEAR1 methylation Factor2, characterized by the previously identified megakaryocyte-specific CpG sites, was inversely associated with platelet-monocyte conjugates, P-selectin, and WBC counts, while positively associated with the platelet distribution width (PDW) and with leukocyte CD11b and L-selectin. Moreover, PEAR1 Factor2 methylation was negatively associated with INFLAscore, a low-grade inflammation score. The latter was partially mediated by the PEAR1 methylation effect on platelet variables. PEAR1 methylation association with WBC measurements and INFLAscore was confirmed in the independent cohort FLEMENGHO. CONCLUSIONS: We report a significant link between epigenetic signatures in a platelet functional gene and inflammation-dependent platelet function variability measured in two independent cohorts.

7.
JAMA ; 322(5): 409-420, 2019 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386134

RESUMO

Importance: Blood pressure (BP) is a known risk factor for overall mortality and cardiovascular (CV)-specific fatal and nonfatal outcomes. It is uncertain which BP index is most strongly associated with these outcomes. Objective: To evaluate the association of BP indexes with death and a composite CV event. Design, Setting, and Participants: Longitudinal population-based cohort study of 11 135 adults from Europe, Asia, and South America with baseline observations collected from May 1988 to May 2010 (last follow-ups, August 2006-October 2016). Exposures: Blood pressure measured by an observer or an automated office machine; measured for 24 hours, during the day or the night; and the dipping ratio (nighttime divided by daytime readings). Main Outcomes and Measures: Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) expressed the risk of death or a CV event associated with BP increments of 20/10 mm Hg. Cardiovascular events included CV mortality combined with nonfatal coronary events, heart failure, and stroke. Improvement in model performance was assessed by the change in the area under the curve (AUC). Results: Among 11 135 participants (median age, 54.7 years, 49.3% women), 2836 participants died (18.5 per 1000 person-years) and 2049 (13.4 per 1000 person-years) experienced a CV event over a median of 13.8 years of follow-up. Both end points were significantly associated with all single systolic BP indexes (P < .001). For nighttime systolic BP level, the HR for total mortality was 1.23 (95% CI, 1.17-1.28) and for CV events, 1.36 (95% CI, 1.30-1.43). For the 24-hour systolic BP level, the HR for total mortality was 1.22 (95% CI, 1.16-1.28) and for CV events, 1.45 (95% CI, 1.37-1.54). With adjustment for any of the other systolic BP indexes, the associations of nighttime and 24-hour systolic BP with the primary outcomes remained statistically significant (HRs ranging from 1.17 [95% CI, 1.10-1.25] to 1.87 [95% CI, 1.62-2.16]). Base models that included single systolic BP indexes yielded an AUC of 0.83 for mortality and 0.84 for the CV outcomes. Adding 24-hour or nighttime systolic BP to base models that included other BP indexes resulted in incremental improvements in the AUC of 0.0013 to 0.0027 for mortality and 0.0031 to 0.0075 for the composite CV outcome. Adding any systolic BP index to models already including nighttime or 24-hour systolic BP did not significantly improve model performance. These findings were consistent for diastolic BP. Conclusions and Relevance: In this population-based cohort study, higher 24-hour and nighttime blood pressure measurements were significantly associated with greater risks of death and a composite CV outcome, even after adjusting for other office-based or ambulatory blood pressure measurements. Thus, 24-hour and nighttime blood pressure may be considered optimal measurements for estimating CV risk, although statistically, model improvement compared with other blood pressure indexes was small.


