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1.
ChemSusChem ; 14(7): 1710-1719, 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33595904

RESUMO

The commercialization of Li-S batteries is hindered by the shuttling of lithium polysulfides (LiPSs), the sluggish sulfur redox kinetics as well as the low sulfur utilization during charge/discharge processes. Herein, a free-standing cathode material was developed, based on Fe-doped NiSe2 nanosheets grown on activated carbon cloth substrates (Fe-NiSe2 /ACC) for high-performance Li-S batteries. Fe-doping in NiSe2 plays a key role in the electronic structure modulation of NiSe2 , enabling improved charge transfer with the adsorbed LiPSs molecules, stronger interactions with the active sulfur species and higher electrical conductivity. Effective promotion of the sulfur redox kinetics and enhanced sulfur utilization were achieved under high areal sulfur loadings. The stronger interactions with LiPSs together with the unique 3D structure of Fe-NiSe2 /ACC also induced the transformation of Li2 S2 /Li2 S growth from conventional 2D films to 3D particles, significantly eliminating the barriers of solid nucleation and growth during the phase transition of liquid LiPSs to solid Li2 S2 /Li2 S. With a high sulfur loading of 9.9 mg cm-2 , the Fe-NiSe2 /ACC cathode enabled a high area capacity of 9.14 mAh cm-2 with a low average decay of 0.11 % per cycle over 200 cycles at 0.1 C.

2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1179, 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33608559

RESUMO

Directly mapping local phonon dispersion in individual nanostructures can advance our understanding of their thermal, optical, and mechanical properties. However, this requires high detection sensitivity and combined spatial, energy and momentum resolutions, thus has been elusive. Here, we demonstrate a four-dimensional electron energy loss spectroscopy technique, and present position-dependent phonon dispersion measurements in individual boron nitride nanotubes. By scanning the electron beam in real space while monitoring both the energy loss and the momentum transfer, we are able to reveal position- and momentum-dependent lattice vibrations at nanometer scale. Our measurements show that the phonon dispersion of multi-walled nanotubes is locally close to hexagonal-boron nitride crystals. Interestingly, acoustic phonons are sensitive to defect scattering, while optical modes are insensitive to small voids. This work not only provides insights into vibrational properties of boron nitride nanotubes, but also demonstrates potential of the developed technique in nanoscale phonon dispersion measurements.

3.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2021: 6690299, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33505516

RESUMO

Identification of bacterial type III secreted effectors (T3SEs) has become a popular research topic in the field of bioinformatics due to its crucial role in understanding host-pathogen interaction and developing better therapeutic targets against the pathogens. However, the recognition of all effector proteins by using traditional experimental approaches is often time-consuming and laborious. Therefore, development of computational methods to accurately predict putative novel effectors is important in reducing the number of biological experiments for validation. In this study, we proposed a method, called iT3SE-PX, to identify T3SEs solely based on protein sequences. First, three kinds of features were extracted from the position-specific scoring matrix (PSSM) profiles to help train a machine learning (ML) model. Then, the extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) algorithm was performed to rank these features based on their classification ability. Finally, the optimal features were selected as inputs to a support vector machine (SVM) classifier to predict T3SEs. Based on the two benchmark datasets, we conducted a 100-time randomized 5-fold cross validation (CV) and an independent test, respectively. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method achieved superior performance compared to most of the existing methods and could serve as a useful tool for identifying putative T3SEs, given only the sequence information.

4.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 539: 70-76, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422942

