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1.
Mol Biol Rep ; 2022 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35040005

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of the experiment was to explore the localization and seasonal expression of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) in the colonic tissue of wild ground squirrels (Spermophilus dauricus). METHODS AND RESULTS: Hematoxylin-eosin staining, immunohistochemistry, real-time quantitative PCR and Western blotting were used in this experiment. The histological results showed that the diameter of the colon lumen enlarged and the number of glandular cells increased in the non-breeding season. It was found in the immunochemical results that both ERK1/2 and pERK1/2 were expressed in the cytoplasm of goblet cells and intestinal epithelial cells, while pERK1/2 was also expressed in the nucleus of them. The immune localization of both was more obvious in the non-breeding season, especially in intestinal epithelial cells. Real-time quantitative PCR and Western blotting showed that ERK1/2 and pERK1/2 were seasonally highly expressed in the non-breeding season. CONCLUSIONS: The expression of ERK1/2 and pERK1/2 was seasonal changes and had significant increases in the non-breeding season. This study revealed that ERK1/2 had potential roles in the colon to the adaptation of seasonal changes in wild ground squirrels.

2.
Int J Phytoremediation ; : 1-11, 2022 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35014567

RESUMO

With the economic development of society, concentrations of atmospheric CO2 and heavy metals in soils have been increasing. The physiological responses of plants to the interaction between soil pollution and climatic change need to be understood. Pot experiments were designed to assess variations in Festuca arundinacea dry weight, leaf type, chlorophyll content, antioxidase activities, and Cd accumulation ability, under different atmospheric CO2 treatments. The results showed that the total dry weights increased with increasing CO2, and Cd concentrations in falling leaf tissues increased with raised atmospheric CO2, before reaching a peak at 600 ppm, above which they remained constant. Compared with the control (400 ppm), 600, 650, and 700 ppm CO2 treatments increased the proportions of the falling tissues by 1.7%, 3.3%, and 4.5%, respectively. Antioxidant enzyme activities in plant leaves increased with increasing atmospheric CO2 levels. The concentration of H2O2 in leaf tissues increased with increasing CO2, reaching a peak at 600 ppm, and then decreased significantly as the CO2 content increased further, to 700 ppm. The results in this study suggest that F. arundinacea could be regarded as a potential candidate for phytoremediation of Cd-polluted soil; especially if senescent and dead leaf tissues could be harvested, and that raised atmospheric CO2 levels could improve its soil remediation efficiency. Novelty statement Extrapolation of results from experiments of environmental impacts in greenhouse to real scale field requires to be considered cautiously. External factors such as water, temperature, humidity, and pollution are variable in real field. Plants will face a lot of beneficial or detrimental conditions which will influence the magnitude of the results. However, the elevation of CO2 is an inevitable phenomenon in future. Therefore, findings from experiments under artificial conditions are sometime a good choice to obtain knowledge about elevated CO2 related impacts on phytoremediation efficiency of a specific plant. The final goal of this work is to find a suitable CO2 fumigation strategy optimized for soil remediation. We report on that elevated atmospheric CO2 can increase the phytoremediation efficiency of Festuca arundinacea for Cd. This is significant because the combined influences of elevated atmospheric CO2 and metal pollution in terms of biomass yield, pollutant uptake, and phytoremediation efficiency would be more complex than the effects of each individual factor.

3.
Food Chem ; 371: 131112, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537609

RESUMO

Egg yolk contains abundant meat precursors, but its odor is quite different from meat aroma. In this study, the lipids in egg yolk were partly removed by acetone or totally removed by chloroform/methanol, and lutein was removed simultaneously by the solvents. Then, the samples were heated, and the volatiles and aroma profiles were analyzed. The results showed that chicken meat aroma and meat aroma were imitated successfully through the removal of neutral lipids and lutein (acetone-treated) and total lipids and lutein (chloroform/methanol-treated) egg yolk samples, respectively. Finally, additional lutein and tert-butylhydroquinone were employed for validating the inhibiting effects of lutein on lipid oxidation and Maillard reaction, and the results demonstrated that it was lutein rather than lipids or their degradation products that determined the flavor formation. These findings push forward the mechanisms for the formation of meat flavor and provide insights for future manufacturing of meat aroma.


