Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 76
Filtrar
1.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(4): 676-681, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33811164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Skin cancer screening is routinely performed for members of melanoma-prone families, but longitudinal studies evaluating the efficacy of surveillance in this high-risk population are lacking. METHODS: We evaluated thickness for first primary melanomas diagnosed in melanoma-prone families (≥2 individuals with melanoma) enrolled in NCT00040352 (NCI familial melanoma study) from 1976 through 2014; enrolled patients received routine skin cancer screening and education about skin self-exams. We used linear and ordinal logistic regression models adjusted for gender and age with a generalized estimating equations approach to report changes in thickness and tumor (T) stage over time, comparing outcomes for NCI cases diagnosed before (pre-study) versus after study participation (prospective) and for NCI cases versus nonfamilial cases [Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 9 registries]. RESULTS: Tumor thickness was evaluated for 293 NCI (pre-study = 246; prospective = 47) patients. Compared with NCI pre-study cases, NCI prospective melanomas were thinner (0.6 vs. 1.1 mm; P < 0.001) and more likely to be T1 stage [39/47 (83%) vs. 98/246 (40%); P < 0.001]. Similar findings (P < 0.05) were observed for familial cases with and without germline CDKN2A and CDK4 mutations. Peters-Belson modeling suggested that calendar period effects of decreasing thickness in the general population (SEER 9) did not fully explain thickness trends in NCI families. CONCLUSIONS: Participation in a longitudinal surveillance program providing skin cancer screening and education about skin self-exams was associated with thinner melanomas for members of melanoma-prone families. IMPACT: The study findings support the clinical benefit of screening (physician and self) for this high-risk population.

2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 757, 2021 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33536423

RESUMO

Chordoma is a rare bone tumor with an unknown etiology and high recurrence rate. Here we conduct whole genome sequencing of 80 skull-base chordomas and identify PBRM1, a SWI/SNF (SWItch/Sucrose Non-Fermentable) complex subunit gene, as a significantly mutated driver gene. Genomic alterations in PBRM1 (12.5%) and homozygous deletions of the CDKN2A/2B locus are the most prevalent events. The combination of PBRM1 alterations and the chromosome 22q deletion, which involves another SWI/SNF gene (SMARCB1), shows strong associations with poor chordoma-specific survival (Hazard ratio [HR] = 10.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.81-39.64, p = 0.001) and recurrence-free survival (HR = 4.30, 95% CI = 2.34-7.91, p = 2.77 × 10-6). Despite the low mutation rate, extensive somatic copy number alterations frequently occur, most of which are clonal and showed highly concordant profiles between paired primary and recurrence/metastasis samples, indicating their importance in chordoma initiation. In this work, our findings provide important biological and clinical insights into skull-base chordoma.


Assuntos
Cordoma/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Proteína SMARCB1/genética , Neoplasias da Base do Crânio/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Adulto , Cordoma/patologia , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Neoplasias da Base do Crânio/patologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 17198, 2020 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057211

RESUMO

Although next-generation sequencing has demonstrated great potential for novel gene discovery, confirming disease-causing genes after initial discovery remains challenging. Here, we applied a network analysis approach to prioritize candidate genes identified from whole-exome sequencing analysis of 98 cutaneous melanoma patients from 27 families. Using a network propagation method, we ranked candidate genes by their similarity to known disease genes in protein-protein interaction networks and identified gene clusters with functional connectivity. Using this approach, we identified several new candidate susceptibility genes that warrant future investigations such as NGLY1, IL1RN, FABP2, PRKDC, and PROSER2. The propagated network analysis also allowed us to link families that did not have common underlying genes but that carried variants in genes that interact on protein-protein interaction networks. In conclusion, our study provided an analysis perspective for gene prioritization in the context of genetic heterogeneity across families and prioritized top potential candidate susceptibility genes in our dataset.

