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1.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35774004

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the most common female neoplasm in the world. The age-specific incidences and onset ages vary widely between Asian and Western countries/regions. Female invasive breast cancer cases from 1997 to 2011 were abstracted from the International Agency for Research on Cancer and the Taiwan Cancer Registry. Age-period-cohort analysis was performed to examine the trends. The cohort effect was prominent in South Korea, Taiwan, Japan, and Thailand, possibly related to the timing of westernization. The risk of breast cancer initially rose with the birth cohorts in Hong Kong and India (both former British colonies), peaked, and then declined in recent birth cohorts. Unlike other Asian countries/regions, virtually no birth cohort effect was identified in the Philippines (a Spanish colony in 1565, the first Asian country to adopt Western cultural aspects). Moreover, an at-most negligible birth cohort effect was identified for all ethnic groups (including Asian immigrants) in the United States. This global study identified birth cohort effects in most Asian countries/regions but virtually no impact in Western countries/regions. The timing of westernization was associated with the birth cohort effect.

2.
World J Clin Cases ; 10(13): 4214-4219, 2022 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35665134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myocardial calcification is a rare complication in critically ill patients. The prognosis of myocardial calcifications in critically ill patients is very poor if not treated in a timely manner. We describe a rare case of acute extensive myocardial calcifications due to acute myocarditis after receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support. CASE SUMMARY: We report a 17-year-old male patient who developed extensive myocardial calcifications while receiving prolonged ECMO support for severe myocarditis and cardiogenic shock. Extensive myocardial calcifications were confirmed by chest computed tomography (CT). Myocardial calcifications were observed in the left ventricle walls on CT examination 10 days after admission. The patient was then discharged with heart function class II on the NYHA classification. Two years later, the patient was still alive with adequate quality of life. We then included this patient and 7 other cases retrieved from the PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and MEDLINE databases in our study, in order to provide a reference for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of this disease. CONCLUSION: Multiple causes including prolonged hemodynamic failure, profound acidosis, high vasopressor doses, and acute renal failure may jointly lead to extensive myocardial calcifications. The precise role of ECMO support in the timing and frequency of acute myocardial calcifications deserves further investigation.

3.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 12(11)2022 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35683656

RESUMO

As a renewable energy source, solar energy has become an important part of human energy use. However, facilities utilizing solar energy are often complex and technically difficult, and preparation equipment and materials are expensive, while these equipment and materials often cause new environmental pollution. Soil, which exists in large quantities on the earth's surface, is an inexhaustible natural material with loose and stable properties. Due to the specificity of its composition and microscopic form, the soil has an inherent advantage as a medium for solar thermal and photovoltaic conversion. Here, we built an integrated solar energy utilization system, the Integrated Soil Utilization Module (ISUM), integrating multi-functions into one hybrid system, which enables solar-driven water vapor and electricity generation and soil remediation. The evaporation rate of the soil represented by the rocky land was 1.2 kg·m-2·h-1 under 1-sun irradiation with evaporation induced voltage of 0.3 V. With only seven days of continuous exposure to sunlight, the removal of heavy metal ions from the soil reached 90%, while the pH was raised to near neutral. The combined application of readily available natural soil with solar energy not only demonstrates the potential of a soil for solar desalination and power generation, but in addition, solar-driven interfacial evaporation provides an energy-efficient, environmentally friendly, and sustainable method for purifying heavy metal and acid-contaminated soil.