Assuntos
Gema de Ovo , Odorantes , Luteína , Carne/análise , Paladar
4.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 575, 2021 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34872505

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aegilops geniculata Roth is closely related to common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and is a valuable genetic resource for improvement of wheat. RESULTS: In this study, the W19513 line was derived from the BC1F10 progeny of a cross between wheat 'Chinese Spring' and Ae. geniculata SY159. Cytological examination showed that W19513 contained 44 chromosomes. Twenty-two bivalents were formed at the first meiotic metaphase I in the pollen mother cellsand the chromosomes were evenly distributed to opposite poles at meiotic anaphase I. Genomic in situ hybridization demonstrated that W19513 carried a pair of alien chromosomes from the M genome. Fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed detection of variation in chromosomes 4A and 6B. Functional molecular marker analysis using expressed sequence tag-sequence-tagged site and PCR-based landmark unique gene primers revealed that the alien gene belonged to the third homologous group. The marker analysis confirmed that the alien chromosome pair was 3Mg. In addition, to further explore the molecular marker specificity of chromosome 3Mg, based on the specific locus amplified fragment sequencing technique, molecular markers specific for W19513 were developed with efficiencies of up to 47.66%. The W19513 line was inoculated with the physiological race E09 of powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici) at the seedling stage and showed moderate resistance. Field inoculation with a mixture of the races CYR31, CYR32, CYR33, and CYR34 of the stripe rust fungus (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. triticii) revealed that the line W19513 showed strong resistance. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a foundation for use of the line W19513 in future genetic research and wheat improvement.

6.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 19(1): 413, 2021 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34895255

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease in oral cavity owing to bacterial infection. Photothermal therapy (PTT) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) have many advantages for antibacterial treatment. As an excellent photosensitizer, indocyanine green (ICG) shows prominent photothermal and photodynamic performances. However, it is difficult to pass through the negatively charged bacterial cell membrane, thus limiting its antibacterial application for periodontitis treatment. RESULTS: In this work, self-assembled nanoparticles containing ICG and polycationic brush were prepared for synergistic PTT and PDT against periodontitis. First, a star-shaped polycationic brush poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (sPDMA) was synthesized via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of DMA monomer from bromo-substituted ß-cyclodextrin initiator (CD-Br). Next, ICG was assembled with sPDMA to prepare ICG-loaded sPDMA (sPDMA@ICG) nanoparticles (NPs) and the physicochemical properties of these NPs were characterized systematically. In vitro antibacterial effects of sPDMA@ICG NPs were investigated in porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), one of the recognized periodontitis pathogens. A ligature-induced periodontitis model was established in Sprague-Dawley rats for in vivo evaluation of anti-periodontitis effects of sPDMA@ICG NPs. Benefiting from the unique brush-shaped architecture of sPDMA polycation, sPDMA@ICG NPs significantly promoted the adsorption and penetration of ICG into the bacterial cells and showed excellent PTT and PDT performances. Both in vitro and in vivo, sPDMA@ICG NPs exerted antibacterial and anti-periodontitis actions via synergistic PTT and PDT. CONCLUSIONS: A self-assembled nanosystem containing ICG and polycationic brush has shown promising clinical application for synergistic PTT and PDT against periodontitis.

7.
Environ Res ; 206: 112554, 2021 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34951988

RESUMO

Humic-like substances (HULIS), as important components of brown carbon (BrC), play an important role in climate change. In this study, one-year PM2.5 samples from 2017 to 2018 were collected at Nanjing, China and the water soluble HULIS and other chemical species were analyzed to investigate the seasonal variations, optical properties and possible sources. The HULIS concentrations exhibited highest in winter and lowest in summer. The annual averaged HULIS concentration was 2.61 ± 1.79 µg m-3, accounting for 45 ± 13% of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC). The HULIS light absorption coefficient at 365 nm (Abs365, HULIS) averagely accounted for 71 ± 19% of that of WSOC, suggesting that HULIS are the main light-absorbing components in WSOC. The annual averaged Ångström absorption exponent and mass absorption efficiency of HULIS at 365 nm were 5.22 ± 0.77 and 1.71 ± 0.70 m2 g-1. Good correlations between HULIS with levoglucosan and K+ suggested biomass burning (BB) influence on HULIS. High concentrations of HULIS and secondary species (e.g., NO3-, SO42-, NH4+, C2O42-) were found in present of high relative humidity, indicating strong aqueous phase secondary HULIS formation. Secondary HULIS produced from anthropogenic and biogenic precursors were quantified based on the positive matrix factorization (PMF) model and the results showed that both fossil (55%) and biogenic (45%) emission sources made great contributions to HULIS. Fossil fuel combustion significantly contributed to HULIS formation throughout the whole year, which were enriched with more secondary HULIS (30%) than primary HULIS (25%). Strongest BB contribution (39%) was found in winter and biogenic SOA contribution (32%) was found in summer. A multiple linear regression (MLR) method was further applied to obtain specific source contributions to Abs365, HULIS and the results showed that strong light-absorbing chromophores were produced from anthropogenic precursors. Our results highlight the anthropogenic SOA and fossil fuels combustion contributions to HULIS in addition to the biggest contributor, BB, in urban area in China.

