Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 81
Filtrar
1.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0101721, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787487

RESUMO

A big challenge for the control of COVID-19 pandemic is the emergence of variants of concern (VOCs) or variants of interest (VOIs) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which may be more transmissible and/or more virulent and could escape immunity obtained through infection or vaccination. A simple and rapid test for SARS-CoV-2 variants is an unmet need and is of great public health importance. In this study, we designed and analytically validated a CRISPR-Cas12a system for direct detection of SARS-CoV-2 VOCs. We further evaluated the combination of ordinary reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and CRISPR-Cas12a to improve the detection sensitivity and developed a universal system by introducing a protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) near the target mutation sites through PCR primer design to detect mutations without PAM. Our results indicated that the CRISPR-Cas12a assay could readily detect the signature spike protein mutations (K417N/T, L452R/Q, T478K, E484K/Q, N501Y, and D614G) to distinguish alpha, beta, gamma, delta, kappa, lambda, and epsilon variants of SARS-CoV-2. In addition, the open reading frame 8 (ORF8) mutations (T/C substitution at nt28144 and the corresponding change of amino acid L/S) could differentiate L and S lineages of SARS-CoV-2. The low limit of detection could reach 10 copies/reaction. Our assay successfully distinguished 4 SARS-CoV-2 strains of wild type and alpha (B.1.1.7), beta (B.1.351), and delta (B.1.617.2) variants. By testing 32 SARS-CoV-2-positive clinical samples infected with the wild type (n = 5) and alpha (n = 11), beta (n = 8), and delta variants (n = 8), the concordance between our assay and sequencing was 100%. The CRISPR-based approach is rapid and robust and can be adapted for screening the emerging mutations and immediately implemented in laboratories already performing nucleic acid amplification tests or in resource-limited settings. IMPORTANCE We described CRISPR-Cas12-based multiplex allele-specific assay for rapid SARS-CoV-2 variant genotyping. The new system has the potential to be quickly developed, continuously updated, and easily implemented for screening of SARS-CoV-2 variants in resource-limited settings. This approach can be adapted for emerging mutations and implemented in laboratories already conducting SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid amplification tests using existing resources and extracted nucleic acid.

2.
Toxicol Lett ; 354: 1-13, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34718095

RESUMO

Aurantio-obtusin (AO) is a major anthraquinone (AQ) compound derived from Cassiae semen (CS). Although pharmacological studies have shown that the CS extracts can serve as effective agents in preclinical and clinical practice, AQ-induced hepatotoxicity in humans has attracted widespread attention. To explore whether AO induces hepatotoxicity and its underlying mechanisms, we exposed larval zebrafish and mice to AO. We found that AO delayed yolk sac absorption, and increased liver area and inflammation in the larval zebrafish. This inflammation was manifested as an increase in liver neutrophils and the up-regulated mRNA expression of interleukin-6 (Il-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (Tnf-α) in the larval zebrafish. Furthermore, a pharmacokinetics study showed that AO was quickly absorbed into the blood and rapidly metabolized in the mice. Of note, AO induced hepatotoxicity in a gender-dependent manner, characterized by liver dysfunction, increased hepatocyte necrosis with inflammatory infiltration, and up-regulated mRNAs of Il-6, Tnf-α and monocyte chemotactic protein 1(Mcp1) in the female mice after 28-day oral administration. It also highlighted that AO triggered NOD-like receptor protein (NLRP) signaling in the female mice, as evidenced by the increased NLRP3, Caspase-1, pro-IL-1ß, IL-1ß and IL-18. Finally, we found that AO led to a significant increase in potassium calcium-activated channel, subfamily N, member 4 (KCNN4) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, along with decreased nuclear factor kappa B p65 (NF-κB p65), in the female mouse livers. In conclusion, AO induced hepatotoxicity by activating NLRP3 inflammasome signaling, at least in part, through increased KCNN4 and ROS production, and NF-κB inhibition.

