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1.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266481, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35390065

RESUMO

Platelet Endothelial Aggregation Receptor 1 (PEAR1) modulates angiogenesis and platelet contact-induced activation, which play a role in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. We therefore tested the association of incident colorectal cancer and genetic and epigenetic variability in PEAR1 among 2532 randomly recruited participants enrolled in the family-based Flemish Study on Environment, Genes and Health Outcomes (51.2% women; mean age 44.8 years). All underwent genotyping of rs12566888 located in intron 1 of the PEAR1 gene; in 926 participants, methylation at 16 CpG sites in the PEAR1 promoter was also assessed. Over 18.1 years (median), 49 colorectal cancers occurred, all in different pedigrees. While accounting for clustering of risk factors within families and adjusting for sex, age, body mass index, the total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio, serum creatinine, plasma glucose, smoking and drinking, use of antiplatelet and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, the hazard ratio of colorectal cancer contrasting minor-allele (T) carriers vs. major-allele (GG) homozygotes was 2.17 (95% confidence interval, 1.18-3.99; P = 0.013). Bootstrapped analyses, from which we randomly excluded from two to nine cancer cases, provided confirmatory results. In participants with methylation data, we applied partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and identified two methylation sites associated with higher colorectal cancer risk and two with lower risk. In-silico analysis suggested that methylation of the PEAR1 promoter at these four sites might affect binding of transcription factors p53, PAX5, and E2F-1, thereby modulating gene expression. In conclusion, our findings suggest that genetic and epigenetic variation in PEAR1 modulates the risk of colorectal cancer in white Flemish. To what extent, environmental factors as exemplified by our methylation data, interact with genetic predisposition and modulate penetrance of colorectal cancer risk is unknown.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Receptores de Superfície Celular , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo
2.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 114: 514-525, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35459513

RESUMO

Spatiotemporal variations of ozone (O3) taken from the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) and the second Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA-2) were intercompared and evaluated with ground and ozone-sonde observations over China in 2018 and 2019. Intercomparison of the surface ozone from CAMS and MERRA-2 reanalysis showed significant negative bias (CAMS minus MERRA-2, same below) at Tibetan Plateau of up to 80 µg/m3, and the average R2 was about 0.6 across China. Evaluated with the ground observations from China National Environmental Monitoring Center (CNEMC), we found that CAMS and MERRA-2 reanalysis were capable of capturing the key patterns of monthly and diurnal variations of surface ozone over China except for the western region, and MERRA-2 overestimated the observations compared to CAMS. Vertically, the CAMS profiles overestimated the ozone-sonde from the World Ozone and Ultraviolet Radiation Data Center (WOUDC) above 200 hPa with the magnitude reaching up to 150 µg/m3, while little bias was found between the reanalysis and observations below 200 hPa. Intercomparison drawn from the vertical distribution between CAMS and MERRA-2 reanalysis showed that the negative bias appeared throughout the troposphere over China, while the positive bias emerged in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) with high order of magnitude exceeding 100 µg/m3, indicating large uncertainties at higher altitudes. In summary, we concluded that CAMS reanalysis showed better agreement with the observations in contrast to MERRA-2, and the large discrepancy especially at higher altitudes between these two reanalysis datasets could not be ignored.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Ozônio , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Atmosfera , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ozônio/análise , Estudos Retrospectivos , Raios Ultravioleta
3.
Hypertension ; 79(5): 1101-1111, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35240865

