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1.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(3): 761-768, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32537970

RESUMO

A high-throughput sequencing approach was used to differentiate the nematode communities in the humus and soil surface layer (0-10 cm) in 20 hm2 plot located in the cold temperate coniferous and broadleaved mixed forest of Yulong Snow Mountain Nature Reserve, Lijiang, Yunnan. A total of 5744582 sequences were obtained, which were further annotated to 44 nematode families. In the humus layer, 37 families were recorded, with Tylenchidae (18.1%) being the most dominant family. For trophic groups, bacterivorous, fungivorous and herbivorous were predominant. The soil surface layer had 41 families, with Mononchidae (45.4%) being the most dominant family. The relative abundance of predatory nematode was highest in the soil surface layer. There was no significant difference in the α diversity indices (Shannon, Simpson and Chao1 index) of nematode communities at the OTU level between two habitats. At the family level, however, α diversity of nematode community in the humus layer was significantly lower than in soil surface layer. ß diversity of the nematode community was significantly different in the two habitats, with lower Cody index but high Sorensen non-similarity index in the humus habitat. Results of non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis showed that the internal structure difference of nematode community in the soil surface layer was higher than that in the humus layer.


Assuntos
Nematoides , Traqueófitas , Animais , China , Florestas , Neve , Solo
2.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 2020 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578620

RESUMO

A promising BP/SnSe van der Waals (vdW) photovoltaic heterostructure was designed and investigated by first-principles calculations. The BP/SnSe vdW heterostructure showed inhibition of photogenerated carrier recombination as well as broad and high optical absorption intensity spanning the visible to deep ultraviolet regions reaching the order of 105 cm-1. The carrier mobility of the BP/SnSe vdW heterostructure exhibited anisotropic characteristics reaching approximately 103 cm2 V-1 s-1, with an intrinsic power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 11.96%. Our results show that the PCE can be increased to 17.24% when the conduction band offset between BP and SnSe is reduced by strain engineering. The distinctive and favorable properties suggest that the BP/SnSe vdW heterostructure has great potential for use in photovoltaic devices.

3.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(2): 615-624, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476356

RESUMO

Mining, smelting and other activities result in arsenic accumulation in soils, with adverse impacts on the quality and safety of agricultural products and soil microorganisms. We monitored the changes of available arsenic content with incubation time after the addition of exogenous arsenic to the yellow soil (YS) and soil derived from purple sandy shale (RS). The community changes of bacteria and archaea in soils without spiked arsenic and soils after 1, 30 and 360 days of exogenous arsenic stress were measured by MiSeq high-throughput sequencing, to investigate the community adaptative mechanism of bacteria and archaea in soil under arsenic stress. Results showed that the available arsenic content in soils decreased gradually with time, which significantly affected the composition of soil bacteria and archaea community. The abundance of dominant bacterial group changed significantly, whereas only archaea with lower abundance changed obviously, and little change occurred in dominant archaea group, indicating that archaea community had high arsenic tolerance and stability. Compared with the arsenic stress time, soil arsenic availability had greater impacts on community structures of bacteria and archaea. The results could provide refe-rences for safe utilization and microbial remediation of arsenic-contaminated cropland.


Assuntos
Archaea , Arsênico , Bactérias , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
4.
Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol ; : 1-6, 2020 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515238

RESUMO

Objective: Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease that characterized by the degradation of articular cartilage. In this study, we aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of dioscin on IL-1ß-stimulated human osteoarthritis chondrocytes.Methods: The production of PGE2 and NO was measured in this study. MMP1 and MMP3 were detected by ELISA. The expression of LXRα and NF-κB were tested by western blot analysis.Results: Treatment of dioscin suppressed the production of PGE2 and NO, as well as the expression of COX-2 and iNOS (their key regulatory genes). Dioscin also attenuated the secretion of MMP1 and MMP3. Furthermore, dioscin inhibited the phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 and IκBα induced by IL-1ß. The degradation of IκBα induced by IL-1ß was also suppressed by dioscin. Dioscin increased the expression of LXRα and pretreatment of GGPP, the LXRα inhibitor, blocked the anti-inflammatory effects of dioscin.Conclusions: In conclusion, this study indicated that dioscin-mediated anti-inflammatory effect may be involved in the activation of LXRα.