3.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 729756, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34660342

RESUMO

Background: Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is an acute enterovirus-induced disease. Gut microbiota dysbiosis has been identified as a factor that plays an important role in enteral virus infection, but the gut microbiota profile in hand, foot and mouth disease has rarely been studied in a large population. Methods: A total of 749 children (HFMD: n = 262, healthy control: n = 487) aged 2 to 7 years were recruited from hospitals and communities in the period from May to July, 2017. Clinical and demographical information was collected by trained personnel, and fecal samples were collected and processed for 16S ribosomal RNA(rRNA) gene sequencing. Results: We observed a significant alteration in the microbiota profile of children with HFMD compared with that of control children. Patients with enteroviruses A71(EV71) positive had more dysbiotic gut microbiota than those with coxsackievirus A16 (CAV16) positive. We found that Prevotella and Streptococcus were enriched in children with HFMD, whereas beneficial bacteria, including Bifidobacterium and Faecalibacterium, were depleted. Children with synbiotics supplements had lower risk of HFMD and we observed that the gut microbiota of HFMD patients who were administered synbiotics exhibited potential resistance to the dysbiosis detected in HFMD. Conclusions: This study suggested that the gut microbiota of patients with hand, foot and mouth disease exhibits dysbiosis and that synbiotics supplements potentially helps maintain the homeostasis of the gut flora.


Assuntos
Enterovirus Humano A , Enterovirus , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca , Simbióticos , Criança , China , Disbiose , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Lactente
4.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 430: 115728, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560092

RESUMO

1,2-Dichloroethane (1,2-DCE) is a pervasive environmental pollutant found in ambient and residential air, as well as ground and drinking water. Overexposure to it results in cortex edema, in both animals and humans. 1,2-DCE induces apoptosis in the cerebellum, liver and testes. This promotes the hypothesis that 1,2-DCE may induce apoptosis in the cortex as brain edema progresses. To validate our hypothesis, 40 NIH male mice were exposed to 0, 100, 350, 700 mg/m3 1,2-DCE by whole-body dynamic inhalation for 28 consecutive days. MicroRNA (miRNA) and mRNA microarray combined with TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling, flow cytometry, and mitochondrial membrane potential (mtΔΨ) measurement were applied to identify the cortex apoptosis pathways' specific responses to 1,2-DCE, in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that 1,2-DCE caused brain edema and increased apoptosis in the mouse cortexes. We confirmed that 1,2-DCE induced increased apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway, both in vitro and in vivo, as evidenced by increased Caspase-3, cleaved Caspase-3, Cytochrome c and Bax expression, and decreased Bcl-2 expression. Additionally, mtΔΨ decreased after 1,2-DCE treatment in vitro. 1,2-DCE exposure increased miR-182-5p and decreased phospholipase D1 (PLD1) in the cerebral cortex of mice. MiR-182-5p overexpression and PLD1 inhibition reduced mtΔΨ and increased astrocyte apoptosis, yet miR-182-5p inhibition alleviated the 1,2-DCE-induced PLD1 down-regulation and the increased apoptosis. Finally, PLD1 was confirmed to be a target of miR-182-5p by luciferase assay. Taken together, our findings indicate that 1,2-DCE exposure induces apoptosis in the cortex via a mitochondria-dependent pathway. This pathway is regulated by a miR-182-5p⊣PLD1 axie.

