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1.
Food Chem ; 304: 125377, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476547

RESUMO

We devise a novel colorimetric aptasensor for multiplex antibiotics based on an ss-DNA fragment coordinately controlling gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) aggregation. The multifunctional aptamer (Apt) was elaborately designed to be adsorbed on AuNPs surfaces acting as a binding element for antibiotics and a molecular switch. Chloramphenicol (CAP) and tetracycline (TET) were selected as the model antibiotics. When one kind of antibiotics was added, the specifically recognized fragment of Apt can bind to it and dissociated, and the non-specific one coordinately controls AuNPs aggregation under high-salt conditions. Hence, different color changes of AuNPs solution can be used as the signal readout. The aptasensor exhibited remarkable selectivity and sensitivity for separate detection of TET and CAP, and the detection limits are estimated to be 32.9 and 7.0 nM, respectively. The analysis with the absorption spectroscopy and the smartphone are applied to detect antibiotics in real samples with consistent results and desirable recoveries.

2.
Virus Res ; 275: 197793, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676367

RESUMO

Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emergent flavivirus associated with severe neurological disorders. ZIKV NS3 protein is a viral protease that cleaves the ZIKV polyprotein precursor into individual viral proteins. In this study, we found that ZIKV NS3 by itself exhibited mitochondrial localization, which was quite different from its endoplasmic reticulum (ER) localization in ZIKV-infected cells. We screened viral proteins and identified NS2B as the bona fide recruiter of NS3 to the ER. The NS2B C-terminal tail interacted with NS3 protease domain to retain NS3 on the ER. ß-Sheet motifs that formed between NS2B and the NS3 protease domain played important roles in their interaction, while mutation in the ß-strand of NS2B attenuated NS2B-NS3 interaction and impaired the ability of NS3 protease to cleave the polyprotein precursor into multiple viral proteins. Consequently, NS2B mutations led to severe inhibition of ZIKV replication and production due to insufficient NS3 protease activity. In summary, our study reveals the critical role of NS2B in NS3 recruitment and protease function and provides mechanistic insight into ZIKV replication.

3.
J Cell Physiol ; 235(2): 1649-1662, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392726

RESUMO

Hypoxia is a common pathological process caused by insufficient oxygen. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been proven to participate in this pathology. Hypoxia is reported to significantly reduce the secretion of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP2) and TIMP2 induces pheochromocytoma-12 (PC12) cell cycle arrest. Thus, our study aimed to explore the mechanism by which lncRNA maternally expressed gene 3 (MEG3) was implicated in hypoxia-induced PC12 cell injury through TIMP2 promoter methylation. To elucidate the potential biological significance of MEG3 and the regulatory mechanism between MEG3 and TIMP2, a hypoxia-induced PC12 cell injury model was generated. The hypoxia-exposed cells were subjected to a series of overexpression plasmids and short hairpin RNAs, followed by the measurement of levels of MEG3, TIMP2, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reactive oxygen species (ROS), Bcl-2-associated X protein, B-cell lymphoma-2, and caspase-3, as well as the changes in MMP, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle progression. On the basis of the findings, MEG3 was upregulated in hypoxia-injured PC12 cells. MEG3 recruited methylation proteins DNMT3a, DNMT3b, and MBD1 and accelerated TIMP2 promoter methylation, which in turn inhibited its expression. Moreover, PC12 cells following MEG3 silencing and TIMP2 overexpression exhibited significantly decreased levels of LDH, MDA, and ROS along with cell apoptosis, yet increased SOD and MMP levels, as well as cell cycle entry to the S phase and cell proliferation. In conclusion, MEG3 silencing suppresses hypoxia-induced PC12 cell injury by inhibiting TIMP2 promoter methylation. This study may provide novel therapeutic targets for hypoxia-induced injury.