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether cardiovascular risk is more tightly associated with central (cSBP) than brachial (bSBP) systolic pressure remains debated, because of their close correlation and uncertain thresholds to differentiate cSBP into normotension versus hypertension. METHODS: In a person-level meta-analysis of the International Database of Central Arterial Properties for Risk Stratification (n=5576; 54.1% women; mean age 54.2 years), outcome-driven thresholds for cSBP were determined and whether the cross-classification of cSBP and bSBP improved risk stratification was explored. cSBP was tonometrically estimated from the radial pulse wave using SphygmoCor software. RESULTS: Over 4.1 years (median), 255 composite cardiovascular end points occurred. In multivariable bootstrapped analyses, cSBP thresholds (in mm Hg) of 110.5 (95% CI, 109.1-111.8), 120.2 (119.4-121.0), 130.0 (129.6-130.3), and 149.5 (148.4-150.5) generated 5-year cardiovascular risks equivalent to the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association bSBP thresholds of 120, 130, 140, and 160. Applying 120/130 mm Hg as cSBP/bSBP thresholds delineated concordant central and brachial normotension (43.1%) and hypertension (48.2%) versus isolated brachial hypertension (5.0%) and isolated central hypertension (3.7%). With concordant normotension as reference, the multivariable hazard ratios for the cardiovascular end point were 1.30 (95% CI, 0.58-2.94) for isolated brachial hypertension, 2.28 (1.21-4.30) for isolated central hypertension, and 2.02 (1.41-2.91) for concordant hypertension. The increased cardiovascular risk associated with isolated central and concordant hypertension was paralleled by cerebrovascular end points with hazard ratios of 3.71 (1.37-10.06) and 2.60 (1.35-5.00), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Irrespective of the brachial blood pressure status, central hypertension increased cardiovascular and cerebrovascular risk indicating the importance of controlling central hypertension.


Assuntos
Determinação da Pressão Arterial , Hipertensão , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Artéria Braquial , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco
4.
Int J Gen Med ; 15: 1437-1445, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35177928

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the left ventricular (LV) systolic function in elderly with non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) using real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT-3DE) and two-dimensional speckle tracking imaging (STI). METHODS: Forty NSTEMI and forty STEMI patients after undergoing percutaneous coronary artery intervention (PCI) were enrolled. The myocardial segments were supplied by the infarct-related artery (Myo-IRA) which were indicated by the selective coronary arteriography (SCA). The LV end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), end-systolic volume (LVESV), stroke volume (LVSV) and ejection fraction (LVEF) were acquired by 4D LV Volume Tom Tec. LV longitudinal peak systolic strain (LPSS), radial peak systolic strain (RPSS), circumferential peak systolic strain (CPSS) of Myo-IRA segments, LV rotational peak degree in the base (rot-base) and in the apex (rot-apex), and twist were acquired by strain analysis software. Forty older healthy individuals were included as normal controls. RESULTS: The LVEF of the NSTEMI and STEMI patients at 1 week after PCI were significantly lower (P<0.05), then, this parameter was improved in both groups after 3 months, but was still significantly lower than that of the controls (P<0.05). The LPSS, RPSS, CPSS of the Myo-IRA segments, rot-Base, rot-Apex and twist in both groups were significantly lower than those in the controls. The LPSS and CPSS of the Myo-IRA segments, rot-Base, rot-Apex and twist in NSTEMI patients were obviously higher than those in STEMI patients in 1 week and 3 months after PCI (P<0.05). After 3 months, the RPSS of NSTEMI patients was improved notably and was obviously higher than that of STEMI patients (P<0.05). All these values in STEMI and NSTEMI patients were improved after 3 months, apart from LPSS in STEMI patients (P>0.05), but were still significantly lower than those in the controls (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: RT-3DE and STI can sensitively assess LV systolic function with different extents of transmural damage.

5.
Phytopathology ; : PHYTO07210313R, 2022 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34982573

RESUMO

Wheat-rye 1RS·1BL translocations from 'Petkus' rye have contributed substantially to wheat production worldwide with their great disease resistance and yield traits. However, the resistance genes on the 1RS chromosomes have completely lost their resistance to newly emerged pathogens. Rye could widen the variation of 1RS as a naturally cross-pollinated related species of wheat. In this study, we developed three new 1RS·1BL translocation lines by crossing rye inbred line BL1, selected from Chinese landrace rye Baili, with wheat cultivar Mianyang11. These three new translocation lines exhibited high resistance to the most virulent and frequently occurring stripe rust pathotypes and showed high resistance in the field, where stripe rust outbreaks have been most severe in China. One new gene for stripe rust resistance, located on 1RS of the new translocation lines, is tentatively named YrRt1054. YrRt1054 confers resistance to Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici pathotypes that are virulent toward Yr9 and YrCn17. This new resistance gene, YrRt1054, is available for wheat improvement programs. The present study indicated that rye cultivars may carry additional untapped variation as potential sources of resistance.