8.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 2021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34842360

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biomarkers that can risk-stratify children with influenza virus lower respiratory infection may identify patients for targeted intervention. Early elevation of alveolar-related proteins in the bloodstream in these patients could indicate more severe lung damage portending worse outcomes. METHODS: We used a mouse model of human influenza infection and evaluated relationships between lung pathophysiology and surfactant protein D (SP-D), SP-A, and Club cell protein 16 (CC16). We then measured SP-A, SP-D, and CC16 levels in plasma samples from 94 children with influenza-associated acute respiratory failure (PICFLU cohort), excluding children with underlying conditions explaining disease severity. We tested for associations between levels of circulating proteins and disease severity including the diagnosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), mechanical ventilator, intensive care unit and hospital days, and hospital mortality. RESULTS: Circulating SP-D showed a greater increase than SP-A and CC16 in mice with increased alveolar-vascular permeability following influenza infection. In the PICFLU cohort, SP-D was associated with moderate-severe ARDS diagnosis (p = 0.01) and with mechanical ventilator (r = 0.45, p = 0.002), ICU (r = 0.44, p = 0.002), and hospital days (r = 0.37, p = 0.001) in influenza-infected children without bacterial coinfection. Levels of SP-D were lower in children with secondary bacterial pneumonia (p = 0.01) and not associated with outcomes. CC16 and SP-A levels did not differ with bacterial coinfection and were not consistently associated with severe outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: SP-D has potential as an early circulating biomarker reflecting a degree of lung damage caused directly by influenza virus infection in children. Secondary bacterial pneumonia alters SP-D biomarker performance.

9.
Genome Biol ; 22(1): 316, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34784936

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heterozygous genomes are widespread in outcrossing and clonally propagated crops. However, the variation in heterozygosity underlying key agronomic traits and crop domestication remains largely unknown. Cassava is a staple crop in Africa and other tropical regions and has a highly heterozygous genome. RESULTS: We describe a genomic variation map from 388 resequenced genomes of cassava cultivars and wild accessions. We identify 52 loci for 23 agronomic traits through a genome-wide association study. Eighteen allelic variations in heterozygosity for nine candidate genes are significantly associated with seven key agronomic traits. We detect 81 selective sweeps with decreasing heterozygosity and nucleotide diversity, harboring 548 genes, which are enriched in multiple biological processes including growth, development, hormone metabolisms and responses, and immune-related processes. Artificial selection for decreased heterozygosity has contributed to the domestication of the large starchy storage root of cassava. Selection for homozygous GG allele in MeTIR1 during domestication contributes to increased starch content. Selection of homozygous AA allele in MeAHL17 is associated with increased storage root weight and cassava bacterial blight (CBB) susceptibility. We have verified the positive roles of MeTIR1 in increasing starch content and MeAHL17 in resistance to CBB by transient overexpression and silencing analysis. The allelic combinations in MeTIR1 and MeAHL17 may result in high starch content and resistance to CBB. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides insights into allelic variation in heterozygosity associated with key agronomic traits and cassava domestication. It also offers valuable resources for the improvement of cassava and other highly heterozygous crops.