5.
Arch Toxicol ; 95(11): 3497-3513, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510229

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) has been reported to induce kidney damage by triggering oxidative stress and inflammation. The NLR family Pyrin Domain Containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome has been implicated a role in the pathogenesis of inflammation. However, the connection between Cd and NLRP3 inflammasome in the development of renal inflammation remains unknown. In this study, in vitro experiments based on the telomerase-immortalized human renal proximal-tubule epithelial cell line (RPTEC/TERT1) were carried out. Results revealed that CdCl2 (2-8 µM) increased ROS production and activated NLRP3, thereby enhancing secretion of IL-1ß and IL-18 (P < 0.05). Knock-down of NLRP3 rescued the RPTEC/TERT1 cells from Cd-induced inflammatory damage. Cd activated the MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway in RPTEC/TERT1 cells (P < 0.05). In addition, treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) improved inflammation and blocked the upregulation of the MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway. Pre-treatment with MAPK and NF-κB inhibitors also suppressed NLRP3 inflammasome activation (P < 0.05). Moreover, CdCl2 (25-00 mg/L) stimulated the MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway, activated the NLRP3 inflammasome, and increased inflammatory response (P < 0.05) leading to renal injury in rats. Exposure to cadmium elevated serum levels of NLRP3 and IL-1ß in populations (P < 0.05). Further analysis found that serum NLRP3 and IL-1ß levels were positively correlated with urine cadmium (UCd) and urine N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidase (UNAG). Overall, Cd induced renal inflammation through the ROS/MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway by activating the NLRP3 inflammasome. Our research thus provides new insights into the molecular mechanism that NLRP3 contributes to Cd-induced kidney damage.

6.
J Hazard Mater ; 420: 126550, 2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252664

RESUMO

The critical health risks caused by cadmium (Cd) via dietary exposure are commonly assessed by detecting Cd concentrations in foods. Differently, in this study, the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of Cd in major local harvests were introduced to assess the dietary exposure of local residents from a high-level environmental Cd region. The results indicated that certain Cd was released into the digestive juice after in vitro digestion with a bioaccessibility of 20-63% for rice and 3-32% for leafy vegetables, and the released portion was partially absorbed by Caco-2 cells with a bioavailability of 2-21% for rice and 0.2-13% for leafy vegetables. The results obtained from the toxicokinetic model revealed that the predicted urinary Cd values from the estimated daily intake (EDI) of Cd, which accounted for bioaccessibility and bioavailability, were consistent with the actual measured values, and the EDIs were considerably lower than the acceptable daily intake. This suggests that the bioaccessibility and bioavailability adjusted dietary Cd exposure should be more precise. The key issues addressed in our study implores that a potential health risk cannot be neglected in people with high consumption of rice from high-level zone.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Poluentes do Solo , Disponibilidade Biológica , Células CACO-2 , Cádmio/análise , Cádmio/toxicidade , Exposição Dietética , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
7.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(13): 17211-17226, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197336

RESUMO

Saxitoxin (STX), as a type of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), is gaining widespread attention due to its long existence in edible shellfish. However, the mechanism underlying STX chronic exposure-induced effect is not well understood. Here, we evaluated the neurotoxicity effects of long-term low-dose STX exposure on C57/BL mice by behavioral tests, pathology analysis, and hippocampal proteomics analysis. Several behavioral tests showed that mice were in a cognitive deficiency after treated with 0, 0.5, 1.5, or 4.5 µg STX equivalents/kg body weight in the drinking water for 3 months. Compared with control mice, STX-exposed mice exhibited brain neuronal damage characterized by decreasing neuronal cells and thinner pyramidal cell layers in the hippocampal CA1 region. A total of 29 proteins were significantly altered in different STX dose groups. Bioinformatics analysis showed that protein phosphatase 1 (Ppp1c) and arylsulfatase A (Arsa) were involved in the hippo signaling pathway and sphingolipid metabolism pathway. The decreased expression of Arsa indicates that long-term low doses of STX exposure can cause neuronal inhibition, which is a process related to spatial memory impairment. Taken together, our study provides a new understanding of the molecular mechanisms of STX neurotoxicity.