Assuntos
Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/complicações , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Ritmo Circadiano , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/mortalidade , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco
10.
Cardiovasc Ultrasound ; 17(1): 15, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies highlighted the usefulness of integrating left ventricular (LV) deformation (strain) and hemodynamic parameters to quantify LV performance. In a population sample, we investigated the anthropometric and clinical determinants of a novel non-invasive index of LV systolic performance derived from simultaneous registration of LV strain and brachial pressure waveforms. METHODS: Three hundred fifty-six randomly recruited subjects (44.7% women; mean age, 53.9 years; 47.5% hypertensive) underwent echocardiographic and arterial data acquisition. We constructed pressure-strain loops from simultaneously recorded two-dimensional LV strain curves and brachial pressure waveforms obtained by finger applanation tonometry. We defined the area of this pressure-strain loop during ejection as LV ejection work density (EWD). We reported effect sizes as EWD changes associated with a 1-SD increase in covariables. RESULTS: In multivariable-adjusted analyses, higher EWD was associated with age, female sex and presence of hypertension (P ≤ 0.0084). In both men and women, EWD increased independently with augmentation pressure (effect size: + 59.1 Pa), central pulse pressure (+ 65.7 Pa) and pulse wave velocity (+ 44.8 Pa; P ≤ 0.0006). In men, EWD decreased with relative wall thickness (- 29.9 Pa) and increased with LV ejection fraction (+ 23.9 Pa; P ≤ 0.040). In women, EWD increased with left atrial (+ 76.2 Pa) and LV end-diastolic (+ 43.8 Pa) volume indexes and with E/e' ratio (+ 51.1 Pa; P ≤ 0.026). CONCLUSION: Older age, female sex and hypertension were associated with higher EWD. Integration of the LV pressure-strain loop during ejection might be a useful tool to non-invasively evaluate sex-specific and interdependent effects of preload and afterload on LV myocardial performance.

11.
Hypertension ; 74(4): 776-783, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378104

RESUMO

The new American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guideline reclassified office blood pressure and proposed thresholds for ambulatory blood pressure (ABP). We derived outcome-driven ABP thresholds corresponding with the new office blood pressure categories. We performed 24-hour ABP monitoring in 11 152 participants (48.9% women; mean age, 53.0 years) representative of 13 populations. We determined ABP thresholds resulting in multivariable-adjusted 10-year risks similar to those associated with elevated office blood pressure (120/80 mm Hg) and stages 1 and 2 of office hypertension (130/80 and 140/90 mm Hg). Over 13.9 years (median), 2728 (rate per 1000 person-years, 17.9) people died, 1033 (6.8) from cardiovascular disease; furthermore, 1988 (13.8), 893 (6.0), and 795 (5.4) cardiovascular and coronary events and strokes occurred. Using a composite cardiovascular end point, systolic/diastolic outcome-driven thresholds indicating elevated 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime ABP were 117.9/75.2, 121.4/79.6, and 105.3/66.2 mm Hg. For stages 1 and 2 ambulatory hypertension, thresholds were 123.3/75.2 and 128.7/80.7 mm Hg for 24-hour ABP, 128.5/79.6 and 135.6/87.1 mm Hg for daytime ABP, and 111.7/66.2 and 118.1/72.5 mm Hg for nighttime ABP. ABP thresholds derived from other end points were similar. After rounding, approximate thresholds for elevated 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime ABP were 120/75, 120/80, and 105/65 mm Hg, and for stages 1 and 2, ambulatory hypertension 125/75 and 130/80 mm Hg, 130/80 and 135/85 mm Hg, and 110/65 and 120/70 mm Hg. Outcome-driven ABP thresholds corresponding to elevated blood pressure and stages 1 and 2 of hypertension are similar to those proposed by the current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guideline.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , American Heart Association , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
12.
Blood Press ; : 1-8, 2019 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352838

