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2.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(2): e0206421, 2022 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35230154

RESUMO

Two tet(X4)-positive Enterobacter cloacae isolates TECL_1 and TECL_2 were isolated from pigs in China. S1-PFGE and Southern blotting showed that tet(X4) located on plasmids in the size of ∼290 kb and ∼190 kb in TECL_1 and TECL_2, respectively. Conjugation experiment demonstrated that the tet(X4)-harboring plasmid can transfer from the donor strain TECL_1 and TECL_2 to the recipient strain Escherichia coli J53, and the tigecycline resistance of transconjugants was increased by 128-fold and 64-fold compared with E. coli J53, respectively. We obtained the complete plasmid sequence of pTECL_2-190k-tetX4 (190,185 bp) from E. cloacae TECL_2 and found that the plasmid was a hybrid plasmid with replicon types of IncFIA, IncHI1A and IncHI1B. We further analyzed 85 tet(X4)-carrying plasmids in the public database and clarified that pTECL_2-190k-tetX4-like plasmid was widespread in multiple species of Enterobacteriaceae. IMPORTANCE We identified two tet(X4)-positive E. cloacae isolates, which has not been previously reported. We obtained the complete sequence of pTECL_2-190k-tetX4 and found that it was a hybrid plasmid with multiple replicon types, including IncFIA, IncHI1A and IncHI1B. By comparing all the known tet(X4)-carrying plasmids, we found that pTECL_2-190k-tetX4-like plasmid has been disseminated across various species in China. Our study expanded the identification of tet(X4)-positive species and emphasized that pTECL_2-190k-tetX4-like plasmid has spread widely in various species.


Assuntos
Enterobacter cloacae , Escherichia coli , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , China , Enterobacter cloacae/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Plasmídeos/genética , Suínos , Tigeciclina/farmacologia
3.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 20, 2022 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34996351

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant hypervirulent K. pneumoniae (CR-hvKP) causes serious infections with significant morbidity and mortality. However, the epidemiology and transmission mechanisms of CR-hvKP and the corresponding carbapenem-resistant plasmids require further investigation. Herein, we have characterized an ST11 K. pneumoniae strain EBSI041 from the blood sample encoding both hypervirulence and carbapenem resistance phenotypes from a patient in Egypt. RESULTS: K. pneumoniae strain EBSI041 showed multidrug-resistance phenotypes, where it was highly resistant to almost all tested antibiotics including carbapenems. And hypervirulence phenotypes of EBSI041 was confirmed by the model of Galleria mellonella infection. Whole-genome sequencing analysis showed that the hybrid plasmid pEBSI041-1 carried a set of virulence factors rmpA, rmpA2, iucABCD and iutA, and six resistance genes aph(3')-VI, armA, msr(E), mph(E), qnrS, and sul2. Besides, blaOXA-48 and blaSHV-12 were harboured in a novel conjugative IncL-type plasmid pEBSI041-2. The blaKPC-2-carrying plasmid pEBSI041-3, a non-conjugative plasmid lacking the conjugative transfer genes, could be transferred with the help of pEBSI041-2, and the two plasmids could fuse into a new plasmid during co-transfer. Moreover, the emergence of the p16HN-263_KPC-like plasmids is likely due to the integration of pEBSI041-3 and pEBSI041-4 via IS26-mediated rearrangement. CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the complete genome sequence of KPC-2- and OXA-48-coproducing hypervirulent K. pneumoniae from Egypt. These results give new insights into the adaptation and evolution of K. pneumoniae during nosocomial infections.