Assuntos
Síndromes Neurotóxicas/patologia , Saxitoxina/toxicidade , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Região CA1 Hipocampal/patologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Transtornos da Memória/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neurônios/patologia , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/psicologia , Proteômica , Células Piramidais/patologia
8.
Part Fibre Toxicol ; 18(1): 20, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Micro- and nanoplastic pollution has become a global environmental problem. Nanoplastics in the environment are still hard to detect because of analysis technology limitations. It is believed that when microplastics are found in the environment, more undetected nanoplastics are around. The current "microplastic exposure" is in fact the mixture of micro- and nanoplastic exposures. Therefore, the biological interaction between organisms among different sizes of micro- and nanoplastics should not be neglected. RESULTS: We measured the biodistribution of three polystyrene (PS) particles (50 nm PS, PS50; 500 nm PS, PS500; 5000 nm PS, PS5000) under single and co-exposure conditions in mice. We explored the underlying mechanisms by investigating the effects on three major components of the intestinal barrier (the mucus layer, tight junctions and the epithelial cells) in four intestine segments (duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon) of mice. We found that the amounts of both PS500 and PS5000 increased when they were co-exposed with PS50 for 24 h in the mice. These increased amounts were due primarily to the increased permeability in the mouse intestines. We also confirmed there was a combined toxicity of PS50 and PS500 in the mouse intestines. This manifested as the mixture of PS50 and PS500 causing more severe dysfunction of the intestinal barrier than that caused by PS50 or PS500 alone. We found that the combined toxicity of PS micro- and nanoplastics on intestinal barrier dysfunction was caused primarily by reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated epithelial cell apoptosis in the mice. These findings were further confirmed by an oxidants or antioxidants pretreatment study. In addition, the combined toxicity of PS micro- and nanoplastics was also found in the mice after a 28-day repeated dose exposure. CONCLUSIONS: There is a combined toxicity of PS50 and PS500 in the mouse intestines, which was caused primarily by ROS-mediated epithelial cell apoptosis in the mice. Considering that most recent studies on PS micro- and nanoplastics have been conducted using a single particle size, the health risks of exposure to PS micro- and nanoplastics on organisms may be underestimated.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poliestirenos , Animais , Apoptose , Células Epiteliais , Camundongos , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Plásticos , Poliestirenos/toxicidade , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Distribuição Tecidual
9.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 796, 2021 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33902517

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigated college students' attitude and compliance towards a prevention strategy involving use of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional online survey in four universities in Guangdong Province (China) based on purposive sampling. A self-administered questionnaire was given to College students (CSs) to measure the supportive attitude towards an outbreak control strategy and adoption of NPIs in respondents. RESULTS: A total of 44,446 CSs participated between 31 January and 10 February 2020; 92.7% of respondents supported the outbreak control strategy. The proportion of respondents who avoided public places, wore a facemask, avoid gatherings, and washed hands more frequently than usual was 94.8, 92.8, 91.2 and 86.9%. respectively. A total of 76.5% respondents adopted all four measures. A supportive attitude was associated with NPI adoption. Students who were female, postgraduate, anxious, and not depressed tended to have a higher supportive attitude and higher chance of NPI adoption. CONCLUSIONS: Higher supportiveness towards the disease control strategy for the Chinese public may lead to higher adoption rate of NPIs. Psychosocial factors were related to a supportive attitude and adoption of the NPI. We believe that our findings could aid policymakers to create NPIs to prevent and control emerging infectious diseases such as COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 216: 112204, 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845364

RESUMO

The mitoepigenetic modifications may be closely related to cellular fate. Both the replicative and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced premature senescence models were used to detect the mitochondrial biological characteristics and the epigenetic factors during senescence of human embryonic lung fibroblasts. The mitochondrial quantity was decreased in two senescence stages, while the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number was increased significantly and the methyltransferases activity likewise. And the acute mtROS accumulation could launch premature senescence. Later, the persistent premature senescence owned the higher level of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and mitochondrial 5-methylcytosine (mt-5-mC), and the less level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) than those of replicative senescence. The mtDNA methylation-related enzymes, binding protein and the mitochondrial transcription regulators presented the differentially expressed profiles in both senescent states. Interestingly, the hypermethylation in the CpG region of mitochondrial transcription factor B2 (TFB2M) contributed to its downregulation of mRNA level in replicative senescence. The alterations of the mitochondrial biological functions and mtDNA features would be novel candidate biomarkers involved in cellular senescence. The specific methylation status of mtDNA may also have a crosstalk with oxidative stress to the mitochondrial function, contributing to cellular senescence.