RESUMO

Crystallin gene mutations are responsible for about half of the congenital cataract caused by genetic disorders. L45P and Y46D mutations of γC-crystallin have been reported in patients with nuclear congenital cataract. In this study, we explored the thermal stability of wild type (WT), L45P, and Y46D mutants of γC-crystallin at low and high concentrations, as well as the effect of αA-crystallin on the thermal stability of mutants. Spectroscopic experiments were used to monitor the structural changes on temperature-gradient and time-course heating process. Intermediate morphologies were determined through cryo-electron microscopy. The thermal stability of WT and mutants at concentrations ranging up to hundreds of milligrams were assessed via the UNcle multifunctional protein stability analysis system. The results showed that L45P and Y46D mutations impaired the thermal stability of γC-crystallin at low (0.2 mg/mL) and high concentrations (up to 200 mg/mL). Notably, with increase in protein concentration, the thermal stability of L45P and Y46D mutants of γC-crystallin simultaneously decreased. Thermal stability of L45P and Y46D mutants could be rescued by αA-crystallin in a concentration-dependent manner. The dramatic decrease in thermal stability of γC-crystallin caused by L45P and Y46D mutations contributed to congenital cataract in the mature human lens.

5.
J Med Chem ; 64(3): 1454-1480, 2021 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33492963

RESUMO

Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) binds to a family of sphingosine-1-phosphate G-protein-coupled receptors (S1P1-5). The interaction of S1P with these S1P receptors has a fundamental role in many physiological processes in the vascular and immune systems. Agonist-induced functional antagonism of S1P1 has been shown to result in lymphopenia. As a result, agonists of this type hold promise as therapeutics for autoimmune disorders. The previously disclosed differentiated S1P1 modulator BMS-986104 (1) exhibited improved preclinical cardiovascular and pulmonary safety profiles as compared to earlier full agonists of S1P1; however, it demonstrated a long pharmacokinetic half-life (T1/2 18 days) in the clinic and limited formation of the desired active phosphate metabolite. Optimization of this series through incorporation of olefins, ethers, thioethers, and glycols into the alkyl side chain afforded an opportunity to reduce the projected human T1/2 and improve the formation of the active phosphate metabolite while maintaining efficacy as well as the improved safety profile. These efforts led to the discovery of 12 and 24, each of which are highly potent, biased agonists of S1P1. These compounds not only exhibited shorter in vivo T1/2 in multiple species but are also projected to have significantly shorter T1/2 values in humans when compared to our first clinical candidate. In models of arthritis, treatment with 12 and 24 demonstrated robust efficacy.


Assuntos
Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes/síntese química , Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes/farmacologia , Pró-Proteína Convertases/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina Endopeptidases/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Autoimunes/tratamento farmacológico , Biotransformação , Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes/efeitos adversos , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Quimiotaxia de Leucócito/efeitos dos fármacos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Meia-Vida , Humanos , Pneumopatias/induzido quimicamente , Pneumopatias/patologia , Masculino , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosforilação , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos Lew , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
6.
Clin Cancer Res ; 27(7): 1974-1986, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355244

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In multiple myeloma, drug-resistant cells underlie relapse or progression following chemotherapy. Cell adhesion-mediated drug resistance (CAM-DR) is an established mechanism used by myeloma cells (MMC) to survive chemotherapy and its markers are upregulated in residual disease. The integrin very late antigen 4 (VLA4; α4ß1) is a key mediator of CAM-DR and its expression affects drug sensitivity of MMCs. Rather than trying to inhibit its function, here, we hypothesized that upregulation of VLA4 by resistant MMCs could be exploited for targeted delivery of drugs, which would improve safety and efficacy of treatments. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We synthetized 20 nm VLA4-targeted micellar nanoparticles (V-NP) carrying DiI for tracing or a novel camptothecin prodrug (V-CP). Human or murine MMCs, alone or with stroma, and immunocompetent mice with orthotopic multiple myeloma were used to track delivery of NPs and response to treatments. RESULTS: V-NPs selectively delivered their payload to MMCs in vitro and in vivo, and chemotherapy increased their uptake by surviving MMCs. V-CP, alone or in combination with melphalan, was well tolerated and prolonged survival in myeloma-bearing mice. V-CP also reduced the dose requirement for melphalan, reducing tumor burden in association with suboptimal dosing without increasing overall toxicity. CONCLUSIONS: V-CP may be a safe and effective strategy to prevent or treat relapsing or refractory myeloma. V-NP targeting of resistant cells may suggest a new approach to environment-induced resistance in cancer.