4.
Epigenetics ; : 1-15, 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970968

RESUMO

Age-related DNA methylation is a potential mechanism contributing to breast cancer development. Studies of primarily Caucasian women have identified many CpG sites of age-related methylation in non-diseased breast tissue possibly driving cancer development over time. There is a paucity of studies involving Asian women whose ages at breast cancer onset are usually younger than Caucasians. We identified the 181 most consistent age-related methylation events in non-diseased breast tissue across published studies. Age-related methylation events were measured in adjacent normal and breast tumour tissue in an exclusively Asian population at the previously identified age-related methylation sites. Age-related methylation was found in 118 probes in adjacent normal breast tissue. Methylation of 99% of these sites was increased with age and predominantly located on CpG islands in promoter regions. To ascertain biological relevance to breast cancer, we focused on the 37 sites with overall higher methylation in tumour compared to adjacent normal samples. Some sites positively related to age, including AQP5 and CORO6, inversely correlated with gene expression. Several others have known involvement in suppression of carcinogenesis including GPC5 and SST, suggesting that perturbation of epigenetic regulation at these sites due to ageing may contribute to the progression of carcinogenesis. This study highlights an age-related methylation landscape in non-tumour tissue, consistent not just across studies, but also across different populations. We present candidate age-related methylation sites warranting further investigation as potential epigenetic drivers of breast cancer. They may serve as potential targets of site-specific demethylation intervention strategies for the prevention of age-related breast cancer.

5.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-10, 2020 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559743

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To gain insight into the role of germline genetics in the development of chordoma, the authors evaluated data from 2 sets of patients with familial chordoma, those with and without a germline duplication of the T gene (T-dup+ vs T-dup-), which was previously identified as a susceptibility mechanism in some families. The authors then compared the patients with familial tumors to patients with sporadic chordoma in the US general population reported to the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program through 2015. METHODS: Evaluation of family members included review of personal and family medical history, physical and neurological examination, and pre- and postcontrast MRI of the skull base and spine. Sixteen patients from 6 white families with chordoma had a chordoma diagnosis at family referral. Screening MR images of 35 relatives revealed clival lesions in 6, 4 of which were excised and confirmed to be chordoma. Thus, data were available for 20 patients with histologically confirmed familial chordoma. There were 1759 patients with histologically confirmed chordoma in SEER whose race was known. RESULTS: The median age at chordoma diagnosis differed across the groups: it was lowest in T-dup+ familial patients (26.8 years, range 5.3-68.4 years); intermediate in T-dup- patients (46.2 years, range 11.8-60.1 years); and highest in SEER patients (57 years, range 0-98 years). There was a marked preponderance of skull base tumors in patients with familial chordoma (93% in T-dup+ and 83% in T-dup-) versus 38% in the SEER program (37% in white, 53% in black, and 48.5% in Asian/Pacific Islander/American Indian/Alaska Native patients). Furthermore, 29% of white and 16%-17% of nonwhite SEER patients had mobile-spine chordoma, versus no patients in the familial group. Several T-dup+ familial chordoma patients had putative second/multiple primary chordomas. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of young age at diagnosis, skull base presentation, or multiple primary chordomas should encourage careful review of family history for patients diagnosed with chordoma as well as screening of at-risk family members by MRI for early detection of chordoma. Furthermore, given genetic predisposition in some patients with familial chordoma, identification of a specific mutation in a family will permit surveillance to be limited to mutation carriers-and consideration should be given for imaging the entire neuraxis in any chordoma patient presenting at an early age or with a blood relative with chordoma. Finally, future studies should explore racial differences in age at diagnosis and presenting site in chordoma.

6.
Horm Cancer ; 11(3-4): 191-199, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32494968

RESUMO

Previous studies reported heterogeneous associations between obesity and reproductive-related breast cancer risk factors and breast cancer intrinsic subtypes; however, few studies have been conducted in Asian populations. Here, we aimed to examine whether risks associated with established breast cancer risk factors varied by breast cancer subtypes in Chinese women. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study in Hong Kong, including a total of 2169 Chinese women. Unconditional polytomous logistic regression models were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals(95%CIs) to estimate relative risks associated with examined risk factors in case-control analyses and to test for heterogeneity across breast cancer subtypes in case-case analyses. In case-case analyses, compared with luminal A patients, luminal B (AOR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.07-2.88), HER2 overexpressing (AOR = 3.40, 95% CI = 1.56-7.39), and triple negative (TNBC, AOR = 2.39, 95% CI = 1.18-4.82) patients were more likely to be postmenopausal. In case-control analyses, reduced risks associated with parity and younger age at first birth were only seen for luminal A and B cases especially among postmenopausal women, whereas having ≥ 3 children was associated with increased risk for HER2 overexpressing and TNBC among premenopausal women. Obesity was associated with increased risk for all subtypes. We found heterogeneous associations between parity-related risk factors by menopausal status and breast cancer subtypes among Chinese patients, which is similar to those observed in Western populations. Interestingly, obesity was associated with increased breast cancer risk regardless of menopausal status or subtypes, except for premenopausal luminal patients, which appears to be unique in Asian populations.