4.
Front Nutr ; 9: 894117, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35685871

RESUMO

Naringenin, a flavanone, has been reported for a wide range of pharmacological activities. However, there are few reports on the absorption, transport and antioxidant effects of naringenin. The study was to explore the uptake, transport and antioxidant effects of naringenin in vitro. Cell transmembrane resistance, lucifer yellow transmission rate, and alkaline phosphatase activity were used to evaluate the successful construction of cell model. The results showed that the absorption and transport of naringenin by Caco-2 cells were time- and concentration-dependent. Different temperatures (37 and 4°C) had a significant effect on the uptake and transport of naringenin. Verapamil, potent inhibitor of P-glycoprotein, significantly inhibit naringenin transport in Caco-2 cells. The results revealed that naringenin was a moderately absorbed biological macromolecule and can penetrate Caco-2 cells, mainly mediated by the active transport pathway involved in P-glycoprotein. At the same time, naringenin pretreatment could significantly increase the viability of H2O2-induced Caco-2 cells. Twenty four differential metabolites were identified based on cellular metabolite analysis, mainly including alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism, histidine metabolism, taurine and hypotaurine metabolism, pyruvate metabolism, purine metabolism, arginine biosynthesis, citrate cycle, riboflavin metabolism, and D-glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism. We concluded that the transport of naringenin by Caco-2 cells is mainly involved in active transport mediated by P-glycoprotein and naringenin may play an important role in oxidative stress-induced intestinal diseases.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35687013

RESUMO

AIMS: Multicomponent integrated care is associated with sustained control of multiple cardiometabolic risk factors among patients with type 2 diabetes. There is a lack of data in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We aimed to examine its efficacy on mortality and hospitalization outcomes among patients with ACS in outpatient settings. METHODS AND RESULTS: A literature search was conducted on PubMed, EMBASE, Ovid and Cochrane library databases for randomized controlled trials, published in English language between January 1980 and November 2020. Multicomponent integrated care defined as two or more quality improvement strategies targeting different domains (the healthcare system, healthcare providers and patients) for one month or more. The study outcomes were all-cause and cardiovascular-related mortality, hospitalization and emergency department visits. We pooled the risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for the association between multicomponent integrated care and study outcomes using the Mantel-Haenszel test. 74 trials (n = 93,278 patients with ACS) were eligible. The most common quality improvement strategies were team change (83.8%), patient education (62.2%) and facilitated patient-provider relay (54.1%). Compared with usual care, multicomponent integrated care was associated with reduced risks for all-cause mortality (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.77-0.90; p<0.001; I2 = 0%), cardiovascular mortality (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.73-0.89; p<0.001; I2 = 24%) and all-cause hospitalization (RR 0.88, 95% CI, 0.78-0.99; p = 0.040; I2 = 58%). The associations of multicomponent integrated care with cardiovascular-related hospitalization, emergency department visits and unplanned outpatient visits were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: In outpatient settings, multicomponent integrated care can reduce risks for mortality and hospitalization in patients with ACS.

6.
J Thorac Dis ; 14(5): 1504-1514, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35693619

RESUMO

Background: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a class of non-protein coding RNAs greater than 200 nucleotides (nt) in length which have been shown to be significantly highly expressed in the heart tissue of mice undergoing thoracic aortic arch constriction (TAC). Micro RNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-protein-coding RNAs. Many miRNAs have been reported to play a key role in the progression of myocardial hypertrophy. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether lncRNA reprogramming regulators (ROR) promotes hypoxic injury in cardiomyocytes by targeting and regulating the miR-145/HS1-associated protein X-1 (HAX-1) axis. Methods: A mouse model of myocardial hypertrophy was established by conventional TAC method, and the cardiomyocytes were isolated. We transfected pcDNA3.0-ROR vector, pcDNA3.0-HAX-1 vector plasmid, and miR-145 simulant into cardiomyocytes with Lipofectamine 2000. Luciferase reporter gene was used to analyze the targeting relationship between genes. Results: The expression of ROR in hypertrophic myocardium was significantly increased after phenylephrine (PE) intervention. After transfection with si-ROR, the ROR expression in hypertrophic cardiomyocytes treated with PE decreased significantly. Levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), malondialdehyde (MDA), creatine kinase (CK) decreased and superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased. The expression of miR-145 in cardiomyocytes was significantly down-regulated after PE treatment. In hypertrophic cardiomyocytes, after up-regulating the expression of miR-145, the relative messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein expressions of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) induced by PE decreased. Compared with the miR-NC group, wild type (WT)-ROR activity in the miR-145 group was significantly inhibited (P<0.05), and mutant (MUT)-ROR activity had no significant change (P>0.05). When cardiomyocytes were transfected with HAX-1 3'URT WT vector along with miR-145 simulant, miR-145 inhibitor, and their respective controls. Compared with the control groups, the luciferase activity of cells transfected with simulant was significantly decreased (P<0.05), and increased in inhibitor group (P<0.05). Transfection of HAX-1 3'URT mutant vector did not show this phenomenon. ROR was negatively correlated with miR-145 expression and positively correlated with HAX-1 mRNA. Conclusions: The lncRNA ROR can promote the expression of HAX-1 by competitive binding with miR-145, so as to promote the pathophysiological process of myocardial hypertrophy.