7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 207: 111547, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254406

RESUMO

In this paper, earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were exposed to sublethal doses of dichlorvos (spiked concentration of 0.1, 1.0, 10 mg/kg) in soil for 14 days, the metabolomics and activities of cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes (CYP1A2, CYP2C9 and CYP3A4) of earthworms were analyzed aiming to identify sensitive biomarkers and reveal possible mode of toxic action. The results showed that CYP1A2 and CYP2C9 activity appeared to be more sensitive than CYP3A4 activity in response to dichlorvos, and that metabolic responses based on the metabolomics depended on both of the length of exposure and exposure dose. Malate, ornithine, glucose, inosine, myo-inositol and some amino acids (glutamine, tryptophan, phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, histidine, glutamate, lysine) and CYP isozenzymes may be biomarkers to reveal the toxic effect of dichlorvos on earthworms. Compared to controls, when dichlorvos dose reached 1.0 and 10 mg/kg on day 14, glucose and ornithine increased significantly, malate and some amino acids (glutamine, tryptophan, phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine) decreased significantly, and activities of CYP1A2 and CYP2C9 were inhibited significantly. The current results suggested that 1.0 and 10 mg/kg dichlorvos for 14 days of exposure blocked energy metabolism, disordered Krebs cycle, interfered amino acids metabolism and evoked toxic effects on earthworms.


Assuntos
Diclorvós/toxicidade , Oligoquetos/fisiologia , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A2/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A2/farmacologia , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Metabolômica/métodos , Oligoquetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise
8.
Mol Cytogenet ; 13(1): 47, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33292401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poa L. is a large genus of grass in Gramineae, among which P. pratensis is widely cultivated as turf and forage. Satellite DNA is the main components of the plant genome. Information of satellites will helpful for dissection the genome composition and definition of the phylogeny relationship of these species. However, the knowledge about the satellites in genus Poa is still limited. RESULTS: Four satellite DNAs were identified using the Repeat Explorer pipeline in HiSeq Illumina reads from diploid plants in P. malaca (2n = 26). Two satellites showed high similarity with the previously identified PpTr-1 and PpTr-3, whereas two others are newly identified with the monomer of 326 bp (Poa-326) and 353 bp (Poa-353) respectively. The clone DNAs of PpTr-1 and PpTr-3, and oligonucleotides designed representing satellites Poa-326 and Poa-353 were probed to test on chromosomes across 13 Poa speceis with different polyploidy level by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). PpTr-1, PpTr-3, and Poa-362 were stably positioned in the subtelomeric regions in nearly all species with the variation of hybridization sites number. However, Poa-353 showed different FISH patterns of multiple regions with the variation of hybridization intensity and distribution sites across species. In addition, 5S rDNA and 45S rDNA were used to characterize the genome of the Poa species. Four rDNA FISH patterns were revealed in the tested species. CONCLUSION: Four identified satellite were high conservable across Poa species. Genome distribution of these satellites can be characterized by FISH. The variation of satellite DNAs and rDNA chromosomal distributions between species provide useful information for phylogenetic analysis in genus Poa.

9.
Front Vet Sci ; 7: 569098, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33134354

RESUMO

In October 2018, an outbreak of transmissible viral proventriculitis (TVP) occurred in 30-day-old commercial broiler chickens on a farm in Weifang, China. TVP, an infectious viral disease characterized by runting and stunting, is associated with many viruses, and has a significant economic impact on the global poultry industry. TVP is diagnosed according to clinical symptoms, gross and histological lesions, and negative PCR results for pathogenic bacteria, avian leukosis virus subgroup J, Marek's disease virus, reticuloendotheliosis virus, infectious bursa disease virus, avian reovirus, chicken anemia virus, infectious bronchitis virus, chicken proventricular necrosis virus, gyrovirus 3 and chicken circovirus. To further detect the possible causative pathogens of TVP, we used PacBio third-generation sequencing to examine proventricular samples. A dominant abundance of the novel cyclovirus (CyCV), chCyCV-SDAU-1, was identified in broilers with TVP. The complete chCyCV-SDAU-1 genome was verified via inverse PCR, was 1936 bp long, and consisted of Rep, Cp, and two intergenic regions. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that chCyCV-SDAU-1 formed an independent branch with other cycloviruses. The homology of chCyCV-SDAU-1 with 20 others known cycloviruses was < 40%. Retrospective investigation showed that the CyCV infection rate in the broilers with TVP was 80% (16/20), while no CyCV was found in healthy chickens. In conclusion, a novel CyCV was identified in chickens with TVP, though its role in this disease is unclear.