6.
NPJ Parkinsons Dis ; 8(1): 5, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35013369

RESUMO

Recent evidence suggests that innate and adaptive immunity play a crucial role in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, studies regarding specific immune cell classification in the peripheral blood in PD remain lacking. Therefore, we aimed to explore the different immune status in patients with PD at different ages of onset. We included 22 patients; among them were 10 who had early-onset PD (EOPD) and 12 had late-onset PD (LOPD) and 10 young healthy controls (YHCs) and 8 elder HCs (EHCs). Mass cytometry staining technology was used to perform accurate immunotyping of cell populations in the peripheral blood. Motor symptoms and cognitive function were assessed using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) III score and Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE) score, respectively. T test and ANOVA statistical analysis were performed on the frequency of annotated cell population. Linear regression model was used to analyze the correlation between clusters and clinical symptoms. We characterized 60 cell clusters and discovered that the immune signature of PD consists of cluster changes, including decreased effector CD8+ T cells, lower cytotoxicity natural killer (NK) cells and increased activated monocytes in PD patients. In summary, we found that CD8+ T cells, NK cells, and monocytes were associated with PD. Furthermore, there may be some differences in the immune status of patients with EOPD and LOPD, suggesting differences in the pathogenesis between these groups.

7.
J Hazard Mater ; 428: 128199, 2022 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35030490

RESUMO

The sulfate reduction behavior of the waste-leachate transition zone of landfill was investigated at different temperatures and moisture contents. Marked differences in the sulfate reduction behavior were observed in the waste-leachate transition zone. The highest H2S concentration was observed when the solid-to-liquid ratio was 1:3 at both temperatures. Although more leachate led to higher H2S concentrations, the solid-to-liquid ratio was likely of subordinate significance compared with temperature. The microbial community was more unstable at 50 °C and more extensive mutualistic interactions among bacteria were observed, resulting in SRB showing a more violent response to changes in the solid-to-liquid ratio. At 25 °C, it's the opposite. A temperature of 25 °C was suitable for most SRB (such as Desulfomicrobium and Desulfobulbus), while some specific SRB that did not contain the functional genes (such as Dethiobacter and Anaerolinea) played a pivotal role in the significant differences in sulfate reduction behavior observed at 50 °C. This study provides a theoretical basis for controlling the release of H2S from landfill.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos , Bactérias , Sulfatos
8.
Waste Manag ; 141: 52-62, 2022 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35093856

RESUMO

The sulfate reduction behavior of the landfill leachate saturated zone under different temperatures was investigated. The results showed that temperature had significant effects on sulfate reduction behavior. The sulfate reduction efficiency was the highest at high temperatures (55 °C and 45 °C), followed by mesophilic temperature (35 °C). Normal temperature 25 °C was far less effective than 55 °C, 45 °C and 35 °C. High abundances of aprA and dsrA genes were distributed under high temperatures. Through indicator species analysis and functional comparison, some key taxa were identified as putative key genera for sulfate reduction. Under high temperature, Paenibacillus could effectively degrade dimethyl sulfide. DsrAB is present in the genome of Tissierella. Gordonia, Syntrophomonas, and Lysinibacillus under mesophilic temperature indicates the potential of these organisms to degrade heterogenous biomass, environmental pollutants or other natural polymers with slow biodegradation. This microbial function is similar to that of the putative key genera under normal (25 °C) temperature. Most of the putative key genera belong to Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Myxococcota. This study provides theoretical support for the control of hydrogen sulfide release from landfills.