RESUMO

Purpose: Previous studies that addressed whether left ventricular hypertrophy is more closely associated with central than peripheral blood pressure (BP) have been inconsistent. Radial artery wave generated by applanation tonometry and calibrated with brachial BP in 162 adult Nigerians were analysed by using generalized transfer function to derive central BP. Materials and methods: We compared the associations of ECG voltages and left ventricular hypertrophy (ECG-LVH) as continuous and binary variables respectively with central and brachial BP indices. Results: In a multivariable adjusted analysis, 1 standard deviation (SD) increase in brachial systolic, diastolic, pulse and mean arterial pressures increased the Sokolow-Lyon QRS voltage by 0.34 (CI, 0.21-0.48; p < 0.0001), 0.21 (CI, 0.07-0.36; p < 0.05); 0.22 (CI, 0.9-0.34; p < 0.001) and 0.29 (CI, 0.14-0.43) similar to (p > 0.05) corresponding Sokolow-Lyon QRS increase of 0.26 (0.12-0.40, p < 0.001); 0.14 (0.00-0.28, p < 0.05); 0.24 (0.11-0.39; p < 0.001) and 0.19 (0.05-0.34, p < 0.05) respectively observed for 1 SD increment in central pressures. The odds ratio (OR) relating ECG-LVH to 1 SD increase in brachial systolic, pulse, and mean arterial pressures were 2.62 (CI, 1.49-4.65, p < 0.001); 1.88 (CI, 1.19-2.95, p < 0.01) and 2.16 (CI, 1.22-3.82, p < 0.01) was similar to (p > 0.05) corresponding OR of 2.41 (1.33-4.36, p < 0.01); 2.04 (1.23-3.37, p < 0.01); 2.00 (1.11-3.63, p < 0.001) observed for I SD increment in central pressures. Conclusion: Central and peripheral BP are similarly associated with Sokolow-Lyon ECG voltage and hypertrophy.

13.
Blood Press ; 28(5): 279-290, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075995

RESUMO

Background: Aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) predicts cardiovascular complications, but the association of central arterial properties with blood lead level (BL) is poorly documented. We therefore assessed their association with BL in 150 young men prior to occupational lead exposure, using baseline data of the Study for Promotion of Health in Recycling Lead (NCT02243904). Methods: Study nurses administered validated questionnaires and performed clinical measurements. Venous blood samples were obtained after 8-12 h of fasting. The radial, carotid and femoral pulse waves were tonometrically recorded. We accounted for ethnicity, age, anthropometric characteristics, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, smoking and drinking, and total and high-density lipoprotein serum cholesterol, as appropriate. Results: Mean values were 4.14 µg/dL for BL, 27 years for age, 108/79/28 mm Hg for central systolic/diastolic/pulse pressure, 100/10% for the augmentation ratio/index, 1.63 for pressure amplification, 5.94 m/s for aPWV, 27/11 mm Hg for the forward/backward pulse pressure height, and 43% for the reflection index. Per 10-fold BL increase, central diastolic pressure and the augmentation ratio were respectively 5.37 mm Hg (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-9.75) and 1.57 (CI, 0.20-2.94) greater, whereas central pulse pressure and the forward pulse pressure height were 3.74 mm Hg (CI, 0.60-6.88) and 3.37 mm Hg (CI, 0.22-6.53) smaller (p ≤ .036 for all). The other hemodynamic measurements were unrelated to BL. The reflected pulse peak time was inversely correlated with diastolic pressure (r = -0.20; p ≤ .017). Conclusion: At the exposure levels observed in our current study, aPWV, the gold standard to assess arterial stiffness, was not associated with BL. Increased peripheral arterial resistance, as reflected by higher diastolic pressure, might bring reflection points closer to the heart, thereby moving the backward wave into systole and increasing the augmentation ratio in relation to BL.

14.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(7): e011960, 2019 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31025895