11.
Circ Res ; 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070717

RESUMO

Rationale: Hemorrhagic complications represent a major limitation of intravenous thrombolysis using tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in patients with ischemic stroke. The expression of tPA receptors on immune cells raises the question of what effects tPA exerts on these cells and whether these effects contribute to thrombolysis-related hemorrhagic transformation. Objective: We aim to determine the impact of tPA on immune cells and investigate the association between observed immune alteration with hemorrhagic transformation in ischemic stroke patients and in a rat model of embolic stroke. Methods and Results: Paired blood samples were collected before and 1 hour after tPA infusion from 71 ischemic stroke patients. Control blood samples were collected from 27 ischemic stroke patients without tPA treatment. A rat embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion model was adopted to investigate the underlying mechanisms of hemorrhagic transformation. We report that tPA induces a swift surge of circulating neutrophils and T cells with profoundly altered molecular features in ischemic stroke patients and a rat model of focal embolic stroke. tPA exacerbates endothelial injury, increases adhesion and migration of neutrophils and T cells, which are associated with brain hemorrhage in rats subjected to embolic stroke. Genetic ablation of annexin A2 in neutrophils and T cells diminishes the effect of tPA on these cells. Decoupling the interaction between mobilized neutrophils/T cells and the neurovascular unit, achieved via a sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 modulator RP101075 and a CCL2 synthesis inhibitor bindarit, which block lymphocyte egress and myeloid cell recruitment, respectively, attenuates hemorrhagic transformation and improves neurological function after tPA thrombolysis. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that immune invasion of the neurovascular unit represents a previously unrecognized mechanism underlying tPA-mediated brain hemorrhage, which can be overcome by precise immune modulation during thrombolytic therapy.

12.
J Drug Target ; : 1-32, 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115283

RESUMO

Insulin resistance promotes the occurrence of liver cancer and decreases its chemosensitivity. Rosiglitazone (ROSI), a thiazolidinedione insulin sensitizer, could be used for diabetes with insulin resistance and has been reported to show anticancer effects on human malignant cells. In this paper, we investigated the combination of ROSI and chemotherapeutics on the growth and metastasis of insulin-resistant hepatoma. In vitro assay, ROSI significantly enhanced the inhibitory effects of adriamycin (ADR) on the proliferation, autophagy and migration of insulin-resistant hepatoma HepG2/IR cells via downregulation of EGFR/ERK and AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. In addition, ROSI promoted the apoptosis of HepG2/IR cells induced by ADR. In vivo assay, high fat and glucose diet and streptozotocin (STZ) induced insulin resistance in mice by increasing the body weight, fasting blood glucose (FBG) level, oral glucose tolerance, fasting insulin level and insulin resistance index. Both the growth of mouse liver cancer hepatoma H22 cells and serum FBG level in insulin resistant mice were significantly inhibited by combination of ROSI and ADR. Thus, ROSI and ADR in combination showed a stronger anti-tumor effect in insulin resistant hepatoma cells accompanying with glucose reduction and might represent an effective therapeutic strategy for liver cancer accompanied with insulin resistant diabetes.

13.
Stroke Vasc Neurol ; 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33122254

RESUMO

Stem cells (SCs) are cells with strong proliferation ability, multilineage differentiation potential and self-renewal capacity. SC transplantation represents an important therapeutic advancement for the treatment strategy of neurological diseases, both in the preclinical experimental and clinical settings. Innovative and breakthrough SC labelling and tracking technologies are widely used to monitor the distribution and viability of transplanted cells non-invasively and longitudinally. Here we summarised the research progress of the main tracers, labelling methods and imaging technologies involved in current SC tracking technologies for various neurological diseases. Finally, the applications, challenges and unresolved problems of current SC tracing technologies were discussed.