11.
J Food Sci ; 86(3): 1132-1143, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33598948

RESUMO

As a persistent organic pollutant, pentachlorophenol (PCP) has serious impacts on human health. However, its presence in animal source food products sold in the Guangdong Province (GD) of China, and the resultant dietary exposure have not been elucidated. To address this gap, 3,100 samples from seven food categories, including beef, pork, mutton, offals, broilers, hen eggs, and farmed freshwater fish, marketed throughout four geographical regions of GD, were collected from 2015 to 2018. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry was employed to detect PCP levels in these food matrices. PCP was found in all food categories, but the average contamination levels were low, ranging from 0.40 µg/kg wet weight (ww) (hen eggs) to 5.85 µg/kg ww (offals). However, higher concentrations of PCP were detected (P < 0.05) in animal source food from the North region. Additionally, a temporal declining trend was observed in this four-year consecutive survey. The estimated human dietary exposure of PCP to population groups, including the general population and subgroups (male and female, children, and adults), was found to be far below the permissible daily intake (3 µg/kg body weight). Therefore, the health impacts of PCP should be correspondingly low for local residents, based on current toxicological knowledge. Regional exposure patterns varied due to different extents of contamination in the four areas, and pork, broilers, and freshwater fish were the major sources of dietary PCP exposure. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: As a persistent organic pollutant, pentachlorophenol (PCP) has serious impacts on human health. However, its presence in animal source food products sold in Guangdong Province of China, and the resultant dietary exposure have not been elucidated. In this study, we conducted an in-depth investigation on the occurrence of PCP in major foodstuff categories, including beef, pork, mutton, broilers, offals, hen eggs, and farmed freshwater fish, marketed in all 21 prefecture-level divisions of Guangdong Province, in order to provide integral insights for regulatory authorities.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Carne/análise , Pentaclorofenol/análise , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto , Animais , Criança , China , Exposição Dietética/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Peixes/metabolismo , Análise de Alimentos , Humanos , Gado/metabolismo , Masculino , Pentaclorofenol/efeitos adversos , Aves Domésticas/metabolismo
12.
Lancet Reg Health West Pac ; 8: 100094, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33585828

RESUMO

Background: China implemented containment measures to stop SARS-CoV-2 transmission in response to the COVID-19 epidemic. After the first epidemic wave, we conducted population-based serological surveys to determine extent of infection, risk factors for infection, and neutralization antibody levels to assess the real infections in the random sampled population. Methods: We used a multistage, stratified cluster random sampling strategy to conduct serological surveys in three areas - Wuhan, Hubei Province outside Wuhan, and six provinces selected on COVID-19 incidence and containment strategy. Participants were consenting individuals >1 year old who resided in the survey area >14 days during the epidemic. Provinces screened sera for SARS-CoV-2-specific IgM, IgG, and total antibody by two lateral flow immunoassays and one magnetic chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay; positive samples were verified by micro-neutralization assay. Findings: We enrolled 34,857 participants (overall response rate, 92%); 427 were positive by micro-neutralization assay. Wuhan had the highest weighted seroprevalence (4•43%, 95% confidence interval [95%CI]=3•48%-5•62%), followed by Hubei-ex-Wuhan (0•44%, 95%CI=0•26%-0•76%), and the other provinces (<0•1%). Living in Wuhan (adjusted odds ratio aOR=13•70, 95%CI= 7•91-23•75), contact with COVID-19 patients (aOR=7•35, 95%CI=5•05-10•69), and age over 40 (aOR=1•36, 95%CI=1•07-1•72) were significantly associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Among seropositives, 101 (24%) reported symptoms and had higher geometric mean neutralizing antibody titers than among the 326 (76%) without symptoms (30±2•4 vs 15±2•1, p<0•001). Interpretation: The low overall extent of infection and steep gradient of seropositivity from Wuhan to the outer provinces provide evidence supporting the success of containment of the first wave of COVID-19 in China. SARS-CoV-2 infection was largely asymptomatic, emphasizing the importance of active case finding and physical distancing. Virtually the entire population of China remains susceptible to SARS-CoV-2; vaccination will be needed for long-term protection. Funding: This study was supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology (2020YFC0846900) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (82041026, 82041027, 82041028, 82041029, 82041030, 82041032, 82041033).