10.
Cell Oncol (Dordr) ; 44(6): 1425-1437, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34791638

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Previously, Interferon-induced Protein with Tetratricopeptide Repeats 1 (IFIT1) has been shown to promote cancer development. Here, we aimed to explore the role of IFIT1 in the development and progression of pancreatic cancer, including the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: We explored IFIT1 expression in pancreatic cancer samples using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK8), colony formation, scratch wound-healing and Transwell assays were performed to assess the proliferation, migration and invasion abilities of pancreatic cancer cells. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) and Western blotting were performed to assess the regulatory effect of IFIT1 on the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway. RESULTS: We found that upregulation of IFIT1 expression is common in pancreatic cancer and is negatively associated with overall patient survival. Knockdown of IFIT1 expression led to decreased proliferation, migration and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells. We also found that IFIT1 could regulate Wnt/ß-catenin signaling, and that a Wnt/ß-catenin agonist could reverse this effect. In addition, we found that IFIT1 can promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of pancreatic cancer cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that IFIT1 increases pancreatic cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion by activating the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway. In addition, we found that EMT could be regulated by IFIT1. IFIT1 may serve as a potential therapeutic target for pancreatic cancer.

11.
Front Immunol ; 12: 710513, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34745091

RESUMO

High-fat (HF) diet-induced neuroinflammation and cognitive decline in humans and animals have been associated with microbiota dysbiosis via the gut-brain axis. Our previous studies revealed that excretory-secretory products (ESPs) derived from the larval Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus) function as immunomodulators to reduce the inflammatory response, while the parasitic infection alleviates metabolic disorders in the host. However, whether ESPs can improve cognitive impairment under obese conditions remain unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effects of E. granulosus-derived ESPs on cognitive function and the microbiota-gut-brain axis in obese mice. We demonstrated that ESPs supplementation prevented HF diet-induced cognitive impairment, which was assessed behaviorally by nest building, object location, novel object recognition, temporal order memory, and Y-maze memory tests. In the hippocampus (HIP) and prefrontal cortex (PFC), ESPs suppressed neuroinflammation and HF diet-induced activation of the microglia and astrocytes. Moreover, ESPs supplementation improved the synaptic ultrastructural impairments and increased both pre- and postsynaptic protein levels in the HIP and PFC compared to the HF diet-treated group. In the colon, ESPs reversed the HF diet-induced gut barrier dysfunction, increased the thickness of colonic mucus, upregulated the expression of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), attenuated the translocation of bacterial endotoxins, and decreased the colon inflammation. Notably, ESPs supplementation alleviated the HF diet-induced microbiota dysbiosis. After clarifying the role of antibiotics in obese mice, we found that broad-spectrum antibiotic intervention abrogated the effects of ESPs on improving the gut microbiota dysbiosis and cognitive decline. Overall, the present study revealed for the first time that the parasite-derived ESPs alleviate gut microbiota dysbiosis and improve cognitive impairment induced by a high-fat diet. This finding suggests that parasite-derived molecules may be used to explore novel drug candidates against obesity-associated neurodegenerative diseases.

12.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 223, 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758889

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment, an increasing mental health issue, is a core feature of the aging brain and neurodegenerative diseases. Industrialized nations especially, have experienced a marked decrease in dietary fiber intake, but the potential mechanism linking low fiber intake and cognitive impairment is poorly understood. Emerging research reported that the diversity of gut microbiota in Western populations is significantly reduced. However, it is unknown whether a fiber-deficient diet (which alters gut microbiota) could impair cognition and brain functional elements through the gut-brain axis. RESULTS: In this study, a mouse model of long-term (15 weeks) dietary fiber deficiency (FD) was used to mimic a sustained low fiber intake in humans. We found that FD mice showed impaired cognition, including deficits in object location memory, temporal order memory, and the ability to perform daily living activities. The hippocampal synaptic ultrastructure was damaged in FD mice, characterized by widened synaptic clefts and thinned postsynaptic densities. A hippocampal proteomic analysis further identified a deficit of CaMKIId and its associated synaptic proteins (including GAP43 and SV2C) in the FD mice, along with neuroinflammation and microglial engulfment of synapses. The FD mice also exhibited gut microbiota dysbiosis (decreased Bacteroidetes and increased Proteobacteria), which was significantly associated with the cognitive deficits. Of note, a rapid differentiating microbiota change was observed in the mice with a short-term FD diet (7 days) before cognitive impairment, highlighting a possible causal impact of the gut microbiota profile on cognitive outcomes. Moreover, the FD diet compromised the intestinal barrier and reduced short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production. We exploit these findings for SCFA receptor knockout mice and oral SCFA supplementation that verified SCFA playing a critical role linking the altered gut microbiota and cognitive impairment. CONCLUSIONS: This study, for the first time, reports that a fiber-deprived diet leads to cognitive impairment through altering the gut microbiota-hippocampal axis, which is pathologically distinct from normal brain aging. These findings alert the adverse impact of dietary fiber deficiency on brain function, and highlight an increase in fiber intake as a nutritional strategy to reduce the risk of developing diet-associated cognitive decline and neurodegenerative diseases. Video Abstract.