4.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 20(4): 2543-2549, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492274

RESUMO

In this work, crystalline Si nanoparticles are synthesized on a large scale via a low temperature molten salt method. The crystal morphologies and electrochemical properties of the samples after HCl and HF leaching are studied in detail. The electrochemical properties of the as-produced silicon samples, which are used as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), are evaluated. The final product, which contains more Si and less SiO², improves cyclic stability because it buffers the volumetric effect of Si during lithiation/delithiation. The HF acid leach removes the impurity of SiO². However, the prepared sample exhibits lower electrochemical properties. The sample with a low SiO² content can deliver a capacity of 1503 mAh g-1 after 50 cycles at a higher current density of 1 A g-1, and the Coulombic efficiency is approximately 100%. However, the sample after HF acid leaching only delivers a discharge capacity of 389 mAh g-1 at 1 A g-1 after 50 cycles.

5.
J Hazard Mater ; 383: 121240, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563767

RESUMO

High-efficiency and cost-effective catalysts are critical to completely mineralization of organic contaminants for in-situ groundwater remediation via advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). The engineered biochar is a promising method for waste biomass utilization and sustainable remediation. This study engineers maize stalk (S)- and maize cob (C)-derived biochars (i.e., SB300, SB600, CB300, and CB600, respectively) with oxygen-containing functional groups as a carbon-based support for nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI). Morphological and physiochemical characterization showed that nZVI could be impregnated within the framework of the synthesized Fe-CB600 composite, which exhibited the largest surface area, pore volume, iron loading capacity, and Fe0 proportion. Superior degradation efficiency (100% removal in 20 min) of trichloroethylene (TCE, 0.1 mM) and fast pseudo-first-order kinetics (kobs =22.0 h-1) were achieved via peroxymonosulfate (PMS, 5 mM) activation by the Fe-CB600 (1 g L-1) under groundwater condition (bicarbonate buffer solution at pH = 8.2). Superoxide radical and singlet oxygen mediated by Fe0 and oxygen-containing group (i.e., CO) were demonstrated as the major reactive oxygen species (ROSs) responsible for TCE dechlorination. The effectiveness and mechanism of the Fe/C composites for rectifying organic-contaminated groundwater were depicted in this study.

6.
Nanotechnology ; 31(4): 045302, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578000

RESUMO

Targeted irradiation of nanostructures by a finely focused ion beam provides routes to improved control of material modification and understanding of the physics of interactions between ion beams and nanomaterials. Here, we studied radiation damage in crystalline diamond and silicon nanostructures using a focused helium ion beam, with the former exhibiting extremely long-range ion propagation and large plastic deformation in a process visibly analogous to blow forming. We report the dependence of damage morphology on material, geometry, and irradiation conditions (ion dose, ion energy, ion species, and location). We anticipate that our method and findings will not only improve the understanding of radiation damage in isolated nanostructures, but will also support the design of new engineering materials and devices for current and future applications in nanotechnology.

7.
J Biol Chem ; 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719146

RESUMO

ATP-binding cassette (ABC) subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2) belongs to ABC transporter superfamily and has been implicated in multidrug resistance of cancers. Although the structure and function of ABCG2 have been extensively studied, little is known about its biogenesis and the regulation thereof. In this study, using mutagenesis and several biochemical analyses we show that the positive charges in the vicinity of the RKR motif downstream of the ABC signature drive trafficking of nascent ABCG2 out of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) onto plasma membranes. Substitutions of and naturally occurring SNPs within these positively-charged residues disabled the trafficking of ABCG2 out of the ER. A representative ABCG2 variant in which the RKR motif had been altered underwent increased ER stress-associated degradation (ERAD). We also found that unlike WT ABCG2, genetic ABCG2 RKR variants have disrupted normal maturation and do not reduce accumulation of the anticancer drug mitoxantrone and no longer confer resistance to the drug. We conclude that the positive charges downstream of the ABC signature motif critically regulates ABCG2 trafficking and maturation. We propose that SNPs of these residues reduce ABCG2 expression via ERAD pathway and may contribute to reduced cancer drug resistance, improving the success of cancer chemotherapy.