RESUMO

Background Stiffening and calcification of the large arteries are forerunners of cardiovascular complications. MGP (Matrix Gla protein), which requires vitamin K-dependent activation, is a potent locally acting inhibitor of arterial calcification. We hypothesized that the central hemodynamic properties might be associated with inactive desphospho-uncarboxylated MGP (dp-uc MGP ). Methods and Results In 835 randomly recruited Flemish individuals (mean age, 49.7 years; 45.6% women), we measured plasma dp-uc MGP , using an ELISA -based assay. We derived central pulse pressure and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) from applanation tonometry and calculated forward and backward pulse waves using an automated, pressure-based wave separation analysis algorithm. Aortic PWV (n=657), central pulse pressure, forward pulse wave, and backward pulse wave mean± SD values were 7.34±1.64 m/s, 45.2±15.3 mm Hg, 33.2±10.2 mm Hg, and 21.8±8.6 mm Hg, respectively. The geometric mean plasma concentration of dp-uc MGP was 4.09 µg/L. All hemodynamic indexes increased across tertiles of dp-uc MGP distribution. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, a doubling of dp-uc MGP was associated with higher PWV (0.15 m/s; 95% CI, 0.01-0.28 m/s), central pulse pressure (1.70 mm Hg; 95% CI, 0.49-2.91 mm Hg), forward pulse wave (0.93 mm Hg; 95% CI, 0.01-1.84 mm Hg), and backward pulse wave (0.71 mm Hg; 95% CI, 0.11-1.30 mm Hg). Categorization of aortic PWV by tertiles of its distribution highlighted a decreasing trend of PWV at low dp-uc MGP (<3.35 µg/L) and an increasing trend at high dp-uc MGP (≥5.31 µg/L). Conclusions In people representative for the general population, higher inactive dp-uc MGP was associated with greater PWV , central pulse pressure, forward pulse wave, and backward pulse wave. These observations highlight new avenues for preserving vascular integrity and preventing cardiovascular complications (eg, by improving a person's vitamin K status).

15.
Occup Environ Med ; 76(6): 382-388, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928907

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Previous studies relating nervous activity to blood lead (BL) levels have limited relevance, because over time environmental and occupational exposure substantially dropped. We investigated the association of heart rate variability (HRV) and median nerve conduction velocity (NCV) with BL using the baseline measurements collected in the Study for Promotion of Health in Recycling Lead (NCT02243904). METHODS: In 328 newly hired men (mean age 28.3 years; participation rate 82.7%), we derived HRV measures (power expressed in normalised units (nu) in the high-frequency (HF) and low-frequency (LF) domains, and LF/HF) prior to long-term occupational lead exposure. Five-minute ECG recordings, obtained in the supine and standing positions, were analysed by Fourier transform or autoregressive modelling, using Cardiax software. Motor NCV was measured at the median nerve by a handheld device (Brevio Nerve Conduction Monitoring System, NeuMed, West Trenton, NJ, USA). BL was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Mean BL was 4.54 µg/dL (IQR 2.60-8.90 µg/dL). Mean supine and standing values of LF, HF and LF/HF were 50.5 and 21.1 nu and 2.63, and 59.7 and 10.9 nu and 6.31, respectively. Orthostatic stress decreased HF and increased LF (p<0.001). NCV averaged 3.74 m/s. Analyses across thirds of the BL distribution and multivariable-adjusted regression analyses failed to demonstrate any association of HRV or NCV with BL. CONCLUSIONS: At the exposure levels observed in our study, autonomous nervous activity and NCV were not associated with BL. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02243904.