13.
Front Oncol ; 11: 724287, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604062

RESUMO

Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of robotic-assisted adrenalectomy (RA) and standard laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) for pheochromocytoma (PHEO). Methods: We systematically searched the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, and Science databases for studies published through January 2021. Controlled trials on RA and LA for PHEOs were included. The meta-analysis was conducted with the Review Manager 5.4 software. Results: Four studies with 386 patients were included in the analysis. There were no significant differences in OT (WMD: 0.16; 95% CI: -28.50 to 28.82; I2 = 89%; P = 0.99), transfusion rate (OR: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.07 to 7.07; I2 = 64%; P = 0.77), conversion rate (OR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.07 to 2.88; I2 = 0%; P = 0.39), complication rate (OR: 1.06; 95% CI: 0.62 to 1.82; I2 = 0%; P = 0.84) among patients undergoing RA and LA. However, compared with patients who underwent LA, patients who underwent RA had a shorter LOS (OR: -0.50; 95% CI: -0.55 to 0.45; I2 = 31%; P<0.01), less EBL (WMD: -0.85; 95% CI: -13.56 to -2.54; I2 = 44%; P<0.01), and fewer IHD (OR: 0.34; 95% CI: 0.17 to 0.70; I2 = 0%; P<0.01). Conclusion: The RA for pheochromocytoma achieve better outcomes over LA in terms of safety and efficacy.

14.
Ear Nose Throat J ; : 1455613211051662, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34636258

RESUMO

We report two subjects with tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica (TO), including the clinical manifestations, histological findings, and clinical treatments, which were analyzed retrospectively. One patient with TO was a 60-year-old woman, and the other was a 47-year-old man. The main clinical manifestations were cough, chest pain, and dyspnea. Computed tomography (CT) images showed that TO mainly occurred in the trachea and main bronchus. Histological analysis showed inflammatory exudation, squamous metaplasia, submucosal cartilaginous, and ossification. We present the two cases to increase physician and patient awareness of this benign disease and to improve their understanding of the disease manifestations and potential complications.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34704996

RESUMO

While many studies have reported on the oxidation kinetics of ammonia and amines with the hydroxyl radical (OH) in the gas phase, the analogous reactions in the aqueous phase have not been adequately studied. In this work, the reaction rate constants of ammonia, dimethylamine (DMA) and diethylamine (DEA) with hydroxyl radicals in the aqueous phase were investigated using ion chromatography. The neutral and protonated forms of each base were shown to have differing rate constants with OH by performing the measurements over a range of pH from 7.0 to 11.0. Excess hydrogen peroxide was used as the precursor for hydroxyl radicals, while monochloroacetic acid and benzoic acid were chosen as the reference compounds for the relative rate method. The rate constants of both protonated forms and neutral forms were calculated for DMA ((9.5 ± 1.2) ×106 M-1 s-1 and (3.3 ± 0.2) ×109 M-1 s-1) and DEA ((1.5 ± 0.4) × 108 M-1 s-1 and (4.9 ± 0.1) × 109 M-1 s-1) using the relative rate method. The rate constant of ammonium ion and neutral ammonia were calculated to be (2.3 ± 0.5) × 106 M-1 s-1 and (1.8 ± 0.4) × 108 M-1 s-1, respectively. With a pKa of 9.25, the rate constant of the protonated form is applicable to the overall rate constant of ammonia at pH <7, indicating that this oxidation pathway is not a significant sink for ammonia in acidic aqueous environments. Because of their partitioning characteristics, oxidation of DMA and DEA by OH in aerosol particles could be competitive with oxidation in the gas phase.