8.
Chemosphere ; 242: 125148, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669995

RESUMO

Modified fly ash was prepared through low-temperature roasting method using NaOH as activator. The techniques of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and the X-ray diffraction (XRD) were introduced to analyze the chemical and physical performance of samples, respectively. It was found that a significant improvements in activity and specific surface area of adsorbent. This work systematically reported the uptake performances of modified materials for single and two mixed toxic cations Pb(II) and Cd(II). The results unveiled that pseudo-second-order model was suitable to analyze the adsorption process. The adsorption process were better fitted by Langmuir model and the maximum uptake capacities were 126.55 and 56.31 mg g-1 for Pb(II) and Cd(II) in single system at 298 K, respectively. Additionally, in mixed solution, the maximum uptake capacity reduced to 120.48 and 36.10 mg g-1 under the same adsorption conditions. Competitive adsorption results demonstrated that adsorption ability was restricted by other metal ions, as while as, the binding affinity of two cations followed the order of Pb(II)>Cd(II). Meanwhile, the co-existed cations as Ca(II), Mg(II) Na(I) and K(I) had antagonistic effects on the uptake of Cd(II) and Pb(II). The results indicate that the modified fly ash was a low-cost and effective adsorbent for the cleaning up metal ions in wastewater, which has a promising application prospect.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713620

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the association of Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial resistance and genotypes using N. gonorrhoeae sequence typing for antimicrobial resistance (NG-STAR). METHODS: We characterized 124 N. gonorrhoeae isolates for their antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and NG-STAR ST characteristics using the guidelines of CLSI and EUCAST. The NG-STAR STs of seven loci were analysed. N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST) and MLST analysis was conducted in isolates with specific NG-STAR STs. RESULTS: NG-STAR differentiated 124 N. gonorrhoeae isolates into 84 STs, of which 66 STs were novel to the NG-STAR database. NG-STAR ST-199, ST-348, ST-428, ST-497 and ST-1138 were the predominant STs. Three N. gonorrhoeae isolates with ceftriaxone and cefixime MICs ≥1.0 mg/L were grouped as NG-STAR ST-233. NG-STAR ST-202 isolates (n = 4) were associated with high azithromycin MICs and had an identical NG-MAST ST. The NG-STAR ST-348 group (n = 5) comprised more isolates with reduced susceptibility to cefixime (n = 4) than cefixime-susceptible isolates (n = 1). CONCLUSIONS: NG-STAR analysis differentiated N. gonorrhoeae isolates in settings with a high prevalence of antimicrobial resistance. Specific NG-STAR STs are associated with reduced susceptibility to ceftriaxone or cefixime and resistance to azithromycin in N. gonorrhoeae.

10.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 19(1): 215, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate choroidal vascularity index (CVI) in eyes with internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis using binarization tool in enhanced depth images scanned by spectral domain optical coherence tomography. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in 142 patients with ICA stenosis, and 20 normal control subjects matched with the age, sex, etc. According to the diagnostic criteria, the participants are divided into a normal control group (20 cases), a mild stenosis group (64 cases), a moderate stenosis group (61 cases), and a severe stenosis group (17 cases). Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDIOCT) was performed to scan macular fovea, which was separated into a luminal area and a stromal area using image binarization. The choroidal vascularity index (CVI) is luminal area divided by total choroidal area. RESULTS: There was no statistical difference in age or sex among groups. Subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) in the severe stenosis group was significantly lower than that in the normal group (P < 0.05). Moreover, the CVI in moderate stenosis group and severe stenosis group were significantly lower compared with the normal control group (P < 0.001). When CVI = 65.16% was set as the cut-off value, all 162 subjects could be divided into two groups, CVI ≤ 65.16 (n = 83) and CVI > 65.16% (n = 79). The proportions of mild stenosis, moderate stenosis, and severe stenosis in CVI ≤ 65 .16 group and CVI > 65.16% group were statistically significant (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: CVI may be a useful indicator for early diagnosis and monitoring of choroidal vascular changes in ICA stenosis.