7.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 83(3): 860-869, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32283231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CDKN2A, CDK4, and POT1 are well-established melanoma-susceptibility genes. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated melanoma histopathology for individuals with germline mutations of CDKN2A, CDK4, and POT1. METHODS: We assessed histopathology for melanomas diagnosed in melanoma-prone families (≥2 individuals with melanoma) from the United States, Italy, and Spain. Comparisons between mutation carriers and noncarriers (no mutation) were adjusted for age, sex, Breslow depth, and correlations among individuals within the same family. RESULTS: Histologic slides were evaluated for 290 melanomas (139 from 132 noncarriers, 122 from 68 CDKN2A carriers, 10 from 6 CDK4 carriers, and 19 from 16 POT1 carriers). Superficial spreading was the predominant subtype for all groups. Spitzoid morphology (>25% of tumor) was observed in 10 of 15 invasive melanomas (67%) from POT1 carriers (P < .0001 vs noncarriers). This finding was independently confirmed by 3 expert melanoma dermatopathologists in 9 of 15 invasive melanomas (60%). In situ and invasive melanomas from CDKN2A and CDK4 carriers were histologically similar to melanomas from noncarriers. LIMITATIONS: Limited sample sizes for rare melanoma-susceptibility syndromes (CDK4, POT1). CONCLUSION: Spitzoid morphology was associated with POT1 mutations suggesting that telomere dysfunction (POT1 mutations) may contribute to spitzoid differentiation in melanocytic tumors.

8.
Int J Cancer ; 147(3): 829-837, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782137

RESUMO

Recent studies from high-risk countries such as the US, Denmark and Ireland have shown rising incidence rates of hormone receptor (HR)-positive and falling rates of HR-negative breast cancers (BC). However, it remains unclear whether a similar pattern occurs in low-risk countries. Detailed clinical and risk factor data were collected from 2,977 female invasive BC patients (≥20 years) in Sarawak General Hospital, Malaysia, representing 93% of the population. The population-at-risk was obtained from the Department of Statistics Malaysia. Secular trends in age-standardized incidence rates were assessed using estimated average annual percent changes. Associations between established BC risk factors and tumor subtypes defined by HR or joint human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HR/HER2) status were examined by case-case comparisons using logistic regression. From 2006 to 2015, incidence rates increased for HR-positive cancers by 4.46%/year (95% CI = 2.19-6.78) and decreased for HR-negative cancers by 2.29%/year (95% CI = -4.31 to -0.24). When further stratified by HER2, the most contrasting difference in linear trends was observed between HR+/HER2- and HR-/HER2- subtypes. After controlling for potential confounders, cases with excess body weight (ORoverweight vs. normal = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.69-0.98; ORobese vs. normal = 0.62; 95% CI = 0.48-0.80), later age at first birth (OR≥26 years vs. <23 years = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.66-1.02), nulliparity (ORnulliparous vs. <23 years = 0.74; 95% CI = 0.59-0.94) and never-breastfeeding (ORnever vs. ever = 0.73; 95% CI = 0.55-0.97) were less frequent among HR-negative cases than among HR-positive cases. Diverging incidence trends by HR expression were similar in Sarawak and Western countries, possibly reflecting changes in the prevalence of risk factors with opposing effects by tumor subtypes in low- and high-risk populations.

10.
J Invest Dermatol ; 140(1): 174-181.e3, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326397

RESUMO

CDKN2A and CDK4 are well-established melanoma susceptibility genes, but their effect on tumor location and distribution is unknown. We used a case-case study design to assess for differences in tumor location between mutation carriers (CDKN2A = 141 patients, 348 melanomas; CDK4 = 15 patients, 54 melanomas) and noncarriers (104 patients, 157 melanomas) in US melanoma-prone families. Associations between groups were assessed with chi-square tests. Odds ratios (ORs) for tumor location were adjusted for diagnosis age, gender, and superficial spreading subtype. Models included random effects to account for within individual and family correlations. Compared with having a truncal melanoma, CDK4 (vs. noncarriers: lower extremities OR = 14.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 5.02-42.0, P < 0.001; upper extremities OR = 6.88, 95% CI = 2.37-19.9, P < 0.001; head and neck OR = 18.6, 95% CI = 4.04-85.2, P < 0.001) and CDKN2A (vs. noncarriers: lower extremities OR = 3.01, 95% CI = 1.56-5.82, P < 0.05; upper extremities OR = 1.91, 95% CI = 1.03-3.52, P < 0.05; head and neck OR = 5.40, 95% CI = 2.10-13.9, P < 0.001) carriers had higher odds of developing melanoma at all other sites. Similar findings were observed for analyses stratified by gender, age, and first versus subsequent melanoma diagnoses. Further studies are needed to understand the biology underlying these genotype-associated patterns of tumor development, which could provide new insights into melanoma treatment and prevention.


