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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34050765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Age at natural menopause (ANM) is an important index for women's health. Either early or late ANM is associated with a series of adverse outcomes later in life. Despite being an inheritable trait, its genetic determinant has not yet been fully understood. METHODS: Aiming to better characterize the genetic architecture of ANM, we conducted genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analyses in European-specific as well as trans-ancestry samples by using GWAS summary statistics from the following 3 large studies: the Reproductive Genetics Consortium (ReproGen, N=69,626), the UK Biobank cohort (UKBB, N=111,593) and the BioBank Japan Project (BBJ, N=43,861), followed by a series of bioinformatical assessments and functional annotations. RESULTS: By integrating the summary statistics from the 3 GWAS of up to 225,200 participants, this largest meta-analysis identified 49 novel loci and 3 secondary signals that were associated with ANM at the genome-wide significance level (P<5×10 -8). No population specificity or heterogeneity was observed at most of the associated loci. Functional annotations prioritized 90 candidate genes at the newly identified loci. Among the 26 traits that were genetically correlated with ANM, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) exerted a causal relationship, implying a causal pattern by which HRT was determined by ANM. CONCLUSION: Our findings improved our understanding of the etiology of female menopause, as well as shed light on potential new therapies for abnormal menopause.

2.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 15: 557-576, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33603345

RESUMO

Purpose: The aim of the present study was to develop an optimized Genkwanin (GKA)-loaded self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) formulation to enhance the solubility, intestinal permeability, oral bioavailability and anti-colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC) activity of GKA. Methods: We designed a SNEDDS comprised oil phase, surfactants and co-surfactants for oral administration of GKA, the best of which were selected by investigating the saturation solubility, constructing pseudo-ternary phase diagrams, followed by optimizing thermodynamic stability, emulsification efficacy, self-nanoemulsification time, droplet size, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), drug release and intestinal permeability. In addition, the physicochemical properties and pharmacokinetics of GKA-SNEDDS were characterized, and its anti-colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC) activity and potential mechanisms were evaluated in AOM/DSS-induced C57BL/6J mice model. Results: The optimized nanoemulsion formula (OF) consists of Maisine CC, Labrasol ALF and Transcutol HP in a weight ratio of 20:60:20 (w/w/w), in which ratio the OF shows multiple improvements, specifically small mean droplet size, excellent stability, fast release properties as well as enhanced solubility and permeability. Pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated that compared with GKA suspension, the relative bioavailability of GKA-SNEDDS was increased by 353.28%. Moreover, GKA-SNEDDS not only significantly prevents weight loss and improves disease activity index (DAI) but also reduces the histological scores of inflammatory cytokine levels as well as inhibiting the formation of colon tumors via inducing tumor cell apoptosis in the AOM/DSS-induced CAC mice model. Conclusion: Our results show that the developed GKA-SNEDDS exhibited enhanced oral bioavailability and excellent anti-CAC efficacy. In summary, GKA-SNEDDS, using lipid nanoparticles as the drug delivery carrier, can be applied as a potential drug delivery system for improving the clinical application of GKA.

3.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 608, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097823

RESUMO

Appendicular lean mass (ALM) is a heritable trait associated with loss of lean muscle mass and strength, or sarcopenia, but its genetic determinants are largely unknown. Here we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) with 450,243 UK Biobank participants to uncover its genetic architecture. A total of 1059 conditionally independent variants from 799 loci were identified at the genome-wide significance level (p < 5 × 10-9), all of which were also significant at p < 5 × 10-5 in both sexes. These variants explained ~15.5% of the phenotypic variance, accounting for more than one quarter of the total ~50% GWAS-attributable heritability. There was no difference in genetic effect between sexes or among different age strata. Heritability was enriched in certain functional categories, such as conserved and coding regions, and in tissues related to the musculoskeletal system. Polygenic risk score prediction well distinguished participants with high and low ALM. The findings are important not only for lean mass but also for other complex diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, as ALM is shown to be a protective factor for type 2 diabetes.