Assuntos
Infecções por Klebsiella , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Carbapenêmicos/farmacologia , Egito , Humanos , Infecções por Klebsiella/epidemiologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genética , Plasmídeos/genética , beta-Lactamases/genética
4.
mSphere ; 6(3)2021 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34011682

RESUMO

The emergence of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) isolates in Egyptian hospitals has been reported. However, the genetic basis and analysis of the plasmids associated with carbapenem-resistant hypervirulent K. pneumoniae (CR-HvKP) in Egypt have not been presented. Therefore, we attempted to decipher the plasmid sequences that are responsible for transferring the determinants of carbapenem resistance, particularly bla NDM-1 and bla KPC-2 Out of 34 K. pneumoniae isolates collected from two tertiary hospitals in Egypt, 31 were CRKP. Whole-genome sequencing revealed that our isolates were related to 13 different sequence types (STs). The most prevalent ST was ST101, followed by ST383 and ST11. Among the CRKP isolates, one isolate named EBSI036 has been reassessed by Nanopore sequencing. Genetic environment analysis showed that EBSI036 carried 20 antibiotic resistance genes and was identified as a CR-HvKP strain: it harbored four plasmids, namely, pEBSI036-1-NDM-VIR, pEBSI036-2-KPC, pEBSI036-3, and pEBSI036-4. The two carbapenemase genes bla NDM-1 and bla KPC-2 were located on plasmids pEBSI036-1-NDM-VIR and pEBSI036-2-KPC, respectively. The IncFIB:IncHI1B hybrid plasmid pEBSI036-1-NDM-VIR also carried some virulence factors, including the regulator of the mucoid phenotype (rmpA), the regulator of mucoid phenotype 2 (rmpA2), and aerobactin (iucABCD and iutA). Thus, we set out in this study to analyze in depth the genetic basis of the pEBSI036-1-NDM-VIR and pEBSI036-2-KPC plasmids. We report a high-risk clone ST11 KL47 serotype of a CR-HvKP strain isolated from the blood of a 60-year-old hospitalized female patient from the intensive care unit (ICU) in a tertiary care hospital in Egypt, which showed the cohabitation of a novel hybrid plasmid coharboring the bla NDM-1 and virulence genes and a bla KPC-2-carrying plasmid.IMPORTANCE CRKP has been registered in the critical priority tier by the World Health Organization and has become a significant menace to public health. The emergence of CR-HvKP is of great concern in terms of both disease and treatment. In-depth analysis of the carbapenemase-encoding and virulence plasmids may provide insight into ongoing recombination and evolution of virulence and multidrug resistance in K. pneumoniae Thus, this study serves to alert contagious disease clinicians to the presence of hypervirulence in CRKP isolates in Egyptian hospitals.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Carbapenêmicos/farmacologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/enzimologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/patogenicidade , Plasmídeos/genética , Fatores de Virulência/genética , beta-Lactamases/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Egito , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Infecções por Klebsiella/microbiologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genética , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 700-709, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33739229

RESUMO

Bloodstream infections (BSIs) caused by carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) are potentially life-threatening and an urgent threat to public health. The present study aims to clarify the characteristics of carbapenemase-encoding and virulent plasmids, and their interactions with the host bacterium. A total of 425 Kp isolates were collected from the blood of BSI patients from nine Chinese hospitals, between 2005 and 2019. Integrated epidemiological and genomic data showed that ST11 and ST307 Kp isolates were associated with nosocomial outbreak and transmission. Comparative analysis of 147 Kp genomes and 39 completely assembled chromosomes revealed extensive interruption of acrR by ISKpn26 in all Kp carbapenemase-2 (KPC-2)-producing ST11 Kp isolates, leading to activation of the AcrAB-Tolc multidrug efflux pump and a subsequent reduction in susceptibility to the last-resort antibiotic tigecycline and six other antibiotics. We described 29 KPC-2 plasmids showing diverse structures, two virulence plasmids in two KPC-2-producing Kp, and two novel multidrug-resistant (MDR)-virulent plasmids. This study revealed a multifactorial impact of KPC-2 plasmid on Kp, which may be associated with nosocomial dissemination of MDR isolates.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Carbapenêmicos/farmacologia , Infecções por Klebsiella/microbiologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Sepse/microbiologia , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , China/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Humanos , Infecções por Klebsiella/epidemiologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/classificação , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/patogenicidade , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Epidemiologia Molecular , Mariposas , Filogenia , Sepse/epidemiologia , Virulência , beta-Lactamases/genética , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199390