Assuntos
Quinase 4 Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Melanoma/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinogênese , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Breast Cancer Res ; 21(1): 147, 2019 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heterogeneity of immune gene expression patterns of luminal breast cancer (BC), which is clinically heterogeneous and overall considered as low immunogenic, has not been well studied especially in non-European populations. Here, we aimed at characterizing the immune gene expression profile of luminal BC in an Asian population and associating it with patient characteristics and tumor genomic features. METHODS: We performed immune gene expression profiling of tumor and adjacent normal tissue in 92 luminal BC patients from Hong Kong using RNA-sequencing data and used unsupervised consensus clustering to stratify tumors. We then used luminal patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA, N = 564) and a Korean breast cancer study (KBC, N = 112) as replication datasets. RESULTS: Based on the expression of 130 immune-related genes, luminal tumors were stratified into three distinct immune subtypes. Tumors in one subtype showed higher level of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), characterized by T cell gene activation, higher expression of immune checkpoint genes, higher nonsynonymous mutation burden, and higher APOBEC-signature mutations, compared with other luminal tumors. The high-TIL subtype was also associated with lower ESR1/ESR2 expression ratio and increasing body mass index. The comparison of the immune profile in tumor and matched normal tissue suggested a tumor-derived activation of specific immune responses, which was only seen in high-TIL patients. Tumors in a second subtype were characterized by increased expression of interferon-stimulated genes and enrichment for TP53 somatic mutations. The presence of three immune subtypes within luminal BC was replicated in TCGA and KBC, although the pattern was more similar in Asian populations. The germline APOBEC3B deletion polymorphism, which is prevalent in East Asian populations and was previously linked to immune activation, was not associated with immune subtypes in our study. This result does not support the hypothesis that the germline APOBEC3B deletion polymorphism is the driving force for immune activation in breast tumors in Asian populations. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that immune gene expression and associated genomic features could be useful to further stratify luminal BC beyond the current luminal A/B classification and a subset of luminal BC patients may benefit from checkpoint immunotherapy, at least in Asian populations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Imunidade/genética , Transcriptoma , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Mutação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Microambiente Tumoral
12.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 5: 20, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31372496

RESUMO

TP53 mutations are common in breast cancer and are typically associated with more aggressive tumor characteristics, but little is known about the clinicopathological and epidemiological relevance of p53 protein expression, a TP53 mutation surrogate, in breast cancer subtypes. In this study of 7226 Chinese women with invasive breast cancer, we defined breast cancer subtypes using immunohistochemical (IHC) measures of hormone receptors and HER2 in conjunction with histologic grade. p53 expression status was then used to further stratify subtypes into p53-positive and p53-negative. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) in case-only logistic regression analyses were used to examine heterogeneity across different subtypes. The frequency of p53 protein expression varied by breast cancer subtype, being lowest in the luminal A-like and highest in the triple-negative and HER2-enriched subtypes (P-value < 0.01). In luminal A-like and B-like/HER2-negative subtypes, p53 positivity was associated with early-onset tumors, high grade, high proliferative index, and basal marker (CK5/6 and EGFR) expression. Further, compared with luminal A-like/p53-negative patients, A-like/p53-positive patients were more likely to be parous [adjusted OR parous vs. nulliparous = 2.67 (1.60, 4.51); P-value < 0.01] and to have breastfed [adjusted OR ever vs. never = 1.38 (1.03, 1.85); P-value = 0.03]. p53 positivity was not associated with examined clinical and risk factors in other tumor subtypes. Overall, these findings suggest that p53 expression, which is readily available in many settings, can be used to identify phenotypes of luminal A-like breast cancer with distinct clinical and epidemiological implications.