4.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970232

RESUMO

Both bone mineral density (BMD) and lean body mass (LBM) are important physiological measures with strong genetic determination. Besides, BMD and LBM might have common genetic factors. Aiming to identify pleiotropic genomic loci underlying BMD and LBM, we performed bivariate genome-wide association study meta-analyses of femoral neck bone mineral density and LBM at arms and legs, and replicated in the large-scale UK Biobank cohort sample. Combining the results from discovery meta-analysis and replication sample, we identified three genomic loci at the genome-wide significance level (p < 5.0 × 10-8): 2p23.2 (lead SNP rs4477866, discovery p = 3.47 × 10-8, replication p = 1.03 × 10-4), 16q12.2 (rs1421085, discovery p = 2.04 × 10-9, replication p = 6.47 × 10-14) and 18q21.32 (rs11152213, discovery p = 3.47 × 10-8, replication p = 6.69 × 10-6). Our findings not only provide useful insights into lean mass and bone mass development, but also enhance our understanding of the potential genetic correlation between BMD and LBM.

5.
Bone ; : 115652, 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971307

RESUMO

Recent studies have demonstrated the important role played by gut microbiota in regulating bone development, but the evidence of such causal relationship is still sparse in human population. The aim of this study is to assess the causal relationship from gut microbiota to bone development and to identify specific causal bacteria taxa via a Mendelian randomization (MR) approach. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary statistic based two-sample MR analysis was performed. Summary statistics of microbiome GWAS (MGWAS) in 1126 twin pairs of the TwinsUK study was used as discovery sample, and the MGWAS in 984 Dutch participants from the LifeLines-DEEP cohort was used as replication sample. Estimated heel bone mineral density (eBMD) GWAS in 426,824 participants from the UK biobank (UKB) cohort was used as outcome. Bacteria were grouped into taxa features at both order and family levels. In the discovery sample, a total of 25 bacteria features including 9 orders and 16 families were analyzed. Fourteen features (5 orders + 9 families) were nominally significant, including 5 orders (Bacteroidales, Clostridiales, Lactobacillales, Pasteurellales and Verrucomicrobiales) and 9 families (Bacteroidaceae, Clostridiaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Mogibacteriaceae, Pasteurellaceae, Porphyromonadaceae, Streptococcaceae, Verrucomicrobiaceae and Veillonellaceae). One order Clostridiales and its child taxon, family Lachnospiraceae, were successfully replicated in the replication sample (Clostridiales Pdiscovery = 3.32 × 10-3Preplication = 7.29 × 10-3; Lachnospiraceae Pdiscovery = 0.03 Preplication = 7.29 × 10-3). Our findings provided evidence of causal relationship from microbiota to bone development, as well as identified specific bacteria taxa that regulated bone mass variation, thus providing new insights into the microbiota mediated bone development mechanism.

6.
J Hum Genet ; 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929176

RESUMO

Bone mineral density (BMD) and lean body mass (LBM) not only have a considerable heritability each, but also are genetically correlated. However, common genetic determinants shared by both traits are largely unknown. In the present study, we performed a bivariate genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of hip BMD and trunk lean mass (TLM) in 11,335 subjects from 6 samples, and performed replication in estimated heel BMD and TLM in 215,234 UK Biobank (UKB) participants. We identified 2 loci that nearly attained the genome-wide significance (GWS, p < 5.0 × 10-8) level in the discovery GWAS meta-analysis and that were successfully replicated in the UKB sample: 11p15.2 (lead SNP rs12800228, discovery p = 2.88 × 10-7, replication p = 1.95 × 10-4) and 18q21.32 (rs489693, discovery p = 1.67 × 10-7, replication p = 1.17 × 10-3). The above 2 pleiotropic loci may play a pleiotropic role for hip BMD and TLM development. So our findings provide useful insights that further enhance our understanding of genetic interplay between BMD and LBM.