RESUMO

Two multidrug-resistant (MDR) mcr-1-harboring Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from patients with urinary tract infections and one MDR Klebsiella quasipneumoniae isolate from a patient with bloodstream infection were identified to carry tmexCD1-toprJ1 The addition of the efflux pump inhibitor reduced the tigecycline MIC against all three isolates by 8- to 16-fold. pKQBSI104-1 was transferred from K. quasipneumoniae to Escherichia coli J53 via conjugation. The tmexCD1-toprJ1-carrying plasmids pKP15ZE495-1 (102,569 bp) and pKQBSI104-1 (121,996 bp) were completely sequenced and analyzed.


Assuntos
Infecções por Klebsiella , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , China , Humanos , Klebsiella , Infecções por Klebsiella/tratamento farmacológico , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Plasmídeos/genética
7.
Infect Drug Resist ; 13: 1397-1402, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32494170

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bloodstream infection (BSI) caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae are potentially life-threatening related to poorer outcomes. Colistin is considered one of the last-resort treatments against human infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria. Therefore, emergence of strains from the blood that co-harboring mcr and carbapenem resistance genes were considered as a serious problem. PURPOSE: In this study, two mcr-9-harboring MDR Enterobacter cloacae isolates BSI034 and BSI072 recovered from BSI patients were identified, one of which co-harbored mcr-9 and bla NDM-1. The genetic characteristics of the MDR plasmid needed to be clarified. METHODS: S1-PFGE and Southern blotting were conducted to determine the location of mcr-9. Whole-genome sequencing was performed to obtain the complete genome and plasmid sequences. The resistome and virulence genes of the strains, accompanied by the genetic characteristics of mcr-9- and bla NDM-1-harboring plasmids, were analyzed. RESULTS: Whole-genome sequencing showed that BSI034 harbored mcr-9-carrying IncHI2-type pBSI034-MCR9 and bla NDM-1-carrying IncX3-type pBSI034-NDM1. The 278,517 bp pBSI034-MCR9 carried mcr-9 along with the other 19 resistance genes. mcr-9 was flanked by IS903B (1057 bp) and IS26 (820 bp) in the same orientation. In addition to resistance genes, strain BSI034 also carried a chromosome-located Yersinia high-pathogenicity island, which harbored genes of yersiniabactin biosynthesis operon ybtSXQPAUTE, irp1/2, and fyuA. CONCLUSION: We described the complete genome and mcr-9/bla NDM-1-co-harboring plasmid of E. cloacae from a BSI patient. Notable differences were observed within mosaic modules between pBSI034-MCR9 and other mcr-9-harboring plasmids due to extensive recombination via horizontal gene transfer.