9.
Am J Hypertens ; 35(1): 54-64, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505630

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To address to what extent central hemodynamic measurements, improve risk stratification, and determine outcome-based diagnostic thresholds, we constructed the International Database of Central Arterial Properties for Risk Stratification (IDCARS), allowing a participant-level meta-analysis. The purpose of this article was to describe the characteristics of IDCARS participants and to highlight research perspectives. METHODS: Longitudinal or cross-sectional cohort studies with central blood pressure measured with the SphygmoCor devices and software were included. RESULTS: The database included 10,930 subjects (54.8% women; median age 46.0 years) from 13 studies in Europe, Africa, Asia, and South America. The prevalence of office hypertension was 4,446 (40.1%), of which 2,713 (61.0%) were treated, and of diabetes mellitus was 629 (5.8%). The peripheral and central systolic/diastolic blood pressure averaged 129.5/78.7 mm Hg and 118.2/79.7 mm Hg, respectively. Mean aortic pulse wave velocity was 7.3 m per seconds. Among 6,871 participants enrolled in 9 longitudinal studies, the median follow-up was 4.2 years (5th-95th percentile interval, 1.3-12.2 years). During 38,957 person-years of follow-up, 339 participants experienced a composite cardiovascular event and 212 died, 67 of cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS: IDCARS will provide a unique opportunity to investigate hypotheses on central hemodynamic measurements that could not reliably be studied in individual studies. The results of these analyses might inform guidelines and be of help to clinicians involved in the management of patients with suspected or established hypertension.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Hipertensão , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Onda de Pulso
10.
Eur J Neurol ; 29(4): 1000-1010, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34882309

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of genetic risk on whole brain white matter (WM) integrity in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). METHODS: Data were acquired from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI) database. Polygenic load was estimated by calculating weighted polygenic risk scores (PRS) using (i) all available 26 PD-risk single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (PRS1) and (ii) 23 SNPs with minor allele frequency (MAF) > 0.05 (PRS2). According to the PRS2, and combined with clinical and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data over 3-year follow-up, 60 PD patients were screened and assigned to the low-PRS group (n = 30) and high-PRS group (n = 30) to investigate intergroup differences in clinical profiles and WM microstructure measured by DTI cross-sectionally and longitudinally. RESULTS: PRS were associated with younger age at onset in patients with PD (PRS1, Spearman ρ = -0.190, p = 0.003; PRS2, Spearman ρ = -0.189, p = 0.003). The high-PRS group showed more extensive WM microstructural degeneration compared with the low-PRS group, mainly involving the anterior thalamic radiation (AThR) and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) (p < 0.05). Furthermore, WM microstructural changes in AThR correlated with declining cognitive function (r = -0.401, p = 0.028) and increasing dopaminergic deficits in caudate (r = -0.405, p = 0.030). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that PD-associated polygenic load aggravates the WM microstructural degeneration and these changes may lead to poor cognition with continuous dopamine depletion. This study provides advanced evidence that combined with a cumulative PRS and DTI methods may predict disease progression in PD patients.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson , Substância Branca , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Cognição , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão/métodos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem
11.
ESC Heart Fail ; 9(1): 685-694, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34808706

RESUMO

AIMS: Recent trials evaluating the effect of aspirin in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease showed little or no benefit. However, the role of aspirin on the risk of incident heart failure (HF) remains elusive. This study aimed to evaluate the role of aspirin use on HF incidence in primary and secondary prevention and whether aspirin use increases the risk of incident HF in patients at risk. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data from 30 827 patients at risk for HF enrolled in six observational studies were analysed [women 33.9%, mean age (±standard deviation) 66.8 ± 9.2 years]. Cardiovascular risk factors and aspirin use were recorded at baseline, and patients were followed up for the first incident of fatal or non-fatal HF. The association of incident HF with aspirin use was assessed using multivariable-adjusted proportional hazard regression, which accounted for study and cardiovascular risk factors. Over 5.3 years (median; 5th-95th percentile interval, 2.1-11.7 years), 1330 patients experienced HF. The fully adjusted hazard ratio (HR) associated with aspirin use was 1.26 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12-1.41; P ≤ 0.001]. Further, in a propensity-score-matched analysis, the HR was 1.26 (95% CI 1.10-1.44; P ≤ 0.001). In 22 690 patients (73.6%) without history of cardiovascular disease, the HR was 1.27 (95% CI 1.10-1.46; P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In patients, at risk, aspirin use was associated with incident HF, independent of other risk factors. In the absence of conclusive trial evidence, our observations suggest that aspirins should be prescribed with caution in patients at risk of HF or having HF.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Idoso , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Fatores de Risco
12.
Eur Neurol ; 85(1): 24-30, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34689144