11.
Nano Lett ; 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702931

RESUMO

The design of chemically stable ion-exchange membranes with high selectivity for applications in an aqueous redox flow battery (RFB) at high acid concentrations remains a significant challenge. Herein, this study designed a stable and highly ion-selective membrane by utilizing proton conductive cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) incorporated in a semicrystalline hydrophobic poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) matrix. The high hydrophobicity of the PVDF-HFP matrix mitigates crossover of the electrolytes, whereas the abundant and low-cost CNCs derived from wood provide high proton conductivity. The fundamental contributors for CNCs' excellent proton conductivity are the hydroxyl (-OH) functional groups, highly acidic sulfonate (-SO3H) functional groups, and the extensive intramolecular hydrogen bonding network. In addition, CNCs exhibit a mechanically and chemically stable structure in the harsh acidic electrolyte attributed to the high crystallinity (crystalline index of ∼86%). Therefore, because of the high proton conductivity, excellent ion selectivity, high chemical stability, and structural robustness, the vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) assembled with the homogeneous CNCs and PVDF-HFP (CNC/PVDF-HFP) membrane achieved a Coulombic efficiency (CE) of 98.2%, energy efficiency (EE) of 88.2%, and a stable cycling performance for more than 650 cycles at a current density of 100 mA cm-2. The obtained membrane possesses excellent flexibility, high mechanical tensile strength, and superior selectivity. Meanwhile, the applied casting method is scalable for large-scale manufacturing.

12.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 482, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703691

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Starch is the main storage substance in rice caryopsis and its properties will determine the quality of rice. Super rice has been extensively studied due to its high-yield characteristics, but the knowledge of amyloplast development and starch quality in caryopsis of super rice especially with large panicle is limited. RESULTS: To address this, large panicle typed and normal panicle typed super rice cultivar Yongyou2640 (YY2640) and Nangeng9108 (NG9108) were investigated in this study. The development of amyloplast in YY2640 caryopsis was better than NG9108, showing faster degradation rate of pericarp amyloplast and better filling degree of endosperm amyloplast. Meanwhile, the starch granule of YY2640 presented as polyhedral shape with smooth surface and the granule size was slightly larger than NG9108. The starch of YY2640 exhibited the lower amylose content, ratio of amylose to amylopectin and the higher level of amylopectin short and long branch-chains compared with NG9108, but there was no significant difference in amylopectin branching degree between them. Two rice starches both showed the characteristics of A-type crystal, and the relative crystallinity and external ordered degree of YY2640 starch were higher than those of NG9108. Furthermore, YY2640 starch showed better pasting properties with lower pasting temperature, shorter pasting time, higher peak viscosity, trough viscosity, breakdown value and lower setback value because of lower apparent amylose content. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the development and filling of amyloplast in YY2640 caryopsis were better than those of NG9108, thus leading to better starch quality of YY2640.

13.
Endocr J ; 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31723088

RESUMO

Thyroglobulin measurement in the needle washout after fine-needle aspiration (FNA-Tg) served as an important measurement for suspicious recurrent or metastatic lesions. We conducted a pooled analysis to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of FNA-Tg and searched electronic databases for original articles in English from 1993 through 2017. Finally, a total of 22 studies containing 2,670 lymph nodes (LNs) that enrolled participants with suspicious neck LNs during thyroid nodule workup or papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) follow-up were included. In our analysis, the overall pooled sensitivity for FNA-Tg was 0.91 (95%CI: 0.87-0.93), specificity was 0.94 (95% CI: 0.91-0.96). Meta regression revealed that the cutoff value and status of serum Tg were sources of heterogeneity for sensitivity, and the cutoff value was source of heterogeneity for specificity. Additionally, the cutoff value and status of serum Tg were sources of heterogeneity in the joint model. Subgroup analysis about cut-off value showed that the choice of 1 ng/mL had highest sensitivity, 40 ng/mL had highest specificity. At last, we arrived at the conclusion that FNA-Tg measurement had high specificity and sensitivity in the early detection of LNs metastases from PTC by our meta-analysis. The technique was simple and could be recommended to apply in any FNA facility, especially when LN were small-sized. Significantly, a better standardization of criteria for FNA-Tg detection and cutoff value was required to provide useful data and to improve management of PTC patients in the future.

14.
Cell Rep ; 29(6): 1482-1498.e4, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693890

RESUMO

The histone methyl transferase enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) is a master transcriptional regulator involved in histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation. We aimed to elucidate the precise post-translational regulations of EZH2 and their role in cancer pathogenesis. Here, we show that SET and MYND domain containing 2 (SMYD2) directly methylates EZH2 at lysine 307 (K307) and enhances its stability, which can be relieved by the histone H3K4 demethylase lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1). SMYD2 is critical for EZH2 function in repressing a cohort of genes governing several cancer-associated pathways. In addition, SMYD2 promotes breast cancer cell proliferation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and invasion through EZH2 K307 methylation, and it is markedly upregulated in various human cancers. Our data suggest that dynamic crosstalk between SMYD2-mediated EZH2 methylation plays an important role in fine-tuning EZH2 functions in chromatin recruitment and transcriptional repression.