5.
Ultramicroscopy ; 216: 113017, 2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32506000

RESUMO

Spin Polarized Low Energy Electron Microscopy (SPLEEM) is a powerful tool to reveal the magnetic structure of ferromagnetic surfaces on the atomic depth scale level[1-3]. With aberration corrected LEEM and a high brightness spin polarized electron gun, high spatial resolution will provide more details for ultra-thin ferromagnetic film studies. This study reports the first realization of aberration corrected SPLEEM (AC-SPLEEM). The performance of the setup was tested on ferromagnetic Fe nanoscale islands on a W(110) single crystal, with spatial resolution of 3.3 nm in spin asymmetry images.

6.
Int J Biol Sci ; 16(12): 2205-2219, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32549766

RESUMO

Purpose: Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Although tumor cell-T cell interactions are known to play a fundamental role in promoting tumor progression, these interactions have not been explored in LUAD. Methods: The 10x genomics single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) and gene expression data of LUAD patients were obtained from ArrayExpress, TCGA, and GEO databases. scRNA-seq data were analyzed and infiltrating tumor cells, epithelial cells, and T cells were identified in the tumor microenvironment. Differentially expressed ligand-receptor pairs were identified in tumor cells/normal epithelial cells and tumor T cells/non-tumor T cells based on corresponding scRNA-seq and gene expression data, respectively. These important interactions inside/across cancer cells and T cells in LUAD were systematically analyzed. Furthermore, a valid prognostic machine-learning model based on ligand-receptor interactions was built to predict the prognosis of LUAD patients. Flow cytometry and qRT-PCR were performed to validate the significantly differently expressed ligand-receptor pairs. Results: Overall, 39,692 cells in scRNA-seq data were included in our study after quality filtering. A total of 65 ligand-receptor pairs (17 upregulated and 48 downregulated), including LAMB1-ITGB1, CD70-CD27, and HLA-B-LILRB2, and 96 ligand-receptor pairs (41 upregulated and 55 downregulated), including CCL5-CCR5, SELPLG-ITGB2, and CXCL13-CXCR5, were identified in LUAD cancer cells and T cells, respectively. To explore the crosstalk between cancer cells and T cells, 114 ligand-receptor pairs, including 11 ligand-receptor pair genes that could significantly affect survival outcomes, were identified in our research. A machine-learning model was established to accurately predict the prognosis of LUAD patients and ITGB4, CXCR5, and MET were found to play an important role in prognosis in our model. Flow cytometry and qRT-PCR analyses indicated the reliability of our study. Conclusion: Our study revealed functionally significant interactions within and between cancer cells and T cells. We believe these observations will improve our understanding of potential mechanisms of tumor microenvironment contributions to cancer progression and help identify potential targets for immunotherapy in the future.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32452771

RESUMO

The vulnerability of artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) against adversarial disturbances and attacks significantly restricts their applicability in safety-critical systems including cyber-physical systems (CPS) equipped with neural network components at various stages of sensing and control. This article addresses the reachable set estimation and safety verification problems for dynamical systems embedded with neural network components serving as feedback controllers. The closed-loop system can be abstracted in the form of a continuous-time sampled-data system under the control of a neural network controller. First, a novel reachable set computation method in adaptation to simulations generated out of neural networks is developed. The reachability analysis of a class of feedforward neural networks called multilayer perceptrons (MLPs) with general activation functions is performed in the framework of interval arithmetic. Then, in combination with reachability methods developed for various dynamical system classes modeled by ordinary differential equations, a recursive algorithm is developed for over-approximating the reachable set of the closed-loop system. The safety verification for neural network control systems can be performed by examining the emptiness of the intersection between the over-approximation of reachable sets and unsafe sets. The effectiveness of the proposed approach has been validated with evaluations on a robotic arm model and an adaptive cruise control system.

8.
ACS Nano ; 2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401015

RESUMO

The copper nanowire (Cu NW) network is considered a promising alternative to indium tin oxide as transparent conductors for advanced optoelectronic devices. However, the fast degradation of copper in ambient conditions largely overshadows its practical applications. Here we demonstrate a facile method for epitaxial growth of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) of a few atomic layers on interlaced Cu NWs by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition, which exhibit excellent thermal and chemical stability under high temperature (900 °C in vacuum), high humidity (95% RH), and strong base/oxidizer solution (NaOH/H2O2). Meanwhile, their optical and electrical performances remain similar to those of the original Cu NWs (e.g., high optical transmittance (∼93%) and high conductivity (60.9 Ω/□)). A smart privacy glass is successfully fabricated based on a Cu@h-BN NW network and liquid crytal, which could rapidly control the visibility from transparent to opaque (0.26 s) and, at the same time, strongly block the mid-infrared light for energy saving by screening radiative heat. This precise engineering of epitaxial Cu@h-BN core-shell nanostructure offers broad applications in high-performance electronic and optoelectronic devices.