8.
Sci Total Environ ; 700: 134446, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648121

RESUMO

Bacteriophage may play an important role in antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) transmission. However, the contribution of bacteriophage to the spread of ARGs in environment, especially in poultry farm environment, is rarely known. In this study, the prevalence of ARGs in bacteriophage DNA was investigated in chicken feces from 30 different poultry farms in China. Then the abundance of the aac(6')-Ib-cr, blaCTX-M, ermB, floR, mcr-1, sul1, tetM and intI1 genes was determined by qPCR in bacteriophage and compared with certain representative plasmid DNA samples. The results showed that 12 ARGs (aac(6')-Ib-cr, aph(3')-IIIa, blaCTX-M, ermB, ermF, floR, mcr-1, qnrS, sul1, sul2, vanA, tetM genes) and class 1 integron gene intI1 were detected in bacteriophage DNA fraction. The sul1, tetM and aac(6')-Ib-cr genes were most prevalent with high detection rates of 77%, 61% and 55%, respectively. To our best knowledge, this study firstly reported the presence of the mcr-1 gene in bacteriophage DNA derived from farms environments. We found that the gene copy (GC) numbers of the aac(6')-Ib-cr, ermB and sul1 genes were as high as 5.47, 5.22 and 5.54 log10 GC/g, respectively. Both the prevalence and abundance of ARGs in broiler fecal wastes were also generally higher than in laying hens. In addition, although the GC numbers of the aac(6')-Ib-cr, floR and tetM genes in plasmid DNA was higher than that in phage DNA fraction by 4.68, 3.59 and 3.9 orders of magnitude, respectively, the absolute abundances of the blaCTX-M and mcr-1 genes in phage DNA were close to or even higher than that in plasmid DNA at farm SIL2, SIL4 and SIB1. As potential vessels for ARGs, bacteriophage could not be ignored due to their unique extracellular persistence in environments. Overall, this is the first comprehensive survey about bacteriophage carried ARGs from farms in different regions in China.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Fezes/virologia , Genes Bacterianos , Animais , Bacteriófagos/genética , Galinhas , China , Fazendas , Integrons , Plasmídeos
9.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 21(1): 8-15, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30187714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] is an important locally grown cash crop in China; it was demonstrated to suppress the invasive plant Mikania micrantha (M. micrantha) H.B.K through strong competitiveness, but its allelopathic effects on this weed were unknown. The present study aimed to explore the allelopathic potential of sweet potato on M. micrantha. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The allelopathic effects of water extracts and soil incorporation from leaves of three sweet potato cultivars (SP1, SP0 and SP9) on the sprout seedling growth of invasive plant M. micrantha in Yunnan Province, China, were studied under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. RESULTS: Stem length, root biomass, aboveground biomass and total biomass of M. micrantha were significantly reduced with increasing concentration in both leaf water extracts and leaf soil incorporation of three sweet potato cultivars. Among these, SP1 had the strongest inhibition and the next highest impact was from SP0 with the lowest effect from SP9. The highest inhibition rates were seen for root biomass, followed by total biomass, whereas the lowest impact was on aboveground biomass. The strong correspondence between results for both leaf water extracts and leaf soil incorporation provided a good demonstration that compounds produced by sweet potato have allelopathic effects on M. micrantha. The general inhibition of M. micrantha by sweet potato followed the order among the three sweet potato cultivars tested as SP1, SP0 and SP9. Moreover, the synthetical allelopathic indices of leaf soil incorporation of three cultivars on M. micrantha were generally higher than these of leaf water extracts. CONCLUSION: Competition and allelopathy have primarily been seen as separate ecological weed management tools, but as these have demonstrated in the case of sweet potato where both mechanisms inhibit weed growth, there is potential for synergism between competition and allelopathy in the reduction of weed infestations.


Assuntos
Alelopatia/efeitos dos fármacos , Ipomoea batatas/química , Mikania/efeitos dos fármacos , Feromônios/farmacologia , Biomassa , China , Folhas de Planta/química , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Solo , Água/química
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29760138

RESUMO

A colistin-resistant Escherichia coli isolate from a commercial poultry farm in China carried two colistin resistance genes, mcr-1 and variant of mcr-3, in an IncP plasmid. The variant of the mcr-3 gene, named mcr-3.11, encoded two amino acid substitutions compared with the mcr-3 gene. A novel genetic structure, ISKpn40-mcr-3-dgkA-ISKpn40, might be the key element mediating the translocation of mcr-3 through the formation of a circular form. The mcr-1 and mcr-3 genes, which are colocated on a plasmid, might pose a huge threat to public health.


Assuntos
Colistina/farmacologia , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Plasmídeos/genética , Polimixinas/farmacologia , Animais , Antibacterianos , Galinhas , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Fazendas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Transferases (Outros Grupos de Fosfato Substituídos)/genética , Transferases (Outros Grupos de Fosfato Substituídos)/metabolismo
12.
Front Microbiol ; 9: 328, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29535694