14.
Int J Ophthalmol ; 13(9): 1459-1466, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32953587

RESUMO

AIM: To explore the topographic distribution features of choroidal thickness (CT) and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT), and determine the relationship between CT and ocular parameters in school-aged children. METHODS: The healthy school-aged children with low ametropia or emmetropia in Wenzhou were recruited for this cross-sectional study. With high-density optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) combined with MATLAB software, the CT and RNFLT values in the macular area were measured at different locations and compared. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the correlation between CT and ophthalmic parameters, such as spherical equivalent (SE) and the axial length (AL). RESULTS: A total of 279 school-aged children with 8.00±1.35 years of mean age (range, 6-10y) were included. The mean AL was 23.66±0.86 mm. The mean CT in CT-C (264.31±48.93 µm) was thicker than that in CT-N1 (249.54±50.52 µm), and the average CT in the parafoveal region was also thicker than that in CT-N2 (235.65±50.63 µm). The subfoveal CT also varied substantially across refractive errors (P<0.001), and those with myopia (250.59±47.01 µm) exhibited a thinner choroid compared with those with emmetropia (278.74±48.06 µm). CT negatively correlated with AL (y=-21.72x+779.17; R 2=0.1458), and positively correlated with SE (y=15.76x+271.9; R 2=0.0727, OD; y=18.31x+269.8; R 2=0.1007, OS). The average RNFLT was thickest in the peripapillary region (236.35±19.03 µm), the mean RNFLT-S (131.10±15.16 µm) was thicker than the RNFLT-I (128.20±16.59 µm), and the mean RNFLT-T (76.54±11.99 µm) was thicker than the RNFLT-N (64.28±8.55 µm). The variations in the RNFLT between quadrants did differ between those with myopia and emmetropia (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: We establish demographic information for the choroid and RNFLT. These findings provide information that should be considered in future analyses of the CT and RNFLT in OCT studies in school-aged children.

15.
J Vet Res ; 64(3): 355-361, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32984623

RESUMO

Introduction: Coinfection of goose parvovirus (GPV) and duck circovirus (DuCV) occurs commonly in field cases of short beak and dwarfism syndrome (SBDS). However, whether there is synergism between the two viruses in replication and pathogenicity remains undetermined. Material and Methods: We established a coinfection model of GPV and DuCV in Cherry Valley ducks. Tissue samples were examined histopathologically. The viral loads in tissues were detected by qPCR, and the distribution of the virus in tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results: Coinfection of GPV and DuCV significantly inhibited growth and development of ducks, and caused atrophy and pallor of the immune organs and necrosis of the liver. GPV and DuCV synergistically amplified pathogenicity in coinfected ducks. In the early stage of infection, viral loads of both pathogens in coinfected ducks were significantly lower than those in monoinfected ducks (P < 0.05). With the development of the infection process, GPV and DuCV loads in coinfected ducks were significantly higher than those in monoinfected ducks (P < 0.05). Extended viral distribution in the liver, kidney, duodenum, spleen, and bursa of Fabricius was consistent with the viral load increases in GPV and DuCV coinfected ducks. Conclusion: These results indicate that GPV and DuCV synergistically potentiate their replication and pathogenicity in coinfected ducks.

16.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(7): 849-855, 2020 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879089

RESUMO

The 16S rRNA gene is the most commonly used molecular marker for identifying microorganisms. It is used in sequencing technology, including the first-generation, the second-generation, and the third-generation sequencing technology. A large number of studies on the 16S rRNA gene have contributed to a deeper understanding of oral microbial diversity. In the healthy oral cavity, there is microbial diversity in time and space. With the occurrence or development of oral diseases such as caries, periodontal disease, or halitosis, the microbial diversity will be changed.


Assuntos
Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Boca , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
17.
Hum Cell ; 33(4): 1335, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32897478

RESUMO

In the original publication of the.