13.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 177(2): 527-536, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254158

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Mammographic density (MD) is a strong risk factor for breast cancer, yet its relationship with tumor characteristics is not well established, particularly in Asian populations. METHODS: MD was assessed from a total of 2001 Chinese breast cancer patients using Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) categories. Molecular subtypes were defined using immunohistochemical status on ER, PR, HER2, and Ki-67, as well as tumor grade. Multinomial logistic regression was used to test associations between MD and molecular subtype (luminal A = reference) adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), menopausal status, parity, and nodal status. RESULTS: The mean age at diagnosis was 51.7 years (SD = 10.7) and the average BMI was 24.7 kg/m2 (SD = 3.8). The distribution of BI-RADS categories was 7.4% A = almost entirely fat, 24.2% B = scattered fibroglandular dense, 49.4% C = heterogeneously dense, and 19.0% D = extremely dense. Compared to women with BI-RADS = A/B, women with BI-RADS = D were more likely to have HER2-enriched tumors (OR = 1.81, 95% CI 1.08-3.06, p = 0.03), regardless of menopausal status. The association was only observed in women with normal (< 25 kg/m2) BMI (OR = 2.43, 95% CI 1.24-4.76, p < 0.01), but not among overweight/obese women (OR: 0.98, 95% CI 0.38-2.52, p = 0.96). CONCLUSIONS: Among Chinese women with normal BMI, higher breast density was associated with HER2-enriched tumors. The results may partially explain the higher proportion of HER2+ tumors previously reported in Asian women.


Assuntos
Densidade da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Mamografia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco
14.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 81(2): 386-394, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30731170

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although rare in the general population, highly penetrant germline mutations in CDKN2A are responsible for 5%-40% of melanoma cases reported in melanoma-prone families. We sought to determine whether MELPREDICT was generalizable to a global series of families with melanoma and whether performance improvements can be achieved. METHODS: In total, 2116 familial melanoma cases were ascertained by the international GenoMEL Consortium. We recapitulated the MELPREDICT model within our data (GenoMELPREDICT) to assess performance improvements by adding phenotypic risk factors and history of pancreatic cancer. We report areas under the curve (AUC) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) along with net reclassification indices (NRIs) as performance metrics. RESULTS: MELPREDICT performed well (AUC 0.752, 95% CI 0.730-0.775), and GenoMELPREDICT performance was similar (AUC 0.748, 95% CI 0.726-0.771). Adding a reported history of pancreatic cancer yielded discriminatory improvement (P < .0001) in GenoMELPREDICT (AUC 0.772, 95% CI 0.750-0.793, NRI 0.40). Including phenotypic risk factors did not improve performance. CONCLUSION: The MELPREDICT model functioned well in a global data set of familial melanoma cases. Adding pancreatic cancer history improved model prediction. GenoMELPREDICT is a simple tool for predicting CDKN2A mutational status among melanoma patients from melanoma-prone families and can aid in directing these patients to receive genetic testing or cancer risk counseling.


Assuntos
Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Modelos Logísticos , Melanoma/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Área Sob a Curva , Criança , Testes Genéticos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Fenótipo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Probabilidade , Curva ROC , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
15.
Int J Cancer ; 145(1): 70-77, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30561789