13.
Sci Total Environ ; 769: 144649, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493913

RESUMO

The blood lead levels (BLLs) of children in China remain notably high in many areas. We aimed to summarise the relevant regional characteristics, identifying problematic areas and the causes of lead pollution. We searched the databases of PubMed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang Data, systematically reviewing 219 articles published from January 2010 to September 2020. In doing so, we assessed the BLLs noted in 220 prefectures across China. Data were organised using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) mapping. Out of a total of 629,627 children sampled, we found that the average blood lead level (BLL) of children included in our study is 50.61 ± 13.63 µg/L, which slightly exceeds the 50.00 µg/L US standard. Within the sample, 8.75% had BLLs higher than 100.00 µg/L. Children living in Liaoning, Hebei, Shanxi, Jiangxi, Anhui, Fujian, Guizhou, Yunnan, and Guangxi had notably high BLLs, at more than 60.00 µg/L. A total of 112 municipalities had an average children's BLL above 50.00 µg/L. Furthermore, Chenzhou, Linfen, Yuncheng, and Hechi had the highest children's BLLs, with average values above 100.00 µg/L. The leading contributors to lead pollution are lead mining, lead recovery and the smelting industry. Nonetheless, the lead-acid battery industry needs more attention. Although data suggest that BLLs are decreasing in China, many areas still have high BLLs that need to be monitored. Moreover, national standards must improve to decrease acceptable BLL thresholds for children.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Chumbo , Chumbo , Criança , China , Cidades , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Intoxicação por Chumbo/epidemiologia
14.
Phytother Res ; 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440461

RESUMO

The continued global rise in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) combined with potential adverse effects of regular treatments calls for an alternative therapy. Prunella vulgaris L. (PV) is commonly used as a herbal remedy for thyroid diseases in China, but its influence on PTC is unclear. This study investigated the effect of PV aqueous extract on PTC and its underlying mechanism using a mouse xenograft model and the human PTC cell line K1. PV suppressed tumor growth in PTC-bearing mice at 0.05 and 0.1 g/kg bw, accompanied by improvements in autophagy-related protein expressions in xenografts. In K1 cells, PV inhibited cell growth and induced autophagic flux, manifesting as changes in autophagy-related proteins, the presence of autophagosomes, and a further increase in LC3-II by co-incubation with bafilomycin A1. Autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine ameliorated the autophagic cell death caused by PV. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activator MHY1485 blocked the antiproliferative activity of PV by regulating mTOR, unc-51-like autophagy activating kinase 1 (ULK1), autophagosomes formation, and autophagy-related proteins. The adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor compound C attenuated PV-induced inhibition of mTOR. Our results suggest that PV inhibits the growth of PTC in vivo and in vitro via autophagy, which is associated with the AMPK/mTOR/ULK1 pathway. Thus, PV has the potential to function as a therapeutic agent against PTC.

15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 211: 111897, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493719

RESUMO

Chronic cadmium (Cd) toxicity is a significant health concern, and the mechanism of long-term low-dose Cd exposure on bone has not been fully elucidated yet. This study aimed to assess the association between long-term environmental Cd exposure and bone remodeling in women who aged over 50. A total of 278 non-smoking subjects from Cd-polluted group (n = 191) and non-Cd polluted group (n = 87) were investigated. Bone mineral density (BMD), the levels of three bone turnover markers (BTMs), including total procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP), collagen type 1 cross-linked C-telopeptide (ß-CTX), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP), together with serum soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (sRANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) were determined. Early markers of renal dysfunction were measured as well. Urinary Cd concentrations ranged from 0.41 to 87.31 µg/g creatinine, with a median of 4.91 µg/g creatinine. Age, BMD, T-score, and prevalence of osteoporosis showed no statistical differences among the quartiles of urinary Cd concentrations, while serum levels of P1NP, ß-CTX, and OPG were higher in the upper quartiles. Multivariate linear regression models indicated significantly positive associations of urinary Cd concentration with serum levels of P1NP, ß-CTX, BALP, sRANKL, and OPG. A ridge regression analysis with T-score and the three BTMs, sRANKL, and OPG, adjusted for age and body mass index (BMI), indicated that except for age and Cd exposure, ß-CTX was a predictor of T-score. These findings demonstrated that Cd may directly accelerate bone remodeling. Serum ß-CTX might be an appropriate biochemical marker for evaluating and monitoring Cd-related bone loss. Capsule: Cadmium (Cd) may directly accelerate bone remodeling and serum ß-CTX is a valuable biochemical marker for evaluating Cd-related bone loss.