7.
NPJ Parkinsons Dis ; 8(1): 77, 2022 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35725730

RESUMO

The success of deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapy indicates that Parkinson's disease is a brain rhythm disorder. However, the manifestations of the erroneous rhythms corrected by DBS remain to be established. We found that augmentation of α rhythms and α coherence between the motor cortex (MC) and the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is characteristically prokinetic and is decreased in parkinsonian rats. In multi-unit recordings, movement is normally associated with increased changes in spatiotemporal activities rather than overall spike rates in MC. In parkinsonian rats, MC shows higher spike rates at rest but less spatiotemporal activity changes upon movement, and STN burst discharges are more prevalent, longer lasting, and less responsive to MC inputs. DBS at STN rectifies the foregoing pathological MC-STN oscillations and consequently locomotor deficits, yet overstimulation may cause behavioral restlessness. These results indicate that delicate electrophysiological considerations at both cortical and subcortical levels should be exercised for optimal DBS therapy.

8.
J Biomed Sci ; 29(1): 42, 2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35706019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The development of drug resistance in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) that frequently leads to recurrence and metastasis after initial treatment remains an unresolved challenge. Presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) has been increasingly reported to be a critical contributing factor in drug resistance, tumor recurrence and metastasis. Thus, unveiling of mechanisms regulating CSCs and potential targets for developing their inhibitors will be instrumental for improving OSCC therapy. METHODS: siRNA, shRNA and miRNA that specifically target keratin 17 (KRT17) were used for modulation of gene expression and functional analyses. Sphere-formation and invasion/migration assays were utilized to assess cancer cell stemness and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) properties, respectively. Duolink proximity ligation assay (PLA) was used to examine molecular proximity between KRT17 and plectin, which is a large protein that binds cytoskeleton components. Cell proliferation assay was employed to evaluate growth rates and viability of oral cancer cells treated with cisplatin, carboplatin or dasatinib. Xenograft mouse tumor model was used to evaluate the effect of KRT17- knockdown in OSCC cells on tumor growth and drug sensitization. RESULTS: Significantly elevated expression of KRT17 in highly invasive OSCC cell lines and advanced tumor specimens were observed and high KRT17 expression was correlated with poor overall survival. KRT17 gene silencing in OSCC cells attenuated their stemness properties including markedly reduced sphere forming ability and expression of stemness and EMT markers. We identified a novel signaling cascade orchestrated by KRT17 where its association with plectin resulted in activation of integrin ß4/α6, increased phosphorylation of FAK, Src and ERK, as well as stabilization and nuclear translocation of ß-catenin. The activation of this signaling cascade was correlated with enhanced OSCC cancer stemness and elevated expression of CD44 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). We identified and demonstrated KRT17 to be a direct target of miRNA-485-5p. Ectopic expression of miRNA-485-5p inhibited OSCC sphere formation and caused sensitization of cancer cells towards cisplatin and carboplatin, which could be significantly rescued by KRT17 overexpression. Dasatinib treatment that inhibited KRT17-mediated Src activation also resulted in OSCC drug sensitization. In OSCC xenograft mouse model, KRT17 knockdown significantly inhibited tumor growth, and combinatorial treatment with cisplatin elicited a greater tumor inhibitory effect. Consistently, markedly reduced levels of integrin ß4, active ß-catenin, CD44 and EGFR were observed in the tumors induced by KRT17 knockdown OSCC cells. CONCLUSIONS: A novel miRNA-485-5p/KRT17/integrin/FAK/Src/ERK/ß-catenin signaling pathway is unveiled to modulate OSCC cancer stemness and drug resistance to the common first-line chemotherapeutics. This provides a potential new therapeutic strategy to inhibit OSCC stem cells and counter chemoresistance.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Queratina-17/metabolismo , MicroRNAs , Neoplasias Bucais , Animais , Carboplatina/farmacologia , Carboplatina/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Dasatinibe/farmacologia , Dasatinibe/uso terapêutico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Receptores ErbB/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Humanos , Integrina beta4/genética , Integrina beta4/metabolismo , Integrinas/genética , Integrinas/metabolismo , Integrinas/uso terapêutico , Queratina-17/genética , Queratina-17/farmacologia , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/farmacologia , Neoplasias Bucais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Bucais/genética , Plectina/genética , Plectina/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , beta Catenina/genética
9.
Children (Basel) ; 9(6)2022 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35740850