RESUMO

Extensive mammographic density (MD), a well-established breast cancer risk factor, is a radiological representation of stromal and epithelial breast tissue content. In studies conducted predominantly among Caucasian women, histologic measures of reduced terminal duct lobular unit (TDLU) involution have been correlated with extensive MD, but independently associated with breast cancer risk. We therefore examined associations between TDLU measures and MD among Chinese women, a low-risk population but with high prevalence of dense breasts. Diagnostic pre-treatment digital mammograms were obtained from 144 breast cancer cases at a tertiary hospital in Beijing and scored using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) density classification. TDLU features were assessed using three standardized measures (count/100 mm2 , span [µm], and acini count/TDLU) in benign tissues. Associations between each of TDLU measures and MD were examined using generalized linear models for TDLU count and span and polytomous logistic regression for acini count with adjustment for potential confounders stratified by age. Among women ≥50 years, 63% had dense breasts; cases with dense breasts (BI-RADS, c-d) had greater TDLU count (21.1 [SE = 2.70] vs. 9.0 [SE = 1.83]; p = 0.0004), longer span (480.6 µm [SE = 24.6] vs. 393.8 µm [SE = 31.8]; p = 0.03), and greater acini count (ORtrend = 16.1; 95%CI = 4.08-63.1; ptrend < 0.0001) compared to those with non-dense breasts (BI-RADS, a-b). Among women <50 years, 91% had dense breasts, precluding our ability to detect associations. Our findings are consistent with previously reported associations between extensive MD and reduced TDLU involution, supporting the hypothesis that breast cancer risk associated with extensive MD may be related to the amount of "at-risk" epithelium.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Glândulas Mamárias Humanas/patologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Densidade da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Glândulas Mamárias Humanas/diagnóstico por imagem , Mamografia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Genome Med ; 10(1): 99, 2018 12 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30583724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior research has established that the prevalence of pathogenic/likely pathogenic (P/LP) variants across all of the American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG) Secondary Findings (SF) genes is approximately 0.8-5%. We investigated the prevalence of P/LP variants in the 24 ACMG SF v2.0 cancer genes in a family-based cancer research cohort (n = 1173) and in cancer-free ethnicity-matched controls (n = 982). METHODS: We used InterVar to classify variants and subsequently conducted a manual review to further examine variants of unknown significance (VUS). RESULTS: In the 24 genes on the ACMG SF v2.0 list associated with a cancer phenotype, we observed 8 P/LP unique variants (8 individuals; 0.8%) in controls and 11 P/LP unique variants (14 individuals; 1.2%) in cases, a non-significant difference. We reviewed 115 VUS. The median estimated per-variant review time required was 30 min; the first variant within a gene took significantly (p = 0.0009) longer to review (median = 60 min) compared with subsequent variants (median = 30 min). The concordance rate was 83.3% for the variants examined by two reviewers. CONCLUSION: The 115 VUS required database and literature review, a time- and labor-intensive process hampered by the difficulty in interpreting conflicting P/LP determinations. By rigorously investigating the 24 ACMG SF v2.0 cancer genes, our work establishes a benchmark P/LP variant prevalence rate in a familial cancer cohort and controls.


Assuntos
Genes Neoplásicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação , Neoplasias/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
17.
Breast Cancer Res ; 20(1): 114, 2018 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30227867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited evidence, mostly from studies in Western populations, suggests that the prognostic effects of lifestyle-related risk factors may be molecular subtype-dependent. Here, we examined whether pre-diagnostic lifestyle-related risk factors for breast cancer are associated with clinical outcomes by molecular subtype among patients from an understudied Asian population. METHODS: In this population-based case series, we evaluated breast cancer risk factors in relation to 10-year all-cause mortality (ACM) and 5-year recurrence by molecular subtype among 3012 women with invasive breast cancer in Sarawak, Malaysia. A total of 579 deaths and 314 recurrence events occurred during a median follow-up period of ~ 24 months. Subtypes (luminal A-like, luminal B-like, HER2-enriched, triple-negative) were defined using immunohistochemical markers for hormone receptors and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) in conjunction with histologic grade. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between risk factors and ACM/recurrence were estimated in subtype-specific Cox regression models. RESULTS: We observed heterogeneity in the relationships between parity/breastfeeding, age at first full-term pregnancy (FFP), family history, body mass index (BMI), and tumor subtype (p value < 0.05). Among luminal A-like patients only, older age at menarche [HR (95% CI) ≥15 vs ≤ 12 years = 2.28 (1.05, 4.95)] and being underweight [HRBMI < 18.5kg/m2vs. 18.5-24.9kg/m2 = 3.46 (1.21, 9.89)] or overweight [HR25-29.9kg/m2vs. 18.5-24.9kg/m2= 3.14 (1.04, 9.50)] were associated with adverse prognosis, while parity/breastfeeding [HRbreastfeeding vs nulliparity = 0.48 (0.27, 0.85)] and older age at FFP [HR > 30 vs < 21 years = 0.20 (0.04, 0.90)] were associated with good prognosis. For these women, the addition of age at menarche, parity/breastfeeding, and BMI, provided significantly better fit to a prognostic model containing standard clinicopathological factors alone [LRχ2 (8df) = 21.78; p value = 0.005]. Overall, the results were similar in relation to recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: Our finding that breastfeeding and BMI were associated with prognosis only among women with luminal A-like breast cancer is consistent with those from previously published data in Western populations. Further prospective studies will be needed to clarify the role of lifestyle modification, especially changes in BMI, in improving clinical outcomes for women with luminal A-like breast cancer.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , China/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Malásia/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
18.
Cancer ; 124(18): 3715-3723, 2018 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30207590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the United States, only approximately 0.4% of all melanomas are diagnosed in patients aged <20 years. To the authors' knowledge, melanoma in pediatric members of melanoma-prone families has not been fully investigated to date. The objective of the current study was to evaluate pediatric patients with melanoma with extensive follow-up in melanoma-prone families with and without cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) mutations. METHODS: For this non-population-based study, families were followed prospectively for up to 40 years. A total of 60 families with ≥ 3 patients with melanoma were included for analysis: 30 CDKN2A mutation-positive (CDKN2A+) and 30 CDKN2A mutation-negative (CDKN2A-) families. Age at the time of first melanoma and number of melanomas were obtained for each patient and summarized by family or sets (CDKN2A + vs CDKN2A-). For set comparisons and categorical variables (occurrence of melanoma in pediatric patients, number of melanomas, number of patients with single or multiple melanomas), the Pearson chi-square or Fisher exact test was used. RESULTS: Regardless of CDKN2A status, melanoma-prone families were found to have 6-fold to 28-fold higher percentages of patients with pediatric melanoma compared with the general population of patients with melanoma in the United States. Within CDKN2A + families, pediatric patients with melanoma were significantly more likely to have multiple melanomas compared with their relatives who were diagnosed at age >20 years (71% vs 38%, respectively; P = .004). CDKN2A + families had significantly higher percentages of pediatric patients with melanoma compared with CDKN2A- families (11.1% vs 2.5%; P = .004). CONCLUSIONS: These observations have implications for the prevention of melanoma as well as clinical care for its early detection. Children in melanoma-prone families should have careful sun protection from an early age and skin surveillance to reduce their risk of melanoma.