9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2214, 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371941

RESUMO

MSH1 is a plant-specific protein. RNAi suppression of MSH1 results in phenotype variability for developmental and stress response pathways. Segregation of the RNAi transgene produces non-genetic msh1 'memory' with multi-generational inheritance. First-generation memory versus non-memory comparison, and six-generation inheritance studies, identifies gene-associated, heritable methylation repatterning. Genome-wide methylome analysis integrated with RNAseq and network-based enrichment studies identifies altered circadian clock networks, and phytohormone and stress response pathways that intersect with circadian control. A total of 373 differentially methylated loci comprising these networks are sufficient to discriminate memory from nonmemory full sibs. Methylation inhibitor 5-azacytidine diminishes the differences between memory and wild type for growth, gene expression and methylation patterning. The msh1 reprogramming is dependent on functional HISTONE DEACETYLASE 6 and methyltransferase MET1, and transition to memory requires the RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway. This system of phenotypic plasticity may serve as a potent model for defining accelerated plant adaptation during environmental change.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384038

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the most common form of pancreatic cancer and leading causes of pancreatic cancer death because of most PDAC patients with advanced unresectable disease at that time, which is remarkably resistant to all forms of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. OBJECTIVE: PDAC increases the social and patients family burden. However, the PDAC pathogenesis is not identified. We are trying to uncover the underlying mechanism in the future. METHODS: In our research, drug-resistant cell line was successfully induced in the vitro by progressive concentrations of Afatinib, which we named it as BxPC3-AR. RESULTS: We found that the effect of autophagy was on the resistance of BxPC3-AR to Afatinib. CONCLUSION: In a word, it is confirmed that the autophagy plays a certain role in BxPC3-AR resistance to Afatinib. Our findings provide new perspective into the role of autophagy in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

11.
J Org Chem ; 2020 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32370509

RESUMO

Herein, we disclose the synthesis of diaryl selenides through an unexpected C-Se coupling between aryl benzyl selenoxides and phenols. The synthetic significance of the method is that it provides a mild, rapid, and metal-free access to organoselenides in high yields with excellent functional group tolerance. This coupling of aryl benzyl selenoxides reveals a completely new reaction possibility compared with aryl sulfoxides. We also probed the reaction mechanism of this unexpected transformation through experimental studies and revealed a special Se(IV)-Se(III)-Se(II) reaction pathway.

12.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 30(13): 127210, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359853

RESUMO

A series of novel bisbenzofuran-imidazolium salts were designed and prepared. The in vitro antitumor activity of these derivatives was evaluated against a panel of human tumor cell lines (A549, HL-60, MCF-7, SMMC-7721 and SW480). Results demonstrated that 2-methyl-benzimidazole ring and substitution of the imidazolyl-3-position with a 4-methoxyphenacyl or 2-naphthylacyl substituent were important for promoting cytotoxic activity. Notably, compound 23 was found to be the most potent compound with IC50 values of 0.64-1.47 µM against five human tumor cell lines, and exhibited higher selectivity to MCF-7 and SW-480 cell lines with IC50 values 15.3-fold and 9.1-fold lower than DDP.

13.
Med Phys ; 2020 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358973

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is becoming increasingly used in clinical practice. In DBT, the microcalcification clusters may span across multiple slices, which makes it difficult for radiologists to directly assess these distributed clusters for diagnosis. We investigated a radiomics method to classify microcalcification clusters in DBT based on a semiautomatic segmentation process. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study on a cohort of 275 patients (including 79 benign and 196 malignant cases) with a total of 550 DBT volumes. Our method consisted of three steps. The initial step was to semiautomatically segment the microcalcification clusters. Then, radiomics features were extracted from the initially segmented microcalcification clusters. Finally, the benign and malignant microcalcification clusters were differentiated by the random forest (RF) classifier using selected subset features. The radiomics models were evaluated both on view-based and case-based modes with features selected from different domains. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and area under the ROC curve (AUC) were used to evaluate the classification performance. RESULTS: Twenty-six key features were selected from a total of 170 radiomics features and these features show promising classification performance. The highest AUC was 0.834 for view-based mode and 0.868 for case-based mode when using features selected from the 3D-domain. The 2D-domain radiomics features showed a statistically similar performance to the 3D features (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Radiomics models can provide encouraging performance in classification between malignant and benign microcalcification clusters which are semiautomatically segmented in DBT.