Assuntos
Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Chumbo/análise , Metalurgia/estatística & dados numéricos , Condução Nervosa/fisiologia , Adulto , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Chumbo/sangue , Masculino , Nervos Periféricos/metabolismo , Nervos Periféricos/fisiologia
16.
Echocardiography ; 36(3): 458-468, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30609050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies in patients and general population have reported the role of left ventricular (LV) longitudinal strain (LS) as an independent predictor of outcome. However, there are few data on changes in LS over time. We therefore investigated in a general population clinical correlates of temporal changes in LS. We also explored the potential correlation between temporal changes in LV volumes and LS. METHODS AND RESULTS: We measured LV end-systolic (ESV) and end-diastolic (EDV) volumes by conventional echocardiography and LS by 2D speckle tracking in 627 participants (mean age 50.6 years, 51.4% women; 41.3% hypertensives) at baseline and after 4.7 years. For statistical analysis, we used the absolute values of LS. In stepwise regression, the magnitude of the decrease in all LV LS indexes over time was greater in men than in women (P < 0.0001). Higher baseline mean arterial pressure (MAP), a larger longitudinal increase in MAP, and stopping diuretic treatment during follow-up were related to larger decreases in LS indexes. In multivariable-adjusted analysis, we observed an inverse correlation between baseline ESV and LV LS (P ≤ 0.0017). Similarly, lower baseline LS and a larger decrease in LS over time were correlated with a lesser longitudinal decrease in ESV (P ≤ 0.0004). CONCLUSIONS: A significant decrease in LS over time was associated with male sex, higher baseline MAP, ∆MAP, and alteration in antihypertensive treatment. We suggested an interaction between a longitudinal decrease in LV deformation and adverse cardiac remodeling, while underscoring the importance of deformation analysis based on LS assessment in patients at risk.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Remodelação Ventricular , Feminino , Seguimentos , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tempo
17.
Scand J Work Environ Health ; 45(3): 298-307, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30631878

RESUMO

Objectives Higher than contemporary exposure levels and advanced age of study participants have limited the interpretation of previous studies relating neurocognitive function to lead exposure. We reassessed this association in young American men prior to chronic occupational exposure at lead recycling plants, using baseline measurements of the Study for Promotion of Health in Recycling Lead (NCT02243904). Methods We administered the Stroop test (ST) and the digit-symbol test (DST) to 339 men (mean age, 28.6 years; participation rate 82.7%). Whole blood lead (BL) was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and related ST and DST test results using multivariable-adjusted regression. Results Average values were 4.26 µg/dL for BL, 1624 ms and 1474 ms for mean reaction time in incongruent and congruent ST trials, and 109 sec for mean total latency in DST. The number of participants with fully correct answers amounted to 281 (82.9%) and 334 (98.5%) in incongruent and congruent ST trials, respectively, and to 198 (58.4%) in the DST. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, there was no association between cognitive performance and BL except for a weak but opposite association in DST; for a 10-fold BL increment, mean total latency was 5.4% (95% confidence interval, -0.4‒11.5%; P=0.066) higher, whereas the error score was 42% (-10‒69%; P=0.096) lower. To exclude an effect of the cumulative lead dose, sensitivity analyses restricted to workers <40, 35 and 30 years were confirmatory. Conclusions At the exposure levels in our current study, we failed to demonstrate a consistent inverse association of BL with neurocognitive performance in young American men.

18.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(2): e010430, 2019 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30638123

RESUMO

Background Serial imaging studies in the general population remain important to evaluate the usefulness of pathophysiologically relevant biomarkers in predicting progression of left ventricular (LV) remodeling and dysfunction. Here, we assessed in a general population whether these circulating biomarkers at baseline predict longitudinal changes in LV structure and function. Methods and Results In 592 participants (mean age, 50.8 years; 51.4% women; 40.5% hypertensive), we derived echocardiographic indexes reflecting LV structure and function at baseline and after 4.7 years. At baseline, we measured alkaline phosphatase, markers of collagen turnover (procollagen type I, C-terminal telopeptide, matrix metalloproteinase-1) and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T. We regressed longitudinal changes in LV indexes on baseline biomarker levels and reported standardized effect sizes as a fraction of the standard deviation of LV change. After full adjustment, a decline in LV longitudinal strain (-14.2%) and increase in E/e' ratio over time (+18.9%; P≤0.019) was associated with higher alkaline phosphatase activity at baseline. Furthermore, longitudinal strain decreased with higher levels of collagen I production and degradation at baseline (procollagen type I, -14.2%; C-terminal telopeptide, -16.4%; P≤0.029). An increase in E/e' ratio over time was borderline associated with lower matrix metalloproteinase-1 (+9.8%) and lower matrix metalloproteinase-1/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 ratio (+11.9%; P≤0.041). Higher high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T levels at baseline correlated significantly with an increase in relative wall thickness (+23.1%) and LV mass index (+18.3%) during follow-up ( P≤0.035). Conclusions We identified a set of biomarkers predicting adverse changes in LV structure and function over time. Circulating biomarkers reflecting LV stiffness, injury, and collagen composition might improve the identification of subjects at risk for subclinical cardiac maladaptation.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Remodelação Ventricular/fisiologia , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Colágeno Tipo I/sangue , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Feminino , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade/tendências , Peptídeos/sangue , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Troponina T/sangue
19.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 34(8): 1336-1343, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29982668