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Growing evidence suggests important effects of body mass index (BMI) and metabolic status on neurodegenerative diseases. However, the roles of BMI and metabolic status on cognitive outcomes in Parkinson's disease (PD) may vary and are yet to be determined. METHODS: In total, 139 PD patients from the whole PD cohort in Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative database underwent complete laboratory measurements, demographic and anthropometric parameters at baseline, and were enrolled in this study. Further, they were categorized into 4 different BMI-metabolic status phenotypes using Adult Treatment Panel-III criteria. Motor and cognition scales at baseline and longitudinal changes after a 48-month follow-up were compared among the 4 groups. Repeated-measure linear mixed models were performed to compare PD-related biomarkers among BMI-metabolic status phenotypes across time. RESULTS: We found that PD patients in the metabolically unhealthy normal weight group showed more cognitive decline in global cognition and visuospatial perception after a 48-month follow-up than those in the other 3 groups (p < 0.05). No difference was found in motor scales among different BMI-metabolic status phenotypes. Finally, compared to the metabolically healthy normal weight group, the metabolically healthy obesity group had lower CSF Aß42 and serum neurofilament levels in repeated-measure linear mixed models adjusting for age, gender, APOE e4 carrier status, and years of education (p = 0.031 and 0.046, respectively). CONCLUSION: The MUNW phenotype was associated with a rapid cognitive decline in PD.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Doença de Parkinson , Biomarcadores , Índice de Massa Corporal , Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Fenótipo
13.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 834477, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35495646

RESUMO

Hepcidin is a small peptide composed of signal peptide, propeptide, and the bioactive mature peptide from N terminal to C terminal. Mature hepcidin is an antibacterial peptide and iron regulator with eight highly conserved cysteines forming four intramolecular disulfide bonds, giving it a ß sheet hairpin-like structure. Hepcidin homologs are found in a variety of vertebrates, especially fish, and their diversity may be associated with different habitats and different levels of pathogens. Dissostichus mawsoni, an Antarctic notothenioid fish that lives in the coldest water unlike most places of the world, with at least two hepcidin variants with eight cysteines. We confirmed the formation process of activated mature hepcidins from D. mawsoni in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line, obtained recombinant hepcidin protein from prokaryotes, and characterized its binding ability and antibacterial activity against varying bacteria. The expression of hepcidin in CHO cell line showed that the prepropeptide of Dmhep_8cysV1 and Dmhep_8cysV2 cleavage into smaller mature peptide. The antibacterial assay and flow cytometry showed that Dmhep_8cysV1, Dmhep_8cysV2, and Drhep bound to different bacteria and killed them with different minimum inhibitory concentration. These data suggest that hepcidin plays an important role in the innate immunity of D. mawsoni and is of great value in improving resistance to pathogens.

14.
NPJ Parkinsons Dis ; 8(1): 54, 2022 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35487930

RESUMO

Alpha-synucleinopathy is postulated to be central to both idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (iRBD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Growing evidence suggests an association between the diminished clearance of α-synuclein and glymphatic system dysfunction. However, evidence accumulating primarily based on clinical data to support glymphatic system dysfunction in patients with iRBD and PD is currently insufficient. This study aimed to use diffusion tensor image analysis along the perivascular space (DTI-ALPS) to evaluate glymphatic system activity and its relationship to clinical scores of disease severity in patients with possible iRBD (piRBDs) and those with PD. Further, we validated the correlation between the ALPS index and the prognosis of PD longitudinally. Overall, 168 patients with PD, 119 piRBDs, and 129 healthy controls were enroled. Among them, 50 patients with PD had been longitudinally reexamined. Patients with PD exhibited a lower ALPS index than those with piRBDs (P = 0.036), and both patient groups showed a lower ALPS index than healthy controls (P < 0.001 and P = 0.001). The ALPS index and elevated disease severity were negatively correlated in the piRBD and PD subgroups. Moreover, the ALPS index was correlated with cognitive decline in patients with PD in the longitudinal analyses. In conclusion, DTI-ALPS provided neuroimaging evidence of glymphatic system dysfunction in piRBDs and patients with PD; however, the potential of assessing the pathological progress of α-synucleinopathies as an indicator is worth verifying. Further development of imaging methods for glymphatic system function is also warranted.