7.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963334

RESUMO

Osteoporosis and obesity are two severe complex diseases threatening public health worldwide. Both diseases are under strong genetic determinants as well as genetically correlated. Aiming to identify pleiotropic genes underlying obesity and osteoporosis, we performed a bivariate genome-wide association (GWA) meta-analysis of hip bone mineral density (BMD) and total body fat mass (TBFM) in 12,981 participants from seven samples, and followed by in silico replication in the UK biobank (UKB) cohort sample (N = 217,822). Combining the results from discovery meta-analysis and replication sample, we identified one novel locus, 17q21.31 (lead SNP rs12150327, NC_000017.11:g.44956910G > A, discovery bivariate P = 4.83 × 10-9, replication P = 5.75 × 10-5) at the genome-wide significance level (ɑ = 5.0 × 10-8), which may have pleiotropic effects to both hip BMD and TBFM. Functional annotations highlighted several candidate genes, including KIF18B, C1QL1, and PRPF19 that may exert pleiotropic effects to the development of both body mass and bone mass. Our findings can improve our understanding of the etiology of osteoporosis and obesity, as well as shed light on potential new therapies.

8.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 263: 113131, 2020 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730879

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Wine-processed Radix scutellariae (RS) is the processed product of RS, which is the dried root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. It is recorded in Chinese traditional formula that wine-processed RS has the effect of anti-migraine, while the effect has not been confirmed and the possible mechanism remains unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: To verify the anti-migraine effect of wine-processed RS in nitroglycerin (NTG)-induced rats and explore the correlation between compounds dissolution and the pore structure based on fractal theory. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the validation of pharmacodynamics, the effects of wine-processed RS on migraines were firstly evaluated by observing the number of head-scratching of rats, then investigated by determining the levels of nitric oxide (NO), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and the expression of c-Fos in the brain of NTG-induced rat models using ELISA and immunohistochemical assessments. In the correlation study, the stir-frying time of RS was set to 5 min, 10 min and 15 min. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) and mercury intrusion method were used to explore the pore structure and main parameters of the pore structure including pore size distribution, pore volume, porosity, surface area and fractal dimension. The compounds dissolution of total flavonoids and five major components containing baicalein, baicalin, scutellarin, wogonin and wogonoside was determined by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and HPLC separately. RESULTS: The animal experiments had shown that wine-processed RS could significantly reduce the head-scratching times of NTG-induced rat models (p < 0.01) and markedly decrease the levels of NO (p < 0.01), CGRP (p < 0.05) and the expression of c-Fos (p < 0.01) compared with model group. The data indicated that wine-processing would affect the dissolution of compounds by changing the pore structure of RS. The order of positive correlation between pore structure parameters and compounds' dissolution was total surface area > fractal dimension (r > 0) and the order of negative correlation was average pore size > total porosity > total volume (r < 0). Compared with the other sample groups (p < 0.05), the wine-processed RS stir-fried for 10 min had a pore structure which was more favorable for compounds dissolution. CONCLUSIONS: Wine-processing could strengthen the anti-migraine effect of RS by changing the pore structure of RS, which is linked to the dissolution of compounds. The RS stir-fried for 10 min may be more effective in treating migraine.

9.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 44(10): 2113-2123, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719433

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fat mass and lean mass are two biggest components of body mass. Both fat mass and lean mass are under strong genetic determinants and are correlated. METHODS: We performed a bivariate genome-wide association meta-analysis of (lean adjusted) leg fat mass and (fat adjusted) leg lean mass in 12,517 subjects from 6 samples, and followed by in silico replication in large-scale UK biobank cohort sample (N = 370 097). RESULTS: We identified four loci that were significant at the genome-wide significance (GWS, α = 5.0 × 10-8) level at the discovery meta-analysis, and successfully replicated in the replication sample: 2q36.3 (rs1024137, pdiscovery = 3.32 × 10-8, preplication = 4.07 × 10-13), 5q13.1 (rs4976033, pdiscovery = 1.93 × 10-9, preplication = 6.35 × 10-7), 12q24.31 (rs4765528, pdiscovery = 7.19 × 10-12, preplication = 1.88 × 10-11) and 18q21.32 (rs371326986, pdiscovery = 9.04 × 10-9, preplication = 2.35 × 10-95). The above four pleiotropic loci may play a pleiotropic role for fat mass and lean mass development. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings further enhance the understanding of the genetic association between fat mass and lean mass and provide a new theoretical basis for their understanding.