14.
J Orthop Surg Res ; 15(1): 169, 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393353

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is a common disease in infants and children, and the treatment of bilateral DDH remains controversial. This study aimed to evaluate the stability of one-stage bilateral Salter pelvic osteotomy for bilateral DDH in patients of walking age. METHODS: In total, nine child cadavers aged 2-6 years were included. A universal mechanical testing machine was used for stability test. We performed two different surgical procedures on the specimens: nine child cadavers underwent unilateral Salter pelvic osteotomy, and six child cadavers were randomly selected to undergo Salter pelvic osteotomy again to simulate one-stage bilateral Salter pelvic osteotomy. The stability of the bilateral sacroiliac joints, local stability of the operation area, ultimate load test, and axial stiffness were evaluated. RESULTS: Both unilateral and bilateral Salter osteotomy could destroy the integrity of the pelvic ring and increase the risk of pelvic instability. In this study, compared with unilateral Salter osteotomy, bilateral Salter osteotomy had similar pelvic stability, and there was no significant difference between unilateral and bilateral Salter osteotomy in sacroiliac joint stability (p > 0.05), local stability (p = 0.763), ultimate load (p = 0.328), and axial stiffness (p = 0.480). CONCLUSIONS: One-stage bilateral Salter pelvic osteotomy as a potential surgical method is viable and stable for children with bilateral DDH.

15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(18): e20073, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358389

RESUMO

Individuals infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) are often coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, individuals with chronic HBV infection living with acute HIV infection have a significantly lower HBV viral load, along with higher HBeAg and HBsAg loss than HBV-infected individuals alone. Here, we investigated the possible role of natural killer cells (NK cell) function in this progressive course to explore the relationship between phenotypic/functional changes in NK cells during acute HIV infection and HBV clearance in patients with HIV/HBV coinfection.Peripheral blood NK cells from 38 patients with primary HIV infection, including 20 with untreated HIV infection and 18 treatment-naïve patients with HIV/HBV coinfection and 16 patients with chronic HBV infection, were enrolled in this study.We found that the HIV/HBV-coinfected individuals had higher levels of NK cells than the HBV-infected individuals, due to expansion of the CD56 NK cell population. The proportion of NK cells in CD56 and CD56 NK subsets was not found significant difference between HIV/HBV-coinfected and HBV-infected individuals. However, NKG2C levels on NK cells and subsets were significantly higher in HIV/HBV-coinfected individuals than in HBV-infected individuals, whereas NKG2A levels were unaffected or decreased. In addition, the levels of degranulation CD107a, cytotoxicity and IFN-γ production of NK cells were increased in HIV/HBV-coinfected individuals than in HBV-infected individuals. The level of IL-10 production of NK cells was decreased in HIV/HBV-coinfected individuals than in HBV-infected individuals. Furthermore, the level of HBV-DNA was inversely correlated with the proportion of NKG2C and NKG2CNKG2A NK cells, while positively correlated with the proportion of NKG2A and NKG2CNKG2A NK cells. IFN-γ production was inversely correlated with levels of HBV-DNA, but the CD107a expression and IL-10 production of NK cells were not correlated with HBV-DNA levels.These results demonstrate that the upregulation of NKG2C expression, but not of NKG2A expression on the surface of NK cells increases cytolytic capacity and the amounts of cytokines produced and may play a crucial role in HBV clearance during HIV/HBV-coinfection.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite B Crônica/epidemiologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Adulto , Pequim , Estudos Transversais , Citometria de Fluxo , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/biossíntese , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/biossíntese , Humanos , Masculino , Carga Viral
16.
Inorg Chem ; 59(12): 8081-8098, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469512

RESUMO

Four new complexes, [Zn(TIBTC)(DMA)]·[NH2(CH3)2] (1), [Cd(TIBTC)(H2O)]·[NH2(CH3)2]·DMA (2), [Cd2(TIBTC)(2,2'-bipy)2(HCOO)] (3), and [Cd2(DIBTC)(2,2'-bipy)2(HCOO)] (4) (H3TIBTC = 2,4,6-triiodo-1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid, H3DIBTC = 2,4-diiodo-1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid, 2,2'-bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine, and DMA = dimethylacetamide), were successfully synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. Complexes 1 and 2 are three-dimensional supramolecular network structures, while complex 4 has a two-dimensional network structure. We preliminarily studied the fluorescence properties of the complexes and found that complexes 1-3 can detect thiamine hydrochloride, NACs, and Fe3+/Zn2+ with high sensitivity and selectivity.