Assuntos
Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Anamnese/estatística & dados numéricos , Melanoma/epidemiologia , Melanoma/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Criança , Família , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Masculino , Protetores contra Radiação/uso terapêutico , Luz Solar/efeitos adversos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Br J Haematol ; 181(3): 372-377, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29693246

RESUMO

In a previous whole exome sequencing of patients from 41 families with Hodgkin lymphoma, we identified two families with distinct heterozygous rare coding variants in POT1 (D224N and Y36H), both in a highly conserved region of the gene. POT1 D224N mutant did not bind to a single-stranded telomere oligonucleotide in vitro suggesting the mutation perturbs POT1's ability to bind to the telomeric G-rich overhang. Human HT1080 cells expressing POT1 D224N and lymphoblastoid cells carrying Y36H both showed increased telomere length and fragility in comparison to wild type cells. This strongly suggests that mutant POT1 causes chromosome instability and may play a role in lymphomagenesis in these families.


Assuntos
Instabilidade Cromossômica , Família , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Doença de Hodgkin , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Proteínas de Ligação a Telômeros , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Doença de Hodgkin/genética , Doença de Hodgkin/metabolismo , Doença de Hodgkin/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Telômero/genética , Telômero/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a Telômeros/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Telômeros/metabolismo
20.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 4: 3, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29423438

RESUMO

Elevated mammographic density (MD) is an established breast cancer risk factor. Studies examining relationships between MD and breast cancer risk factors are limited in China, where established breast cancer risk factors are less prevalent but dense breasts are more prevalent than Western countries. This study included 11,478 women (45-69 years; 36% premenopausal) participating in an ongoing national cancer screening program in 11 urban provinces in China and predicted as having high-risk for breast cancer. Polytomous logistic regression was performed to assess associations between MD and risk factors by comparing each higher Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) category (2, 3, or 4) to the lowest category (BI-RADS, 1). We found associations of increasing age, body mass index, weight, postmenopausal status, and parity with lower MD. Higher levels of education, increasing height, and later first birth were associated with higher MD. These associations did not vary by menopausal status. Additionally, the association between longer period of breastfeeding and lower MD was seen among postmenopausal women only (Pinteraction = 0.003). Having first-degree relatives with breast cancer diagnosed before 50 years was associated with lower MD only among premenopausal women (Pinteraction = 0.061). We found effects of established breast cancer risk factors on MD showed similar directions in Chinese and Western women, supporting the hypothesis that MD represents cumulative exposure to breast cancer risk factors over the life course. Our findings help to understand the biological basis of the association of MD with breast cancer risk and have implications for breast cancer prevention research in China.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...