15.
Thorac Cancer ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694073

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The main cause of cancer death is lung cancer (LC) which usually presents at an advanced stage, but its early detection would increase the benefits of treatment. Blood is particularly favored in clinical research given the possibility of using it for relatively noninvasive analyses. Copy number variation (CNV) is a common genetic change in tumor genomes, and many studies have indicated that CNV-derived cell-free DNA (cfDNA) from plasma could be feasible as a biomarker for cancer diagnosis. METHODS: In this study, we determined the possibility of using chromosomal arm-level CNV from cfDNA as a biomarker for lung cancer diagnosis in a small cohort of 40 patients and 41 healthy controls. Arm-level CNV distributions were analyzed based on z score, and the machine-learning algorithm Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) was applied for cancer prediction. RESULTS: The results showed that amplifications tended to emerge on chromosomes 3q, 8q, 12p, and 7q. Deletions were frequently detected on chromosomes 22q, 3p, 5q, 16q, 10q, and 15q. Upon applying a trained XGBoost classifier, specificity and sensitivity of 100% were finally achieved in the test group (12 patients and 13 healthy controls). In addition, five-fold cross-validation proved the stability of the model. Finally, our results suggested that the integration of four arm-level CNVs and the concentration of cfDNA into the trained XGBoost classifier provides a potential method for detecting lung cancer. CONCLUSION: Our results suggested that the integration of four arm-level CNVs and the concentration from of cfDNA integrated withinto the trained XGBoost classifier could become provides a potentially method for detecting lung cancer detection.

16.
Viruses ; 11(11)2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694166

RESUMO

Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is one of the highly contagious transboundary viral diseases of small ruminants. Host microRNA (miRNA) expression patterns may change in response to virus infection, and it mainly works as a post-transcriptional moderator in gene expression and affects viral pathogenesis and replication. In this study, the change of miRNA expression profile in peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBMC) from sheep inoculated with PPR vaccine virus in vivo as well as primary sheep testicular (ST) cells inoculated with PPR vaccine virus in vitro were determined via deep sequencing technology. In PBMC cells, 373 and 115 differentially expressed miRNAs (DEmiRNAs) were identified 3 days and 5 days post inoculated (dpi), respectively. While, 575 DEmiRNAs were identified when comparing miRNA profiles on 5 dpi with 3 dpi. Some of the DEmiRNAs were found to change significantly via time-course during PPR vaccine virus inoculated. Similarly, in ST cells, 136 DEmiRNAs were identified at 3 dpi in comparison with mock-inoculation. A total of 12 DEmiRNAs were validated by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). The oar-miR-150, oar-miR-370-3p and oar-miR-411b-3p were found common differentially expressed in both PPR vaccine virus-inoculated PBMC cells and ST cells. Targets prediction and functional analysis of the DEmiRNAs uncovered mainly gathering in antigen processing and presentation pathways, protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum pathways and cell adhesion molecules pathways. Our study supplies information about the DEmiRNAs in PPR vaccine virus-inoculated PBMC cells and ST cells, and provides clues for further understanding the function of miRNAs in PPR vaccine virus replication.

17.
Transl Stroke Res ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696415

RESUMO

Iron-mediated toxicity is a key factor causing brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). This study was performed to investigate the noninvasive neuroimaging method for quantifying brain iron content using a minipig ICH model and assess the effects of minocycline treatment on ICH-induced iron overload and brain injury. The minipig ICH model was established by injecting 2 ml of autologous blood into the right basal ganglia, which were then subjected to the treatments of minocycline and vehicle. Furthermore, the quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) was used to quantify iron content, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed to evaluate white matter tract. Additionally, we also performed immunohistochemistry, Western blot, iron assay, Perl's staining, brain water content, and neurological score to evaluate the iron overload and brain injury. Interestingly, we found that the ICH-induced iron overload could be accurately quantified by the QSM. Moreover, the minocycline was quite beneficial for protecting brain injury by reducing the lesion volume and brain edema, preventing brain iron accumulation, downsizing ventricle enlargement, and alleviating white matter injury and neurological deficits. In summary, we suggest that the QSM be an accurate and noninvasive method for quantifying brain iron level, and the minocycline may be a promising therapeutic agent for patients with ICH.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697000