18.
Ecol Evol ; 10(14): 7073-7081, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760512

RESUMO

Our knowledge of fundamental drivers of terrestrial net primary production (NPP) is crucial for improving the predictability of ecosystem stability under global climate change. However, the patterns and determinants of NPP are not fully understood, especially in the riparian zone ecosystem disturbed by periodic drought-rewetting (DRW) cycles. The environmental (flooding time, pH, moisture, and clay content) and nutritional properties (soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, ammonium (NH4 +-N), nitrate (NO3 --N), and C:N:P stoichiometry) were investigated in the riparian zone of Pengxi River-a typical tributary of Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR). Structure equation modeling was performed to evaluate the relative importance of environmental and nutritional properties on NPP of Cynodon dactylon (Linn.) Pers (C. dactylon)-a dominating plant in the riparian zone of TGR. Our results indicated that NPP was much lower under much severe flooding stress. All of these variables could predict 46% of the NPP variance. Nutrient use efficiency (NUE) was one of the most critical predictor shaping the change of NPP. Specifically, flooding stress as a major driver had a direct positive effect on soil moisture and soil clay content. The soil clay content positively affects the soil C: N ratio, which further had an indirect negative impact on NPP by mediating NUE. Overall, our study provided a comprehensive analysis of the effects of the combined effect of environmental and nutrient factors on NPP and showed that continuous DRW cycles induced by hydrological regime stimulate the decrease of NPP of C. dactylon by changing NUE strategies. Further research is needed to explore the responses of NPP and NUE under different land use to DRW cycles and to investigate the DRW effects on the combined effect of environmental and nutrient factors by in situ experiments and long-term studies.

19.
Nat Mater ; 2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807920

RESUMO

Phonon polaritons enable light confinement at deep subwavelength scales, with potential technological applications, such as subdiffraction imaging, sensing and engineering of spontaneous emission. However, the trade-off between the degree of confinement and the excitation efficiency of phonon polaritons prevents direct observation of these modes in monolayer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), where they are expected to reach ultrahigh confinement. Here, we use monochromatic electron energy-loss spectroscopy (about 7.5 meV energy resolution) in a scanning transmission electron microscope to measure phonon polaritons in monolayer h-BN, directly demonstrating the existence of these modes as the phonon Reststrahlen band (RS) disappears. We find phonon polaritons in monolayer h-BN to exhibit high confinement (>487 times smaller wavelength than that of light in free space) and ultraslow group velocity down to about 10-5c. The large momentum compensation provided by electron beams additionally allows us to excite phonon polaritons over nearly the entire RS band of multilayer h-BN. These results open up a broad range of opportunities for the engineering of metasurfaces and strongly enhanced light-matter interactions.

20.
Vet Microbiol ; 247: 108781, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768227

RESUMO

Immune tolerance induced by avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is a prerequisite for tumorigenesis. Although we had reported that B cell anergy induced by ALV-J was the main reason for immune tolerance, the molecular mechanism still remains unclear. Here, we found SU protein of ALV-J interacted with tyrosine kinase Lyn (a key protein in BCR signaling pathway) by confocal laser scanning microscopy and co-immunoprecipitation test, which suggested that Lyn might play an important role in B cell anergy induced by ALV-J. Correspondingly, the mRNA and protein level of Lyn was significantly up-regulated in B cells after ALV-J infection. Subsequently, the phosphorylated protein levels of Lyn at Tyr507 site were significantly up-regulated in ALV-J-infected B cells after BCR signal activation, but the phosphorylated protein level of Syk (a direct substrate of Lyn) at Tyr525/526 site, Ca2+ flux, and NF-κB p65 protein level were significantly down-regulated. Interestingly, the phosphorylated protein level of Syk at Tyr525/526 site, Ca2+ flux, and NF-κB p65 protein level were both significantly retrieved after the shLyn treatment in B cells infected by ALV-J. In summary, these results indicated that ALV-J activated the negative regulatory effect of phosphorylated Lyn protein at 507 site in BCR signal transduction pathway and then mediated B cell anergy, which will provide a new insight for revealing the pathogenesis of immune tolerance induced by ALV-J.

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