10.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e922710, 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450567

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Keratitis is a complex condition in humans and is the second most common cause of legal blindness worldwide. MATERIAL AND METHODS To reveal the genomic loci underlying keratitis, we performed functional annotations of SNP-based and gene-based genome-wide association studies of keratitis in the UK Biobank (UKB) cohort with 337 199 subjects of European ancestry. RESULTS The publicly available SNP-based association results showed a total of 34 SNPs, from 14 distinct loci, associated with keratitis in the UKB. Gene-based association analysis identified 2 significant genes: IQCF3 (p=2.0×10⁻6) and SOD3 (p=2.0×10⁻6). Thirty-two candidate genes were then prioritized using information from multiple sources. The overlap of IQCF3 in these 2 analyses resulted in a total of 33 hub genes. Functional annotation of hub genes was performed and transcriptional factors of IQCF3 and SOD3 were predicted. CONCLUSIONS A total of 34 SNPs from 14 distinct loci were identified as being associated with keratitis, and 32 candidate genes were then prioritized. In addition, IQCF3 and SOD3 were identified by their p values through gene-based tests on the basis of individual SNP-based tests. The functional relationship between these suspect genes and keratitis suggest that IQCF3 and SOD3 are candidate genes underlying keratitis.

11.
Hum Genet ; 139(8): 1023-1035, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32239398

RESUMO

Aiming to uncover a shared genetic basis of abdominal obesity and osteoporosis, we performed a bivariate GWAS meta-analysis of femoral neck BMD (FNK-BMD) and trunk fat mass adjusted by trunk lean mass (TFMadj) in 11,496 subjects from 6 samples, followed by in silico replication in the large-scale UK Biobank (UKB) cohort. A series of functional investigations were conducted on the identified variants. Bivariate GWAS meta-analysis identified two novel pleiotropic loci 12q15 (lead SNP rs73134637, p = 3.45 × 10-7) and 10p14 (lead SNP rs2892347, p = 2.63 × 10-7) that were suggestively associated and that were replicated in the analyses of related traits in the UKB sample (osteoporosis p = 0.06 and 0.02, BMI p = 0.03 and 4.61 × 10-3, N up to 499,520). Cis-eQTL analysis demonstrated that allele C at rs73134637 was positively associated with IFNG expression in whole blood (N = 369, p = 0.04), and allele A at rs11254759 (10p14, p = 9.49 × 10-7) was negatively associated with PRKCQ expression in visceral adipose tissue (N = 313, p = 0.04) and in lymphocytes (N = 117, p = 0.03). As a proof-of-principle experiment, the function of rs11254759, which is 235 kb 5'-upstream from PRKCQ gene, was investigated by the dual-luciferase reporter assay, which clearly showed that the haplotype carrying rs11254759 regulated PRKCQ expression by upregulating PRKCQ promoter activity (p = 4.60 × 10-7) in an allelic specific manner. Mouse model analysis showed that heterozygous PRKCQ deficient mice presented decreased fat mass compared to wild-type control mice (p = 3.30 × 10-3). Mendelian randomization analysis demonstrated that both FNK-BMD and TFMadj were causally associated with fracture risk (p = 1.26 × 10-23 and 1.18 × 10-11). Our findings may provide useful insights into the genetic association between osteoporosis and abdominal obesity.