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of apramycin administration on the development of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains isolated from chicken feces and houseflies under field conditions. Chickens in the medicated group (n = 25,000) were given successive prophylactic doses (0.5 mg/l) of apramycin in their drinking water from Days 1 to 5, while no antibiotics were added to the un-medicated groups drinking water (n = 25,000). Over 40 days, a total of 1170 E. coli strains were isolated from fecal samples obtained from medicated and un-medicated chickens and houseflies from the same chicken farm. Apramycin MIC90 values for E. coli strains obtained from the medicated group increased 32-128 times from Days 2 to 6 (256-1024 µg/ml) when compared to those on Day 0 (8 µg/ml). Strains isolated from un-medicated chickens and houseflies had consistently low MIC90 values (8-16 µg/ml) during the first week, but showed a dramatic increase from Days 8 to 10 (128-1024 µg/ml). The apramycin resistance gene aac(3)-IV was detected in E. coli strains from medicated (n = 71), un-medicated (n = 32), and housefly groups (n = 42). All strains positive for aac(3)-IV were classified into 12 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) types. PFGE types A, E, and G were the predominant types in both the medicated and housefly groups, suggesting houseflies play an important role in spreading E. coli-resistant strains. Taken together, our study revealed that apramycin administration could facilitate the occurrence of apramycin-resistant E. coli and the apramycin resistance gene acc(3)-IV. In turn, these strains could be transmitted by houseflies, thus increasing the potential risk of spreading multi-drug-resistant E. coli to the public.

13.
Sci Total Environ ; 626: 835-841, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29396344

RESUMO

To better understand the role that bacteriophages play in antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) dissemination in the aquatic environment, 36 water samples were collected from the Funan River in Sichuan, China. The occurrence of 15 clinically relevant ARGs and one class 1 integron gene int1 in phage-particle DNA were evaluated by PCR. The abundance of ARGs (blaCTX-M, sul1, and aac-(6')-1b-cr) was determined by quantitative PCR (qPCR). High prevalence of the int1 gene (66.7%) was found in the phage-particle DNA of tested samples, followed by sul1 (41.7%), sul2 (33.3%), blaCTX-M (33.3%), aac-(6')-lb-cr (25%), aph(3')-IIIa (16.7%), and ermF (8.3%). The qPCR data showed higher gene copy (GC) numbers in samples collected near a hospital (site 7) and a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) (site 10) (P < .05). Particularly the absolute abundance of aac-(6')-lb-cr gene was significantly higher than the blaCTX-M and sul1 genes with the gene copy (GC) numbers of 5.73 log10 copy/mL for site 7 and 4.99 log10 copy/mL for site 10. To our best knowledge, this is the first study to report the presence of sul2, aac-(6')-lb-cr, ermF and aph(3')-IIIa genes in bacteriophage DNA derived from aquatic environments. Our findings highlight the potential of ARGs to be transmitted via bacteriophages in the aquatic environment.


Assuntos
DNA Viral/genética , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Rios/virologia , Antibacterianos , Bacteriófagos , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Prevalência , Águas Residuárias
14.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 51(6): 936-940, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29305957

RESUMO

The plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene mcr-1 has been found worldwide, but the diversity of organisms harbouring this gene is unknown. In this study, 12 colistin-resistant Citrobacter spp. isolates were obtained from diseased or dead chickens in China, and PCR analysis indicated that five were positive for mcr-1. One Citrobacter braakii strain (SCC4) with a multidrug-resistant phenotype was chosen for further analysis. SCC4 was resistant or intermediate-resistant to ten of the tested antibiotics, and the colistin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was >4 µg/mL. A conjugation assay demonstrated successful transfer of colistin resistance to Escherichia coli strain J53 at a frequency of 10-7 cells per recipient cell. Whole-genome sequencing revealed that SCC4 contained 13 antibiotic resistance genes in its genome, and the mcr-1 gene resided on a 44-kb self-transmissible IncP-type plasmid of a recently discovered IncP-1 clade. In addition, the mcr-1 gene was part of an insertion element (ISApl1-mcr-1-orf-ISApl1) that was excised from the plasmid as a circular intermediate form. This is the first report of mcr-1-posiitve C. braakii of animal origin and these findings highlight the fact that the mcr-1 gene can be found in normal enteric flora as part of broad-host-range plasmids.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Citrobacter/efeitos dos fármacos , Citrobacter/genética , Colistina/farmacologia , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Etanolaminofosfotransferase/genética , Plasmídeos/genética , Animais , Galinhas , Citrobacter/isolamento & purificação , Transferência Genética Horizontal/genética , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
15.
Front Microbiol ; 9: 3094, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30619173