RESUMO

Kawasaki disease (KD) is a febrile coronary vasculitis that affects younger children and includes complications such as coronary artery aneurysm. KD diagnoses are diagnosed based on clinical presentations, a process that still poses a challenge for front-line physicians. In the current study, we developed a novel predictor using the hemoglobin-for-age z-score (HbZ) and plasma hepcidin to differentiate Kawasaki disease (KD) from febrile children (FC). There were 104 FC and 115 KD subjects (89 typical KD; 26 incomplete KD) for this study, and data were collected on the biological parameters of hemoglobin and plasma hepcidin levels. A receiver operating characteristic curve (auROC), multiple logistics regression, and support vector machine analysis were all adopted to develop our prediction condition. We obtained both predictors, HbZ and plasma hepcidin, for distinguishing KD and FC. The auROC of the multivariate logistic regression of both parameters for FC and KD was 0.959 (95% confidence interval = 0.937-0.981), and the sensitivity and specificity were 85.2% and 95.9%, respectively. Furthermore, the auROC for FC and incomplete KD was 0.981, and the sensitivity and specificity were 92.3% and 95.2%, respectively. We further developed a model of support vector machine (SVM) classification with 83.3% sensitivity and 88.0% specificity in the training set, and the blind cohort performed well (78.4% sensitivity and 100% specificity). All data showed that sensitivity and specificity were 81.7% and 91.3%, respectively, by SVM. Overall, our findings demonstrate a novel predictor using a combination of HbZ and plasma hepcidin with a better discriminatory ability for differentiating from WBC and CRP between children with KD and other FC. Using this predictor can assist front-line physicians to recognize and then provide early treatment for KD.

10.
Yi Chuan ; 44(5): 424-431, 2022 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35729699

RESUMO

Southwest China is home to numerous ethnic minorities, as well as many geographically and genetically isolated groups. However, the genetic substructure of these ethnic groups, especially the paternal genetic structure between groups, has not been comprehensively analyzed. In this study, we used Y chromosome capture and Illumina sequencing technologies to investigate the paternal genetic structure of three isolated groups of male unrelated individuals, including Baima in Pingwu, Sichuan Province, Muya in Shimian, Sichuan Province, and Kongge in Jinghong, Yunnan Province. We calculated the frequencies of related haplogroups by the fixed-point compound amplification method and direct counting method, and used the Past3.0 software to perform principal component analysis to draw a population clustering tree. we observed that Kongge had 3 Y chromosome haplogroups, Baima had 4 Y chromosome haplogroups, and Muya had 5 Y chromosome haplogroups. The results showed that Kongge was most closely related to the Wa, and the Y chromosome types of the Baima and Muya were mainly concentrated in the D haplogroup and its lower reaches. It has the closest relationship with the Tibetans in Qamdo and Nyingchi. The study on the genetic structure of different ethnic groups has enriched the genetic relationship of isolated populations and provided a new perspective for understanding Chinese ethnic groups.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Y , Genética Populacional , China , Cromossomos Humanos Y/genética , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites
11.
Kidney Int ; 2022 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35752325