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common in patients after heart transplantation (HTx). We assessed whether in HTx recipients the proteomic urinary classifier CKD273 or sequenced urinary peptides revealing the parental proteins correlated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). METHODS: In 368 HTx patients, we measured the urinary peptidome and analysed CKD273 and 48 urinary peptides with a detectable signal in >95% of participants. After 9.1 months (median), eGFR and the urinary biomarkers were reassessed. RESULTS: In multivariable Bonferroni-corrected analyses of the baseline data, a 1-SD increase in CKD273 was associated with a 11.4 [95% confidence interval (CI) 7.25-15.5] mL/min/1.73 m2 lower eGFR and an odds ratio of 2.63 (1.56-4.46) for having eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. While relating eGFR category at follow-up to baseline urinary biomarkers, CKD273 had higher (P = 0.007) area under the curve (0.75; 95% CI 0.70-0.80) than 24-h proteinuria (0.64; 95% CI 0.58-0.69), but additional adjustment for baseline eGFR removed significance of both biomarkers. In partial least squares analysis, the strongest correlates of the multivariable-adjusted baseline eGFR were fragments of collagen I (positive) and the mucin-1 subunit α (inverse). Associations between the changes in eGFR and the urinary markers were inverse for CKD273 and mucin-1 and positive for urinary collagen I. CONCLUSIONS: With the exception of baseline eGFR, CKD273 was more closer associated with imminent renal dysfunction than 24-h proteinuria. Fragments of collagen I and mucin-1-respectively, positively and inversely associated with eGFR and change in eGFR-are single-peptide markers associated with renal dysfunction.

20.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 34(6): 941-946, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30165570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Numerous studies suggested that occupational or environmental exposure to lead adversely affects renal function. However, most studies lost relevance because of the substantially lower current environmental lead exposure and all relied on serum creatinine to estimate glomerular filtration. We investigated the association of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), estimated from serum creatinine, cystatin C or both, with blood lead (BPb) using the baseline measurements of the ongoing Study for Promotion of Health in Recycling Lead (SPHERL; NCT02243904) in newly hired workers prior to significant occupational lead exposure. METHODS: Among 447 men (participation rate, 82.7%), we assessed the association of eGFR and the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) with BPb across thirds of the BPb distribution using linear regression analysis. Fully adjusted models accounted for age, blood pressure, body mass index, the waist-to-hip ratio, smoking, the total-to-high-density-lipoprotein ratio, plasma glucose, serum γ-glutamyltransferase and antihypertensive drug treatment. RESULTS: Age averaged 28.7 (SD, 10.2) years (range, 19.1-31.8). Geometric mean BPb concentration was 4.34 µg/dL (5th-95th percentile interval, 0.9-14.8). In unadjusted and adjusted analyses, eGFR estimated from serum creatinine [mean (SD), 105.26 (15.2) mL/min/1.73 m2], serum cystatin C [mean (SD), 127.8 (13.8) mL/min/1.73 m2] or both [mean (SD), 111.9 (14.8) mL/min/1.73 m2] was not associated with BPb (P ≥ 0.36), whereas ACR [geometric mean, 4.32 mg/g (5th-95th percentile interval, 1.91-12.50)] was lower with higher BPb. CONCLUSIONS: At the BPb levels observed in this study, there was no evidence for an association between renal function and lead exposure.

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