Assuntos
Remodelação Óssea , Cádmio/sangue , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Fosfatase Alcalina , Biomarcadores/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Densidade Óssea , Osso e Ossos , Colágeno Tipo I , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/sangue , Osteoprotegerina , Peptídeos , Ligante RANK/sangue
16.
J Hazard Mater ; 409: 124502, 2021 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33229260

RESUMO

The biological safety of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) has gradually attracted attention. However, few studies of their toxicity to the intestine and mechanism are available. In this study, their primary structures were characterized, and their subacute toxicity to mice was investigated. After 2 weeks of intragastric administration of MSNs, they significantly enhanced serum ALP, ALT, AST and TNF-α levels and caused infiltration of inflammatory cells in the spleen and intestines. MSNs induced intestinal oxidative stress and colonic epithelial cell apoptosis in mice. Intestinal epithelial cells exhibited mitochondrial ridge rupture and membrane potential decrease after MSN treatment. Additionally, MSNs increased ROS and NLRP3 levels and inhibited expression of the autophagy proteins LC3-II and Beclin1. MSNs significantly changed the intestinal flora diversity in mice, especially for harmful bacteria, leading to intestinal microecology imbalance. Meanwhile, MSNs influenced the expression of metabolites, which were involved in a range of metabolic pathways, including pyrimidine metabolism, central carbon metabolism in cancer, protein digestion and absorption, mineral absorption, ABC transport and purine metabolism. These results indicated that the subacute toxicity of mesoporous silicon was mainly caused by intestinal damage. Thus, our research provides additional evidence about the safe dosage of MSNs in the clinical and food industries.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Dióxido de Silício , Animais , Intestinos , Camundongos , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo , Porosidade , Dióxido de Silício/toxicidade
17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(10): e0008570, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035211

RESUMO

Little is known about the SARS-CoV-2 contamination of environmental surfaces and air in non-health care settings among COVID-19 cases. We explored the SARS-CoV-2 contamination of environmental surfaces and air by collecting air and swabbing environmental surfaces among 39 COVID-19 cases in Guangzhou, China. The specimens were tested on RT-PCR. The information collected for COVID-19 cases included basic demographic, clinical severity, symptoms at onset, radiological testing, laboratory testing and hospital admission. A total of 641 environmental surfaces and air specimens were collected among 39 COVID-19 cases before disinfection. Among them, 20 specimens (20/641, 3.1%) were tested positive from 9 COVID-19 cases (9/39, 23.1%), with 5 (5/101, 5.0%) positive specimens from 3 asymptomatic cases, 5 (5/220, 2.3%) from 3 mild cases, and 10 (10/374, 2.7%) from 3 moderate cases. All positive specimens were collected within 3 days after diagnosis, and 10 (10/42, 23.8%) were found in toilet (5 on toilet bowl, 4 on sink/faucet/shower, 1 on floor drain), 4 (4/21, 19.0%) in anteroom (2 on water dispenser/cup/bottle, 1 on chair/table, 1 on TV remote), 1 (1/8, 12.5%) in kitchen (1 on dining-table), 1 (1/18, 5.6%) in bedroom (1 on bed/sheet pillow/bedside table), 1 (1/5, 20.0%) in car (1 on steering wheel/seat/handlebar) and 3 (3/20, 21.4%) on door knobs. Air specimens in room (0/10, 0.0%) and car (0/1, 0.0%) were all negative. SARS-CoV-2 was found on environmental surfaces especially in toilet, and may survive for several days. We provided evidence of potential for SARS-CoV-2 transmission through contamination of environmental surfaces.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Contaminação de Equipamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/classificação , Betacoronavirus/genética , COVID-19 , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Microbiologia Ambiental , Feminino , Utensílios Domésticos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem
18.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 40(5): 733-740, 2020 May 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32897216