RESUMO

The novel biomarker, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7 (IGFBP7), is used clinically to predict different types of acute kidney injury (AKI) and has drawn significant attention as a urinary biomarker. However, as a secreted protein in the circulation of patients with AKI, it is unclear whether IGFBP7 acts as a key regulator in AKI progression, and if mechanisms underlying its upregulation still need to be determined. Here we found that IGFBP7 is highly expressed in the blood and urine of patients and mice with AKI possibly via a c-Jun-dependent mechanism, and is positively correlated with kidney dysfunction. Global knockout of IGFBP7 ameliorated kidney dysfunction, inflammatory responses, and programmed cell death in murine models of cisplatin-, kidney ischemia/reperfusion-, and lipopolysaccharide-induced AKI. IGFBP7 mainly originated from kidney tubular epithelial cells. Conditional knockout of IGFBP7 from the kidney protected against AKI. By contrast, rescue of IGFBP7 expression in IGFBP7-knockout mice restored kidney damage and inflammation. IGFBP7 function was determined in vitro using recombinant IGFBP7 protein, IGFBP7 knockdown, or overexpression. Additionally, IGFBP7 was found to bind to poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1 (PARP1) and inhibit its degradation by antagonizing the E3 ubiquitin ligase ring finger protein 4 (RNF4). Thus, IGFBP7 in circulation acts as a biomarker and key mediator of AKI by inhibiting RNF4/PARP1-mediated tubular injury and inflammation. Hence, over-activation of the IGFBP7/PARP1 axis represents a promising target for AKI treatment.

12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(12)2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35743137

RESUMO

The enhancement of photosynthesis of tea leaves can increase tea yield. In order to explore the regulation mechanism of exogenous melatonin (MT) on the photosynthetic characteristics of tea plants, tea variety 'Zhongcha 108' was used as the experimental material in this study. The effects of different concentrations (0, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 mM) of melatonin on the chlorophyll (Chl) content, stomatal opening, photosynthetic and fluorescence parameters, antioxidant enzyme activity, and related gene expression of tea plants were detected and analyzed. The results showed that under 0.2-mM MT treatment, chlorophyll (Chl) content, photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), and transpiration rate (Tr) improved, accompanied by a decrease in stomata density and increase in stomata area. Zero point two millimolar MT increased Chl fluorescence level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and reduced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, indicating that MT alleviated PSII inhibition and improved photochemical efficiency. At the same time, 0.2 mM MT induced the expression of genes involved in photosynthesis and chlorophyll metabolism to varying degrees. The study demonstrated that MT can effectively enhance the photosynthetic capacity of tea plants in a dose-dependent manner. These results may promote a comprehensive understanding of the potential regulatory mechanism of exogenous MT on photosynthesis in tea plants.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis , Melatonina , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Camellia sinensis/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Melatonina/metabolismo , Melatonina/farmacologia , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta , Chá/metabolismo
13.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 880985, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35656306