Assuntos
Pleiotropia Genética/genética , Interferon gama/genética , Obesidade Abdominal/genética , Osteoporose/genética , Proteína Quinase C-theta/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Animais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Colo do Fêmur/fisiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética
13.
Front Genet ; 10: 947, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31681408

RESUMO

As an important trait at birth, infant head circumference (HC) is associated with a variety of intelligence- and mental-related conditions. Despite being dominated by genetics, the mechanism underlying the variation of HC is poorly understood. Aiming to uncover the genetic basis of HC, we performed a genome-wide joint association analysis by integrating the genome-wide association summary statistics of HC with that of its two related traits, birth length and birth weight, using a recently developed integrative method, multitrait analysis of genome-wide association (MTAG), and performed in silico replication in an independent sample of intracranial volume (N = 26,577). We then conducted a series of bioinformatic investigations on the identified loci. Combining the evidence from both the MTAG analysis and the in silico replication, we identified three novel loci at the genome-wide significance level (α = 5.0 × 10-8): 3q23 [lead single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs9846396, p MTAG = 3.35 × 10-8, p replication = 0.01], 7p15.3 (rs12534093, p MTAG = 2.00 × 10-8, p replication = 0.004), and 9q33.3 (rs7048271 p MTAG = 9.23 × 10-10, p replication = 1.14 × 10-4). Each of the three lead SNPs was associated with at least one of eight brain-related traits including intelligence and educational attainment. Credible risk variants, defined as those SNPs located within 500 kb of the lead SNP and with p values within two orders of magnitude of the lead SNP, were enriched in DNase I hypersensitive site region in brain. Nine candidate genes were prioritized at the three novel loci using multiple sources of information. Gene set enrichment analysis identified one associated pathway GO:0048009, which participates in the development of nervous system. Our findings provide useful insights into the genetic basis of HC and the relationship between brain growth and mental health.

14.
Skelet Muscle ; 9(1): 28, 2019 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757224

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low lean body mass is the most important predictor of sarcopenia with strong genetic background. The aim of this study was to uncover genetic factors underlying lean mass development. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of fat-adjusted leg lean mass in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS, N = 6587), and replicated in the Women's Health Initiative-African American sub-sample (WHI-AA, N = 847) and the Kansas City Osteoporosis Study (KCOS, N = 2219). We also cross-validated significant variants in the publicly available body mass index (BMI) summary results (N ~ 700,000). We then performed a series of functional investigations on the identified variants. RESULTS: Four correlated SNPs at 6p21.1 were identified at the genome-wide significance (GWS, α = 5.0 × 10-8) level in the discovery FHS sample (rs551145, rs524533, rs571770, and rs545970, p = 3.40-9.77 × 10-9), and were successfully replicated in both the WHI-AA and the KCOS samples (one-sided p = 1.61 × 10-3-0.04). They were further cross-validated by the large-scale BMI summary results (p = 7.0-9.8 × 10-3). Cis-eQTL analyses associated these SNPs with the NFKBIE gene expression. Electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA) in mouse C2C12 myoblast cells implied that rs524533 and rs571770 were bound to an unknown transcription factor in an allelic specific manner, while rs551145 and rs545970 did not. Dual-luciferase reporter assay revealed that both rs524533 and rs571770 downregulated luciferase expression by repressing promoter activity. Moreover, the regulation pattern was allelic specific, strengthening the evidence towards their differential regulatory effects. CONCLUSIONS: Through a large-scale GWAS followed by a series of functional investigations, we identified 2 correlated functional variants at 6p21.1 associated with leg lean mass. Our findings not only enhanced our understanding of molecular basis of lean mass development but also provided useful candidate genes for further functional studies.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 6/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sarcopenia/genética , Magreza/genética , Idoso , Animais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Linhagem Celular , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Proteínas I-kappa B/genética , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Sarcopenia/patologia , Magreza/patologia
15.
Clin Ther ; 41(11): 2263-2272, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561881