15.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt B): 118407, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34715272

RESUMO

Benefiting from the pollution controls implemented by the Chinese government, the concentrations of PM2.5, SO2, NO2 and CO showed a significant decrease in Beijing during 2013-2017. In this study, an observation-based method was employed to estimate the relative contributions of regional transport (MaxRTC) and local emissions (MinLEC) to air pollutant levels during 2013-2017 in Beijing. The results showed that the MaxRTC to SO2 and PM2.5 increased significantly over the five years, while those to CO and NO2 changed little. Furthermore, the difference in the emissions control efficiency (ΔECE) between Beijing (receptor region) and Shijiazhuang (source region), which refers to the concentration changes corresponding to unit emission changes of a certain air pollutant between the two regions, was introduced to verify the estimated variation in MaxRTC and MinLEC over 2013-2017. The negative value of ΔECE found for PM2.5 and SO2 supports the conclusion of an increasing effect of regional transport. This implies that local emissions control alone is not adequate for mitigating Beijing's air pollution, especially with the demand for continuously improving air quality. Joint prevention and control with regard to air quality on a regional scale is more important and urgent in the next Five-Year Plan.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Pequim , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise
16.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 589: 186-191, 2022 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34922201

RESUMO

Akkermansia muciniphila is a probiotic that colonizes the outer layer of intestinal mucus and is negatively associated with metabolic disorders. Amuc_2109 protein, a ß-N-acetylhexosaminidase from A. muciniphila, may be involved in the degradation of mucins and is associated with intestinal health. Here, we reported the crystal structure of Amuc_2109, which belongs to the GH family 3 enzymes and fell into the canonical (α/ß)8 TIM barrel structure with GlcNAc bound to the active center. Biochemical assay characterization of Amuc_2109 revealed that Amuc_2109 is a GlcNAc-specific glycosidase active over a wide temperature and pH range, reflecting the survival advantage of Amuc_2109 in the intestinal environment. Our structural and biochemical results will contribute to the understanding of the catalytic mechanism of the GH3 ß-N-acetylhexosaminidase and help to gain insight into the molecular mechanism of complex carbohydrate utilization and restoration of the intestinal barrier in A. muciniphila.


Assuntos
Mucinas/metabolismo , beta-N-Acetil-Hexosaminidases/química , beta-N-Acetil-Hexosaminidases/metabolismo , Acetilglucosamina/metabolismo , Akkermansia/enzimologia , Modelos Moleculares , Homologia Estrutural de Proteína , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Especificidade por Substrato
18.
Environ Pollut ; 291: 118120, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520951

RESUMO

Polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) microplastics (MPs), as carriers, can bind with pesticides, which propose harmful impacts to aqueous ecosystems. Meanwhile, carbofuran and carbendazim (CBD), two widely used carbamate pesticides, are toxic to humans because of the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity. The interaction between two MPs and two pesticides could start in farmland and be maintained during transportation to the ocean. Herein, the adsorption behavior and mechanism of carbofuran and carbendazim (CBD) by PE and PP MPs were investigated via characterization and density functional theory (DFT) simulation. The adsorption kinetic and thermodynamic data were best described by pseudo-second-order kinetics and the Freundlich models. The adsorption behaviors of individual carbofuran/CBD on both MPs were very similar. The CBD adsorption rate and capacity of PE and PP MPs were higher than those of carbofuran. This phenomenon explained the lower negative effects of DOM (oxalic acid, glycine (Gly)) on CBD adsorption relative to those of carbofuran. The presence of oxalic acid and Gly decreased the PE adsorption by 20.40-48.02% and the PP adsorption by 19.27-42.11%, respectively. It indicated the significance of DOM in carbofuran cycling. The adsorption capacities were negatively correlated with MPs size, indicating the importance of specific surficial area. Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy before and after adsorption suggested that the adsorption process did not produce any new covalent bond. Instead, intermolecular van der Waals forces were one of the primary adsorption mechanisms of carbofuran and CBD by MPs, as evidenced by DFT calculations. Based on the zeta potential, the electrostatic interaction explained the higher adsorption CBD by MPs than carbofuran.