RESUMO

Background: Biologics are used to treat moderate-to-severe psoriasis, and persistence to biologics may reflect clinical effectiveness. Limited information describing how biologics are used in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis in Asian countries is available. We conducted a population-based, retrospective, new user cohort study using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) in Taiwan to assess treatment persistence and adherence to biologics. Methods: Adults with a diagnosis of psoriasis between 01 January 2015 and 31 December 2017 were identified in the NHIRD (ICD-9-CM 696.1; ICD-10 L40.0). New users were patients who initiated treatment with etanercept, adalimumab, ustekinumab or secukinumab between 01 January 2015 and 31 December 2017. All eligible patients were followed until 31 December 2018, death or disenrollment. Kaplan-Meier analysis was conducted to estimate persistence of treatment for index biologics. A Cox-proportional hazard regression model was used to compare risks of biologic discontinuation between biologic groups. Adjustments for potential confounding factors (age, gender and Charlson comorbidity index score) were made in the Cox model. Results: There were 1,397 new biologic users with psoriasis during the study period. The ratio men:women was approximately 4:1. Mean age of patients ranged from 44.6 to 47.7 years across exposure groups. The 1-year/2-years persistence rates were 94.2%/84.9% for ustekinumab, 96.2%/not calculated (due to too few patients at year 2) for secukinumab, 66.0%/29.9% for etanercept, and 59.8%/40.3% for adalimumab. The risk of discontinuation was significantly lower in patients initiating ustekinumab compared with adalimumab (hazard ratio adjusted for age, sex and co-morbidities 0.289, 95%CI 0.247-0.339, p < 0.0001). Drug survival was significantly higher for ustekinumab compared with adalimumab and etanercept (log-rank test p < 0.0001). The proportions of patients with 1-year/2-years medication possession ratios of ≥80% were 95.3%/92.0% for ustekinumab, 98.1%/not calculated for secukinumab, 89.4%/83.1% for etanercept, and 70.8%/59.4% for adalimumab. Limitations: Clinical improvement and response to treatment data were not available. Conclusion: There was relatively high persistence amongst biologic users with psoriasis in Taiwan. There is a trend towards greater persistence of ustekinumab compared to other biologics, the magnitude of which depends on the treatment gap used for its calculation. This study provides real-world evidence that may facilitate optimal treatment choice.

14.
Adv Mater ; : e2203786, 2022 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35701188

RESUMO

Stretchable strain sensors are highly desirable for human motion monitoring, and can be used to build new forms of bionic robot. However, the current use of flexible strain gauges is hindered by the need for an external power supply, and the demand for long-term operation. Here, we present a new flexible self-powered strain sensor system based on an electromagnetic generator which possesses a high stretchability in excess of 150%, a short response time of 30 ms, and an excellent linearity (R2 > 0.98). Based on this new form of sensor, a human-machine interaction (HMI) system was designed to achieve remote control of a robot hand and vehicle using a human hand, which provides a new scheme for real-time gesture interaction. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

15.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 2022 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35727096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) inpatients may acquire infections from other pathogens during hospital admission. This is the first research on this subject to be reported from Taiwan. METHODS: Confirmed COVID-19 inpatients were enrolled in this study from January 1, 2020 to July 31, 2021. Various types of pathogens in COVID-19 inpatients, with hospital-acquired infections, were identified and analyzed. The clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients with and without hospital-acquired infections were reviewed and compared. RESULTS: Of the 204 patients included in the study, 32 (15.7%) patients experienced at least 1 infectious episode. Of 113 recorded episodes of infection, the predominant type was bacterial (88 of 113 infections, 77.9%); the most frequently isolated bacteria were Acinetobacter spp., followed by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. With regard to viral infections (19 of 113, 16.8%), the Epstein-Barr virus ranked first place among the identified viruses. Four (3.5%) and 2 (1.8%) of 113 infectious episodes were caused by fungi and atypical pathogens. A multivariate analysis revealed that steroid use was an independent factor in hospital-acquired infections [odds ratio (OR): 6.97; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.15-42.43; p = 0.035]. Patients with hospital-acquired infections were associated with increased 28-day and in-hospital mortality (18.8% vs. 5.8% and 31.3% and 5.8%, p = 0.023 and < 0.01, respectively), and a longer hospital stay (34 vs. 19 days, p < 0.001), compared to those without hospital-acquired infections. CONCLUSION: Our study revealed a unique local epidemiology of hospital-acquired infections among COVID-19 inpatients in Taiwan. These patients were associated with increased mortality and prolonged hospital admissions.