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of the study is to compare the free hexafluoro-isopropanol (HFIP) concentration in adults' blood and the incidence of emergence agitation (EA) after inhaled different concentrations of sevoflurane. METHODS: Sixty adult patients planning to undergo laparoscopic gastrointestinal surgery were randomly assigned to 3 groups. Each group received sevoflurane as the volatile anesthetic at different concentrations: 0.5 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC), 1.0 MAC, and 1.5 MAC. The use of sevoflurane was continued until the end of surgery. Venous blood samples were obtained at 30, 60, 120, and 180 minutes after starting the use of sevoflurane and subsequently at 60, 180, and 300 minutes after discontinuation of volatile anesthetic administration. Blood concentrations of sevoflurane and free HFIP were determined using gas chromatography. The recovery time and the incidence of EA at different time points were evaluated among the 3 groups. FINDINGS: Changes in the blood concentrations of sevoflurane and free HFIP during and after the use of sevoflurane were similar in all 3 groups. The peak blood concentration of free HFIP occurred 60 minutes after onset of sevoflurane anesthesia in all 3 groups (P < 0.05). The lowest level of free HFIP and the longest recovery time were found in the 1.5-MAC group (P < 0.05). No significant difference was found in the incidence of EA or moderate pain among the 3 groups during recovery. IMPLICATIONS: The generation of HFIP would be inhibited when the inhaled sevoflurane concentration increased to 1.5 MAC. However, the incidence of EA during recovery had nothing to do with the inhaled different sevoflurane concentrations (within 1.5 MAC) in adults. ChicCTR.org identifier: ChiCTR-IPD-17011558.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Inalatórios/efeitos adversos , Delírio do Despertar/induzido quimicamente , Propanóis/sangue , Sevoflurano/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Anestesia , Anestésicos Inalatórios/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Inalatórios/farmacocinética , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Delírio do Despertar/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Laparoscopia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sevoflurano/administração & dosagem , Sevoflurano/farmacocinética
16.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 21(9): 868-875, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506144

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the significance of plasma neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) and its markers in the diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children. METHODS: A total of 160 children with CAP were enrolled as the CAP group, and 50 healthy children were enrolled the control group. According to disease severity, the CAP group was further divided into a mild CAP subgroup with 137 children and a severe CAP subgroup with 23 children. According to the pathogen, the CAP group was further divided into a bacterial pneumonia subgroup with 78 children, a Mycoplasma pneumonia subgroup with 35 children, and a viral pneumonia subgroup with 47 children. The levels of plasma NET and its markers [antibacterial peptide (LL-37), extracellular free DNA (cfDNA), and deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I)] were measured. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to analyze the value of each index in diagnosing CAP and assessing its severity. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the CAP group had significant increases in the levels of NET, LL-37, and cfDNA and a significant reduction in the activity of DNase I (P<0.05). Compared with the mild CAP subgroup, the severe CAP subgroup had significantly higher levels of NET, LL-37 and cfDNA and a significantly lower activity of DNase I (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in the levels of NET, LL-37, and cfDNA and the activity of DNase I among the bacterial pneumonia, Mycoplasma pneumonia, and viral pneumonia subgroups (P>0.05). In the CAP group, plasma NET levels were positively correlated with white blood cell count (WBC), percentage of neutrophils, and serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin and tumor necrosis factor-α (r=0.166, 0.168, 0.275, 0.181 and 0.173 respectively, P<0.05); LL-37 and cfDNA levels were positively correlated with WBC (r=0.186 and 0.338 respectively, P<0.05) and CRP levels (r=0.309 and 0.274 respectively, P<0.05); the activity of DNase I was negatively correlated with CRP levels (r=-0.482, P<0.05). The ROC curve analysis showed that NET, LL-37, cfDNA, and DNase I had an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.844, 0.648, 0.727, and 0.913 respectively in the diagnosis of CAP, with optimal cut-off values of 182.89, 46.26 ng/mL, 233.13 ng/mL, and 0.39 U/mL respectively, sensitivities of 88.12%, 35.63%, 54.37%, and 91.25% respectively, and specificities of 74.00%, 92.00%, 86.00%, and 76.00% respectively. In the assessment of the severity of CAP, NET, LL-37, cfDNA, and DNase I had an AUC of 0.873, 0.924, 0.820, and 0.778 respectively, with optimal cut-off values of 257.7, 49.11 ng/mL, 252.54 ng/mL, and 0.29 U/mL respectively, sensitivities of 83.21%, 86.96%, 78.26%, and 95.65% respectively, and specificities of 78.26%, 83.94%, 76.64%, and 56.93% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma NET and its related markers have a certain value in diagnosing CAP and assessing its severity in children.