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To survey the residents for their understanding of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) in two hard hit provinces of China to facilitate the governmental decisions on strategies against the disease. METHODS: We invited the participants from Hubei and Henan Provinces of China for an internetbased survey starting from 12:00 on February 21, 2020 to 12:00 on February 23. The survey included the general conditions, KAP of COVID-19, psychological status and living conditions of the residents. RESULTS: The effective response rate of the questionnaire was 98.9%. The mean (P25, P75) age of the participants was 19 (16, 40) years, and 54.3% of them were students. Social media were the most important source of information concerning the pandemic of the respondents. The respondents had a high awareness of person-to-person transmission of the virus through the respiratory tract or droplets but showed a relatively low level of awareness of the population susceptible to COVID-19 and its specific symptoms. The results of multivariate analysis showed that women, undergraduate students (including college students) and higher degree holders had better knowledge of COVID-19 (P < 0.05); the proportion of respondents who expressed to have different levels of psychological stressed such as worry, anxiety and panic reached 77.2%; 16.7% of the responders considered psychological interventions necessary for their psychological conditions; 63.6% of the respondents confessed a bias against the people returning from Hubei and Henan provinces, while 22.4% worried that they might be biased because of their residence in Hubei and Henan. The rate of personal protective equipment shortage was as high as 69.4%; the rates of the responders who would "covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing", "properly use masks in accordance with regulations", "maintain proper hand hygiene ", "avoid gatherings with relatives and friends" and "refrain from going to public places" were 92.4%, 95.9%, 93.5%, 88.8% and 93.1%, respectively. Women and groups with good knowledge of the disease reported better protective behaviors against the diseases (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The residents in Hubei and Henan Provinces have generally good KAP related to COVID-19, and the online platforms plays a positive role to in circulating epidemic-related information. It is essential to further increase the supply of the protective materials and pay more attention to the mental health of the residents during the pandemic, and psychological counseling and psychological protection should be provided if necessary.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Atitude , COVID-19 , Feminino , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(9): e0008584, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941447

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has recently emerged as a global threat. Understanding workers' knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding this new infectious disease is crucial to preventing and controlling it. This study aimed to assess KAP regarding COVID-19 during the outbreak among workers in China. The present study was part of a cross-sectional online survey study conducted based on a large labor-intensive factory, which has 180,000 workers from various Chinese provinces, from 2 February 2020 to 7 February 2020. KAP related to COVID-19 were measured by 32 items, each item was measured with an agree/disagree/unclear format, and only correct responses were given 1 point. KAP regarding COVID-19 were measured with 20 items, 6 items and 6 items, respectively. A total of 123,768 valid responses (68.8%) were included in the analysis. Generally, the levels of knowledge (mean: 16.3 out of 20 points), attitudes (mean: 4.5 out of 6 points), and practices (mean: 5.8 out of 6 points) related to COVID-19 were high. Only 36,373 respondents (29.4%) disagreed that gargling with salt water is effective in protecting against COVID-19. Moreover, older respondents had decreased levels of knowledge and practices related to COVID-19 (both P values for the trend <0.001), while better-educated respondents had increased levels of knowledge and practices related to COVID-19 (both P values for the trend <0.001). These results suggest that Chinese workers are highly aware of COVID-19, but health authorities still need to provide correct information on COVID-19 prevention and strengthen health interventions, particularly for older and less-educated workers.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instalações Industriais e de Manufatura , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...