16.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 14(11): 4624-4633, 2022 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35657641

RESUMO

Since the late 2020, the evolution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern has been characterized by the emergence of spike protein mutations, and these variants have become dominant worldwide. The gold standard SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis protocol requires two complex processes, namely, RNA extraction and real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). There is a need for a faster, simpler, and more cost-effective detection strategy that can be utilized worldwide, especially in developing countries. We propose the novel use of direct RT-qPCR, which does not require RNA extraction or a preheating step. For the detection, retrospectively, we used 770 clinical nasopharyngeal swabs, including positive and negative samples. The samples were subjected to RT-qPCR in the N1 and E genes using two different thermocyclers. The limit of detection was 30 copies/reaction for N1 and 60 copies/reaction for E. Analytical sensitivity was assessed for the developed direct RT-qPCR; the sensitivity was 95.69%, negative predictive value was 99.9%, accuracy of 99.35%, and area under the curve was 0.978. This novel direct RT-qPCR diagnosis method without RNA extraction is a reliable and high-throughput alternative method that can significantly save cost, labor, and time during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Teste para COVID-19 , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , RNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
17.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 295: 115435, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35671862

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Helminthostachys zeylanica (HZ), which is also called "Dao-Di-U-Gon" in Taiwan, has anti-inflammatory and antiedema effects and is commonly used to treat edema in patients with fractures. The ugonin K component of HZ can induce osteogenesis and promote bone mineralization, its therapeutic effect, however, its therapeutic effect remains unclear. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of HZ on functional recovery in patients with ankle fractures requiring surgical treatment. METHODS: A double-blinded, randomized, controlled study was conducted. A total of 45 patients with ankle fractures requiring surgical treatment were assigned to either the control group (n = 23 patients), which received the oral administration of HZ placebo 1.0 g t.i.d. for 42 days continuously, or to the treatment group (22 patients), which received HZ for 42 days. RESULTS: The serum amino-terminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen (PINP) levels were similar in the first assessment (V1) between the control (45.90 ± 16.31 ng/mL) and treatment groups (52.61 ± 21.02 ng/mL; p = 0.240); the differences in PINP level between the third assessment (V3) and V1 were greater in the treatment group (35.84 ± 24.56 ng/mL) than in the control group (16.34 ± 11.97 ng/mL; p = 0.002). Radiographic healing time (RHT) was 9.09 ± 1.15 weeks in the treatment group, which was shorter than the 9.91 ± 0.79 weeks (p = 0.012) in the control group. CONCLUSION: Oral administration of HZ for 42 days can increase serum PINP level and reduce the RHT. Therefore, HZ can be used to treat patients with ankle fractures requiring surgical treatment. However, a larger sample size is needed in future studies.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Tornozelo , Traqueófitas , Fraturas do Tornozelo/cirurgia , Anti-Inflamatórios , Biomarcadores , China , Colágeno Tipo I , Humanos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos , Pró-Colágeno
18.
Front Immunol ; 13: 890258, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35720283

RESUMO

Cryptococcus neoformans is a major etiological agent of fungal meningoencephalitis. The outcome of cryptococcosis depends on the complex interactions between the pathogenic fungus and host immunity. The understanding of how C. neoformans manipulates the host immune response through its pathogenic factors remains incomplete. In this study, we defined the roles of a previously uncharacterized protein, Csn1201, in cryptococcal fitness and host immunity. Use of both inhalational and intravenous mouse models demonstrated that the CSN1201 deletion significantly blocked the pulmonary infection and extrapulmonary dissemination of C. neoformans. The in vivo hypovirulent phenotype of the csn1201Δ mutant was attributed to a combination of multiple factors, including preferential dendritic cell accumulation, enhanced Th1 and Th17 immune responses, decreased intracellular survival inside macrophages, and attenuated blood-brain barrier transcytosis rather than exclusively to pathogenic fitness. The csn1201Δ mutant exhibited decreased tolerance to various stressors in vitro, along with reduced capsule production and enhanced cell wall thickness under host-relevant conditions, indicating that the CSN1201 deletion might promote the exposure of cell wall components and thus induce a protective immune response. Taken together, our results strongly support the importance of cryptococcal Csn1201 in pulmonary immune responses and disseminated infection.