RESUMO

Anthropogenic activities near urban rivers may have significantly increased the acquisition and dissemination of antibiotic resistance. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of colistin resistant strains in the Funan River in Chengdu, China. A total of 18 mcr-1-positive isolates (17 Escherichia coli and 1 Enterobacter cloacae) and 6 mcr-3-positive isolates (2 Aeromonas veronii and 4 Aeromonas hydrophila) were detected, while mcr-2, mcr-4 and mcr-5 genes were not detected in any isolates. To further explore the overall antibiotic resistance in the Funan River, water samples were assayed for the presence of 15 antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and class 1 integrons gene (intI1). Nine genes, sul1, sul2, intI1, aac(6')-Ib-cr, bla CTX-M, tetM, ermB, qnrS, and aph(3')-IIIa were found at high frequencies (70-100%) of the water samples. It is worth noting that mcr-1, bla KPC, bla NDM and vanA genes were also found in water samples, the genes that have been rarely reported in natural river systems. The absolute abundance of selected antibiotic resistance genes [sul1, aac(6')-Ib-cr, ermB, blaCTX-M, mcr-1, and tetM] ranged from 0 to 6.0 (log10 GC/mL) in water samples, as determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The sul1, aac(6')-Ib-cr, and ermB genes exhibited the highest absolute abundances, with 5.8, 5.8, and 6.0 log10 GC/mL, respectively. The absolute abundances of six antibiotic resistance genes were highest near a residential sewage outlet. The findings indicated that the discharge of resident sewage might contribute to the dissemination of antibiotic resistant genes in this urban river. The observed high levels of these genes reflect the serious degree of antibiotic resistant pollution in the Funan River, which might present a threat to public health.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28923876

RESUMO

The novel 63,558-bp plasmid pSA-01, which harbors nine antibiotic resistance genes, including cfr, erm(C), tet(L), erm(T), aadD, fosD, fexB, aacA-aphD, and erm(B), was characterized in Staphylococcus arlettae strain SA-01, isolated from a chicken farm in China. The colocation of cfr and fosD genes was detected for the first time in an S. arlettae plasmid. The detection of two IS431-mediated circular forms containing resistance genes in SA-01 suggested that IS431 may facilitate dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Fosfomicina/farmacologia , Plasmídeos/química , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus/genética , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Galinhas , China/epidemiologia , Fazendas , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Plasmídeos/metabolismo , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus/metabolismo
17.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 14(11): 667-677, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28910166

RESUMO

This study aims at investigating the distribution, antimicrobial resistance, and genetic relationship of Salmonella isolated from 18 farms, their downstream abattoirs, and markets of chickens and pigs in Sichuan province, China. A total of 193 Salmonella isolates were identified from 693 samples with an isolation rate of 26.27% (88/335) in chickens and 29.33% (105/358) in pigs. Salmonella was isolated more frequently in abattoirs and markets than from farms. Serotypes were determined according to the White-Kauffmann-Le Minor scheme and 16 different serotypes were identified, with Derby being the most common, followed by Typhimurium and Meleagridis. Antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and genotypes were studied by using the disk diffusion method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification, respectively. Overall, 44.04% (n = 85) of all isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR) and resistance to nalidixic acid (51.30%) was the most frequently observed. blaCTX-M-55 was the most prevalent extended-spectrum ß-lactamases gene, and polymyxin resistance gene mcr-1 was present in strains with various serotypes. Multilocus sequence typing indicated that sequence type (ST) had a close relationship with serotype, and 34.20% of all strains were ST40, which was the most prevalent. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic means (UPGMA) dendrogram of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that Salmonella isolates belonging to the same serovar from different parts of the production chain were highly genetic related, indicating that Salmonella as well as resistance genes could potentially be transmitted from farms to markets. Our study highlights the fact that Salmonella isolates from chicken and pig production chain were frequently exhibiting MDR profiles, and the dissemination of MDR Salmonella from farm to market could pose significant threats to food safety and public health.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Carne , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Aves Domésticas , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Matadouros , Animais , Galinhas , China/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Fazendas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle
18.
Plasmid ; 92: 37-42, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28688673