16.
Front Vet Sci ; 8: 718743, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34552973

RESUMO

Background: The larval stages of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (E. granulosus s.l) infection can alter B cell function and affect host anti-infective immunity, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The newly emerging immunometabolism highlights that several metabolites are key factors in determining the fate of immune cells, which provides a new insight for exploring how larval E. granulosus s.l. infection remodels B cell function. This study investigated the metabolomic profiles of B cells in mice infected with E. granulosus s.l. protoscoleces (PSC). Results:Total CD19+ B cells, purified from the spleen of infected mice, showed significantly increased production of IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10 after exposure to LPS in vitro. Moreover, the mRNA expression of metabolism related enzymes in B cells was remarkably disordered post infection. In addition, differential metabolites were identified in B cells after infection. There were 340 differential metabolites (83 upregulated and 257 downregulated metabolites) identified in the positive ion model, and 216 differential metabolites (97 upregulated and 119 downregulated metabolites) identified in the negative ion mode. Among these, 64 differential metabolites were annotated and involved in 68 metabolic pathways, including thyroid hormone synthesis, the metabolic processes of glutathione, fructose, mannose, and glycerophospholipid. Furthermore, several differential metabolites such as glutathione, taurine, and inosine were validated to regulate the cytokine production in LPS stimulated B cells. Conclusion:Infection with the larval E. granulosus s.l. causes metabolic reprogramming in the intrinsic B cells of mice, which provides the first evidence for understanding the role and mechanism of B cells in parasite anti-infective immunity from the viewpoint of immunometabolism.

17.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 301, 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations are heterogenous and profoundly impact the disease trajectory. Bioactive lipid lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) has been implicated in airway inflammation but the significance of LPA in COPD exacerbation is not known. The aim of the study was to investigate the utility of serum LPA species (LPA16:0, 18:0, 18:1, 18:2, 20:4) as biomarkers of COPD exacerbation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: LPA species were measured in the baseline placebo sera of a COPD randomized controlled trial. Tertile levels of each LPA were used to assign patients into biomarker high, medium, and low subgroups. Exacerbation rate and risk were compared among the LPA subgroups. RESULTS: The levels of LPA species were intercorrelated (rho 0.29-0.91). Patients with low and medium levels of LPA (LPA16:0, 20:4) had significantly higher exacerbation rate compared to the respective LPA-high patients [estimated rate per patient per year (95% CI)]: LPA16:0-low = 1.2 (0.8-1.9) (p = 0.019), LPA16:0-medium = 1.3 (0.8-2.0) (p = 0.013), LPA16:0-high = 0.5 (0.2-0.9); LPA20:4-low = 1.4 (0.9-2.1) (p = 0.0033), LPA20:4-medium = 1.2 (0.8-1.8) (p = 0.0089), LPA20:4-high = 0.4 (0.2-0.8). These patients also had earlier time to first exacerbation (hazard ratio (95% CI): LPA16:0-low = 2.6 (1.1-6.0) (p = 0.028), LPA16:0-medium = 2.7 (1.2-6.3) (p = 0.020); LPA20.4-low = 2.8 (1.2-6.6) (p = 0.017), LPA20:4-medium = 2.7 (1.2-6.4) (p = 0.021). Accordingly, these patients had a significant increased exacerbation risk compared to the respective LPA-high subgroups [odd ratio (95% CI)]: LPA16:0-low = 3.1 (1.1-8.8) (p = 0.030), LPA16:0-medium = 3.0 (1.1-8.3) (p = 0.031); LPA20:4-low = 3.8 (1.3-10.9) (p = 0.012), LPA20:4-medium = 3.3 (1.2-9.5) (p = 0.025). For the other LPA species (LPA18:0, 18:1, 18:2), the results were mixed; patients with low and medium levels of LPA18:0 and 18:2 had increased exacerbation rate, but only LPA18:0-low patients had significant increase in exacerbation risk and earlier time to first exacerbation compared to the LPA18:0-high subgroup. CONCLUSIONS: The study provided evidence of association between systemic LPA levels and exacerbation in COPD. Patients with low and medium levels of specific LPA species (LPA16:0, 20:4) had increased exacerbation rate, risk, and earlier time to first exacerbation. These non-invasive biomarkers may aid in identifying high risk patients with dysregulated LPA pathway to inform risk management and drug development.