17.
Cell Rep ; 31(2): 107518, 2020 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294440

RESUMO

The metabolic enzyme phosphoglycerate mutase 1 (PGAM1) is overexpressed in several types of cancer, suggesting an additional function beyond its established role in the glycolytic pathway. We here report that PGAM1 is overexpressed in gliomas where it increases the efficiency of the DNA damage response (DDR) pathway by cytoplasmic binding of WIP1 phosphatase, thereby preventing WIP1 nuclear translocation and subsequent dephosphorylation of the ATM signaling pathway. Silencing of PGAM1 expression in glioma cells consequently decreases formation of γ-H2AX foci, increases apoptosis, and decreases clonogenicity following irradiation (IR) and temozolomide (TMZ) treatment. Furthermore, mice intracranially implanted with PGAM1-knockdown cells have significantly improved survival after treatment with IR and TMZ. These effects are counteracted by exogenous expression of two kinase-dead PGAM1 mutants, H186R and Y92F, indicating an important non-enzymatic function of PGAM1. Our findings identify PGAM1 as a potential therapeutic target in gliomas.

18.
Nanotechnology ; 31(29): 295203, 2020 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32289769

RESUMO

Chirality is ubiquitous in nature and it is essential in many fields, but natural materials possess weak and narrow-band chiroptical effects. Here, chiral plasmonic metasurface absorbers are designed and demonstrated to achieve large broadband infrared circular dichroism (CD). The broadband chiral absorber is made of multiple double-rectangle resonators with different sizes, showing strong absorption of left-handed or right-handed circularly polarized (LCP or RCP) light above 0.7 and large CD in absorption more than 0.5 covering the wavelength range from 1.35 µm to 1.85 µm. High broadband polarization-dependent local temperature increase is also obtained. The switchable infrared reflective chiral images are further presented by changing the wavelength and polarization of incident light. The broadband chiral metasurface absorbers promise future applications in many areas such as polarization detection, thermophotovoltaics, and chiral imaging.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32305249

RESUMO

Since Dec 2019, a cluster of pneumonia outbreak in Wuhan, Hubei province, China, and soon spread to all province of China. The pathogen was proved to be a novel betacoronavirus called 2019 novel coronavirus (officially named by the World Health Organization as COVID-19). The typical clinical manifestations were fever, cough, dyspnea, and myalgia or fatigue. Less common symptoms included headache, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting. However diarrhea as the first symptom is rarely reported. Here we reported a case of 2019 novel coronavirus-infected patient (NCIP) with diarrhea as the initial symptom. Image of CT scan and laboratory examination and careful collected as well as detection of viral RNA in pharynx. The case demonstrate that gastrointestinal symptoms ware not rare in NCIP, and diarrhea could be the initial symptom.

20.
Gen Physiol Biophys ; 39(2): 169-177, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32329444

RESUMO

The present study aimed to investigate the effects of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) inhibitor Cay10603 (Cay) on high glucose (HG)-stimulated human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells and its underlying mechanisms. ARPE-19 cells were cultured under normal glucose (NG) or high glucose (HG) conditions. The results revealed that HDAC6 was upregulated in HG-stimulated ARPE-19 cells. Cay treatment caused a decrease in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were reduced accompanied by increase in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) after treatment with Cay. Besides, Cay decreased the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), IL-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in supernatant. Meanwhile, the apoptotic rate in Cay-treated ARPE-19 cells notably reduced, coupled with an upregulation in Bcl-2 expression and a downregulation in cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-9 expression. Cay decreased the expression of phospho (p)-NF-κB p65, p-IκB-α, NLRP3, cleaved caspase-1 and ASC while increased the expression of NF-κB p65 (cytoplasm). Taken together, these findings demonstrated that Cay suppressed HG-induced oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis via regulating NF-κB and NLRP3 inflammasome pathway in HG-induced ARPE-19 cells, suggesting that Cay might be a therapeutic agent for the treatment of diabetic retinopathy.

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