Assuntos
Praguicidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Acetilcolinesterase , Adsorção , Teoria da Densidade Funcional , Ecossistema , Humanos , Microplásticos , Tamanho da Partícula , Plásticos , Polietileno , Polipropilenos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
19.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(11): 935, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34350250

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease, fatty liver disease, cardiac abnormalities, the metabolic syndrome, and insulin resistance may all occur in association with an increase of epicardial adipose tissue volume (EATV). Previous studies have shown that some cardiovascular-risk factors and healthy behaviors were related to a lower risk of EATV increase. The main purpose of this study was to determine whether ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) metrics were correlated with the prevalence of high EATV. METHODS: The study commenced across 2013 and 2014 and involved volunteers from the Jidong (East Hebei) district. A cohort of 2,482 participants aged 45 years or older were randomly selected, of which 49.9% were women and none were diagnosed as having cancer, stroke, or heart diseases such as atrial fibrillation, heart failure, or myocardial infarction. The study collected information concerning seven CVH metrics; namely body mass index, dietary intake, smoking, blood pressure, physical activity, total cholesterol, and fasting blood glucose, and evaluated EATV based on computed tomography. Finally, an analysis of the relationship between ideal CVH metrics and the prevalence of high EATV was made applying multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: On the basis that age, gender, and other potential confounding factors are adjusted, comparing the participants having an ideal CVH index of 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6-7 with those having a 0-1 metric, the adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of high EATV were as follows: 0.893 (0.468-1.705), 0.581 (0.316-1.069), 0.368 (0.202-0.670), 0.218 (0.119-0.400), and 0.161 (0.085-0.306) (P trend less than 0.0001). Similar negative correlations were also seen in other cases of different age groups and gender groups, where all P trends were less than 0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: The number of ideal CVH metrics in the northern Chinese population is negatively correlated with the prevalence of high EATV, supporting the greater use of EATV as a useful parameter in clinical practice.

20.
J Ophthalmol ; 2021: 6754013, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34336259

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aims to increase our understanding of the relationship between family and myopia in Chinese children. METHODS: Students had a physical examination and were required to provide the necessary demographic information. Children and their guardians from different family types were required to fill in a questionnaire concerning myopia factors. RESULTS: In this study, the prevalence of myopia in enrolled students aged 6-17 is 55.5%. The proportion of the nuclear family, extended family, single-parent family, and left-behind family is 40.6%, 43.7%, 11.1%, and 4.6%, respectively. Myopia rates from different family types by the order (nuclear family, extended family, single-parent family, and left-behind family) are 60.0%, 52.0%, 54.7%, and 50.9% taking on a decreasing trend, which shows an opposite trend comparing with elevated blood pressure, dental caries, and obesity. The interaction effect of the family type and region, physical examination, lifestyle (including diet habits, near work, outdoor activities, and sleep), and types of lamps and whether scolded by parents can have a significant impact on myopia. For primary school students (grade: 1-5), the prevalence of myopia in the nuclear family was a bit higher than that of myopia in the left-behind family, but for children in junior and senior high schools, both prevalences stayed similar. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, education pressure and time outdoors are still at play, and this kind of effect shows different phenomena in different families. Therefore, previous interventions would still work, and then the most critical challenge would be to ensure that left-behind children completed more schooling.

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