Assuntos
Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas , Armadilhas Extracelulares , Pneumonia , Biomarcadores , Proteína C-Reativa , Criança , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Precoce , Humanos , Curva ROC
17.
Bone ; 127: 37-43, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158506

RESUMO

The level of serum lipids is associated with bone mineral density (BMD), an important skeletal trait. Yet the causality has not been determined. Here we performed a Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis to test potential causal links between BMD and lipid profile, i.e., low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDC-c), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c). We observed causal effect of LDL-c, TC and TG to BMD, and reversely the effect of BMD to HDL-c. We further explored the effect of body mass index (BMI) in these causalities and found that the effect of LDL-c, TC and TG to BMD is independent of BMI. Our findings provided useful information in the clinical relevance of blood lipids on BMD variation and osteoporosis risk.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/genética , Lipídeos/sangue , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Análise de Regressão
18.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 43(12): 2480-2490, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30944420

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Aiming to uncover the genetic basis of abdominal obesity, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of trunk fat mass adjusted by trunk lean mass (TFMadj) and followed by a series of functional investigations. SUBJECTS: A total of 11,569 subjects from six samples were included into the GWAS meta-analysis. METHODS: Meta-analysis was performed by a weighted fixed-effects model. In silico replication analysis was performed in the UK-Biobank (UKB) sample (N = 331,093) and in the GIANT study (N up to 110,204). Cis-expression QTL (cis-eQTL) analysis, dual-luciferase reporter assay and electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA) were conducted to examine the functional relevance of the identified SNPs. At last, differential gene expression analysis (DGEA) was performed. RESULTS: We identified an independent SNP rs12409479 at 1p21 (MAF = 0.07, p = 7.26 × 10-10), whose association was replicated by the analysis of TFM in the UKB sample (one-sided p = 3.39 × 10-3), and was cross-validated by the analyses of BMI (one-sided p = 0.03) and WHRadj (one-sided p = 0.04) in the GIANT study. Cis-eQTL analysis demonstrated that allele A at rs12409479 was positively associated with PTBP2 expression level in subcutaneous adipose tissue (N = 385, p = 4.15 × 10-3). Dual-luciferase reporter assay showed that the region repressed PTBP2 gene expression by downregulating PTBP2 promoter activity (p < 0.001), and allele A at rs12409479 induced higher luciferase activity than allele G did (p = 4.15 × 10-3). EMSA experiment implied that allele A was more capable of binding to unknown transcription factors than allele G. Lastly, DGEA showed that the level of PTBP2 expression was higher in individuals with obesity than in individuals without obesity (N = 20 and 11, p = 0.04 and 9.22 × 10-3), suggesting a regulatory role in obesity development. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, we hypothesize a regulating path from rs12409479 to trunk fat mass development through its allelic specific regulation of PTBP2 gene expression, thus providing some novel insight into the genetic basis of abdominal obesity.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 1/genética , Obesidade Abdominal/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/análise , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Proteína de Ligação a Regiões Ricas em Polipirimidinas/análise , Proteína de Ligação a Regiões Ricas em Polipirimidinas/genética , Proteína de Ligação a Regiões Ricas em Polipirimidinas/metabolismo
19.
J Bone Miner Res ; 34(6): 1086-1094, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30690781