Assuntos
Criptococose , Cryptococcus neoformans , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Imunidade , Pulmão , Camundongos
19.
Chemosphere ; 305: 135380, 2022 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35724715

RESUMO

Pesticide pollution has been identified as a factor in the amphibian population decrease. Acetamiprid is a common neonicotinoid pesticide that poses a risk to amphibians due to its high water solubility and inability to be digested. However, there is little research on acetamiprid's toxicity in amphibians, particularly on its biochemical toxic effects. In this study, we investigated the acute toxicity, bioenrichment-elimination, biochemical parameters and metabolism of acetamiprid in Rana nigromaculata tadpoles. The results indicated that acetamiprid is harmful to Rana nigromaculata tadpoles, with an LC50 = 18.49 mg L-1 of 96 h for acute toxicity. Acetamiprid showed rapid accumulation and low bioconcentration levels in tadpoles, with bioconcentration factors (BCFs) < 1. In the elimination process, the concentration of acetamiprid decreased rapidly, with the elimination half-life t1/2 values < 1 d. Additionally, oxidative stress was observed in tadpoles, with biochemical parameters such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) being significantly altered. Nontargeted metabolomics revealed significant changes in biomolecules such as lipids, organic acids and nucleotides in tadpoles, and these metabolites influence pathways including serine and threonine metabolism, histidine metabolism, linoleic acid metabolism and sphingolipid metabolism. These results indicate that acetamiprid caused toxic effects on Rana nigromaculata tadpoles. Our study provides a better understanding of the fate and risk of acetamiprid in amphibians, as well as guidelines for its rational use.

20.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 188: 1-13, 2022 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35688305

RESUMO

The rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) is a pivotal region in the central regulation of blood pressure (BP). It has been documented that silent information regulator 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1), a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent multifunctional transcription regulatory factor, has many cardiovascular protective effects. However, the role and significance of SIRT1 in the central regulation of cardiovascular activity, especially in RVLM, remains unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the role and underlying mechanism of SIRT1 in the central regulation of cardiovascular activity in hypertension. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were given resveratrol (RSV) via intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion or injected with SIRT1-overexpressing lentiviral vectors into the RVLM. In vitro experiments, angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced rat pheochromocytoma cell line (PC12 cells) were transfected with forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) small interfering RNA (siRNA) before treatment with RSV. Our results showed that SIRT1 activation with RSV or overexpression in the RVLM significantly decreased BP and sympathetic outflow of SHRs. Furthermore, SIRT1 overexpression in the RVLM significantly decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and facilitated the forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) activation, accompanied by upregulation of the ROS-detoxifying enzyme superoxide dismutases 1 (SOD1) in the RVLM of SHRs. In PC12 cells, it was found that Ang II could induce oxidative stress and downregulate the SIRT1-FOXO1-SOD1 signaling pathway, which indicated that the suppressed expression of SIRT1 in the RVLM of SHRs might relate to the elevated central Ang II level. Furthermore, the enhanced oxidative stress and decreased SIRT1-FOXO1-SOD1 axis induced by Ang II were restored by treatment with RSV. However, these favorable effects mediated by SIRT1 activation were blocked by FOXO1 knockdown. Based on these findings, we concluded that SIRT1 activation or overexpression in the RVLM exerts anti-hypertensive effect through reducing oxidative stress via SIRT1-FOXO1-SOD1 signaling pathway, which providing a new target for the prevention and intervention of hypertension.

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