RESUMO

The iridium half-sandwich complex [Ir(η 5 :κ 1 -C 5 Me 4 CH 2 py)(2-phenylpyridine)]PF 6 is highly cytotoxic: ca. 15-250x more potent than clinically used cisplatin in several cancer cell lines tested. Unequivocal determination of the intracellular fate of the compound is mandatory to rationalize its potency and improve metallodrug design. We have developed a correlative 3D cryo X-ray imaging approach to specifically localize the iridium distribution within the whole hydrated cell at nanometer resolution. By means of cryo soft X-ray tomography (cryo-SXT), which provides the cellular ultrastructure at 50 nm resolution, and cryo hard X-ray fluorescence tomography (cryo-XRF), which provides the elemental sensitivity with a 70 nm step size, we have located the iridium anticancer agent exclusively in the mitochondria. Our methodology provides unique information on the metallodrug's intracellular fate and its quantification, without the need for chemical fixation, labeling, or mechanical manipulation of the cells. This cryo-3D correlative imaging method can be applied to a number of biochemical processes for specific elemental localization within the cellular landscape.

19.
Ecotoxicology ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691908

RESUMO

The common loon (Gavia immer), a top predator in the freshwater food web, has been recognized as an important bioindicator of aquatic mercury (Hg) pollution. Because capturing loons can be difficult, statistical approaches are needed to evaluate the efficiency of Hg monitoring. Using data from 1998 to 2016 collected in New York's Adirondack Park, we calculated the power to detect temporal changes in loon Hg concentrations and fledging success as a function of sampling intensity. There is a tradeoff between the number of lakes per year and the number of years needed to detect a particular rate of change. For example, a 5% year-1 change in Hg concentration could be detected with a sampling effort of either 15 lakes per year for 10 years, or 5 lakes per year for 15 years, given two loons sampled per lake per year. A 2% year-1 change in fledging success could be detected with a sampling effort of either 40 lakes per year for 15 years, or 30 lakes per year for 20 years. We found that more acidic lakes required greater sampling intensity than less acidic lakes for monitoring Hg concentrations but not for fledging success. Power analysis provides a means to optimize the sampling designs for monitoring loon Hg concentrations and reproductive success. This approach is applicable to other monitoring schemes where cost is an issue.

20.
Ecotoxicology ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691909

RESUMO

Mercury (Hg), a neurotoxic pollutant, can be transported long distances through the atmosphere and deposited in remote areas, threatening aquatic wildlife through methylation and bioaccumulation. Over the last two decades, air quality management has resulted in decreases in Hg emissions from waste incinerators and coal-fired power plants across North America. The common loon (Gavia immer) is an apex predator of the aquatic food web. Long-term monitoring of Hg in loons can help track biological recovery in response to the declines in atmospheric Hg that have been documented in the northeastern USA. To assess spatial patterns and temporal trends in Hg exposure of the common loon in the Adirondack Park of New York State, we analyzed Hg concentrations in loon blood and egg samples from 116 lakes between 1998 and 2016. We found spatially variable Hg concentrations in adult loon blood and feathers across the Park. Loon Hg concentrations (converted to female loon units) increased 5.7% yr-1 from 1998 to 2010 (p = 0.04), and then stabilized at 1.70 mg kg-1 from 2010 to 2016 (p = 0.91), based on 760 observations. Concentrations of Hg in juvenile loons also increased in the early part of the record, stabilizing 2 years before Hg concentrations stabilized in adults. For 52 individual lakes with samples from at least 4 different years, loon Hg increased in 34 lakes and decreased in 18 lakes. Overall, we found a delayed recovery of Hg concentrations in loons, despite recent declines in atmospheric Hg.

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