RESUMO

Bone mineral density (BMD) at various skeletal sites have shared genetic determinants. In the present study, aiming to identify shared loci associated with BMD, we conducted a joint association study of a genomewide association study (GWAS) and a meta-analysis of BMD at different skeletal sites: (i) a single GWAS of heel BMD in 142,487 individuals from the UK Biobank, and (ii) a meta-analysis of 30 GWASs of total body (TB) BMD in 66,628 individuals from the Genetic Factors for Osteoporosis (GEFOS) Consortium. The genetic correlation coefficient of the two traits was estimated to be 0.57. We performed joint association analysis with a recently developed statistical method multi-trait analysis of GWAS (MTAG) to account for trait heterogeneity and sample overlap. The joint association analysis combining samples of up to 209,115 individuals identified 18 novel loci associated with BMD at the genomewide significance level (α = 5.0 × 10-8 ), explaining an additional 0.43% and 0.60% of heel-BMD and TB-BMD heritability, respectively. The vast majority of the identified lead SNPs or their proxies exerted local expression quantitative trait loci (cis-eQTL) activity. Credible risk variants, defined as those SNPs located within 500 kilobases (kb) of the lead SNP and with p values within two orders of magnitude of the lead SNP, were enriched in transcription factor binding sites (p = 3.58 × 10-4 ) and coding regions (p = 5.71 × 10-4 ). Fifty-six candidate genes were prioritized at these novel loci using multiple sources of information, including several genes being previously reported to play a role in bone biology but not reported in previous GWASs (PPARG, FBN2, DEF6, TNFRSF19, and NFE2L1). One newly identified gene, SCMH1, was shown to upregulate the expression of several bone biomarkers, including alkaline phosphatase (ALP), collagen type 1 (COL-I), osteocalcin (OCN), osteopontin (OPN), and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), in mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells, highlighting its regulatory role in bone formation. Our results may provide useful candidate genes for future functional investigations. © 2019 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/genética , Loci Gênicos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Cromossomos de Mamíferos/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genoma , Camundongos , Proteínas do Grupo Polycomb/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
20.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 12: 2897-2903, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30254419

RESUMO

Background: Geraniol is a monoterpene alcohol that has anti-fungal, anti-cancer and anti-nociceptive properties, but its anti-allergic rhinitis (AR) property is unclear. Methods: In this study, the anti-inflammatory role and its possible mechanisms of geraniol in human mast cell line (HMC-1) cells stimulated by inflammatory trigger phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus A23187 (PMACI), as well as in ovalbumin (OVA)-induced AR mice models were investigated. Results: PMACI results in a significant increase in the production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-1ß, MCP-1, IL-6 and as well as histamine. Geraniol was found to inhibit both TNF-α, IL-1ß and IL-6 protein and mRNA expressions at concentrations of 40, 80, 160 µM. In OVA-induced AR models, geraniol treatment was able to suppress AR biomarkers (OVA-specific IgE and IL-1ß as well as histamine) and nasal rub scores. Interestingly, p38, a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling family, was found to be increasingly hypophosphorylated as geraniol dose was increased. Similar decreases in the nuclear level of p65, a member of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway, were also observed. Conclusion: Our data highlights that the anti-inflammatory properties of geraniol on AR-related markers in activated HCM-1 cells and OVA-induced AR models may be mediated through the regulation of the MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Antialérgicos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Calcimicina/farmacologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/antagonistas & inibidores , Rinite Alérgica/tratamento farmacológico , Terpenos/farmacologia , Acetato de Tetradecanoilforbol/análogos & derivados , Monoterpenos Acíclicos , Animais , Antialérgicos/química , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Linhagem Celular , Citocinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Citocinas/biossíntese , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Histamina/metabolismo , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Estrutura Molecular , Ovalbumina , Rinite Alérgica/induzido quimicamente , Rinite Alérgica/imunologia , Rinite Alérgica/patologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Terpenos/química , Acetato de Tetradecanoilforbol/farmacologia
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