18.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(9)2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34573650

RESUMO

Seasonal breeding is a normal phenomenon in which animals adapt to natural selection and reproduce only in specific seasons. Large studies have reported that the gut microbiota is closely related to reproduction. The purpose of this study was to explore the distinct taxonomy and function of the gut microbiota in the breeding and non-breeding seasons of the wild ground squirrel (Spermophilus dauricus). The 16S rRNA gene sequencing technology was utilized to sequence the gut microbiota of the wild ground squirrel. PICRUSt analysis was also applied to predict the function of the gut microbiota. The results suggested that the main components of the gut microbiota in all samples were Firmicutes (61.8%), Bacteroidetes (32.4%), and Proteobacteria (3.7%). Microbial community composition analyses revealed significant differences between the breeding and non-breeding seasons. At the genus level, Alistipes, Mycoplasma, Anaerotruncus, and Odoribacter were more abundant in the non-breeding season, while Blautia and Streptococcus were more abundant in the breeding season. The results of a functional prediction suggested that the relative abundance of functional categories that were related to lipid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and nucleotide metabolism increased in the breeding season. The relative abundance of energy metabolism, transcription, and signal transduction increased in the non-breeding season. Overall, this study found differences in the taxonomy and function of the gut microbiota of the wild ground squirrel between the breeding and non-breeding seasons, and laid the foundation for further studies on the relationship between the gut microbiota and seasonal breeding.

19.
ERJ Open Res ; 7(3)2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34350278

RESUMO

Introduction: COPD exacerbations are heterogeneous and can be triggered by bacterial, viral, or noninfectious insults. Exacerbations are also heterogeneous in neutrophilic or eosinophilic inflammatory responses. A noninvasive peripheral biomarker of COPD exacerbations characterised by bacterial/neutrophilic inflammation is lacking. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a key cytokine elevated during bacterial infection and mediates survival, proliferation, differentiation and function of neutrophils. Objective: We hypothesised that high peripheral G-CSF would be indicative of COPD exacerbations with a neutrophilic and bacterial phenotype associated with microbial dysbiosis. Methods: Serum G-CSF was measured during hospitalised exacerbation (day 0 or D0) and after 30 days of recovery (Day30 or D30) in 37 subjects. In a second cohort, serum and sputum cytokines were measured in 59 COPD patients during stable disease, at exacerbation, and at 2-weeks and 6-weeks following exacerbation. Results: Serum G-CSF was increased during exacerbation in a subset of patients. These exacerbations were enriched for bacterial but not viral or type-2 biologies. The median serum G-CSF level was 1.6-fold higher in bacterial exacerbation compared to nonbacterial exacerbation (22 pg·mL-1 versus 13 pg·mL-1, p=0.0007). Serum G-CSF classified bacterial exacerbations with an area under the curve (AUC) for the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve equal to 0.76. Exacerbations with a two-fold or greater increase in serum G-CSF were characterised by neutrophilic inflammation, with increased sputum and blood neutrophils, and high sputum interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6 and serum amyloid A1 (SAA1) levels. These exacerbations were preceded by dysbiosis, with decreased microbiome diversity and enrichment of respiratory pathogens such as Haemophilus and Moraxella. Furthermore, serum G-CSF at exacerbation classified neutrophilic-dysbiotic exacerbations (AUC for the ROC curve equal to 0.75). Conclusions: High serum G-CSF enriches for COPD exacerbations characterised by neutrophilic inflammation with underlying bacterial dysbiosis.

20.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 78(17-18): 6201-6213, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342664

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a kind of common digestive system cancer with the worst prognosis for its insidious symptoms and high invasiveness. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are endogenous non-coding RNAs with covalently closed circular structure, which are more stable and conservative than linear RNAs and process major functions of microRNA (miRNA) sponge, RNA binding protein (RBP) sponge and polypeptide translation template. Incremental researches have proved that circRNAs express aberrantly and play a vital role in various types of cancer. Hence, we reviewed the biogenesis, degradation, characteristics, and biological functions of circRNAs and summarized the roles circRNAs played in the proliferation, invasion, metastasis, chemoresistance and exosome-mediated intercellular communication of PC. We then summed up a workflow regarding circRNA research in cancer and relative specific databases and experimental methods. In the future, more efforts ought to be put into circRNAs research in PC, including basic research of discovering and testifying circRNAs centered ceRNA networks, and clinical research of exploiting exosomal or circulating circRNAs as a diagnostic biomarker, chemotherapy sensitivity predictor and prognostic predictor.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , RNA Circular/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Exossomos/metabolismo , Humanos , MicroRNAs/antagonistas & inibidores , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , RNA Circular/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo
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