RESUMO

Recently, a novel variant of the CTX-M enzyme, CTX-M-98, was detected in Escherichia coli isolates from food animals. However, few plasmids carrying blaCTX-M-98 have been fully characterized. In this study, we sequenced the complete pHeBE7 plasmid, an 86,015-bp plasmid that contains the blaCTX-M-98b, blaTEM-1, rmtB, and traT genes, using whole-genome sequencing. The backbone of pHeBE7 shows a high similarity (>99%) to pMC-NDM, which carries the blaNDM-1 gene, however its mosaic regions remain relatively unique among sequenced plasmids. We discovered that a typical ISEcp1-blaCTX-M-IS903 element in the mosaic region harbors the blaCTX-M-98b gene. Conjugation and growth competition assays indicate that pHeBE7 can be easily transmitted and that it confers a limited fitness cost to the recipient cell. The genetic characterization of pHeBE7 may improve our knowledge of how antibiotic resistance disseminates in enterobacteria.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/genética , Plasmídeos/genética , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Conjugação Genética , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Genes Bacterianos , Fígado/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Virulência/genética , Resistência beta-Lactâmica/genética , beta-Lactamases/genética , beta-Lactamas/farmacologia
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28242671

RESUMO

The mcr-1 gene was detected in 5.11% (58/1136) of Escherichia coli isolates of chicken origin from 13 provinces in China. A novel mcr-1 variant, named mcr-1.3, encoding an Ile-to-Val functional variant of MCR-1 was identified in a sequence type 155 (ST155) strain. An mcr-1.3-containing IncI2 plasmid, pHeN867 (60,757 bp), was identified. The transfer of pHeN867 led to a 32-fold increase in the MIC of colistin in the recipient, exhibiting an effect on colistin resistance that was similar to that of mcr-1.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Colistina/farmacologia , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Animais , Sequência de Bases , China , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Plasmídeos/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , beta-Lactamases/genética
20.
BMC Ecol ; 16: 30, 2016 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27323798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As a means of biologically controlling Mikania micrantha H.B.K. in Yunnan, China, the influence of sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] on its reproductive characteristics was studied. The trial utilized a de Wit replacement series incorporating six ratios of sweet potato and M. micrantha plants in 25 m(2) plots over 2 years. RESULTS: Budding of M. micrantha occurred at the end of September; flowering and fruiting occurred from October to February. Flowering phenology of M. micrantha was delayed (P < 0.05), duration of flowering and fruiting was reduced (P < 0.05) and duration of bud formation was increased (P < 0.05) with increasing proportions of sweet potato. Reproductive allocation, reproductive investment and reproductive index of M. micrantha were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) with increasing sweet potato densities. Apidae bees, and Calliphoridae or Syrphidae flies were the most abundant visitors to M. micrantha flowers. Overall flower visits decreased (P < 0.05) as sweet potato increased. Thus the mechanism by which sweet potato suppressed sexual reproduction in M. micrantha was essentially two-fold: causing a delay in flowering phenology and reducing pollinator visits. The number, biomass, length, set rate, germination rate, and 1000-grain dry weight of M. micrantha seeds were suppressed (P < 0.05) by sweet potato competition. With proportional increases in sweet potato, sexual and asexual seedling populations of M. micrantha were significantly reduced (P < 0.05). The mortality of both seedling types increased (P < 0.05) with proportional increases in sweet potato. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that sweet potato significantly suppresses the reproductive ability of the invasive species M. micrantha, and is a promising alternative to traditional biological control and other methods of control. Planting sweet potato in conjunction with other control methods could provide a comprehensive strategy for managing M. micrantha. The scenario of controlling M. micrantha by utilizing a crop with a similar growth form may provide a useful model for similar management strategies in other systems.


Assuntos
Ipomoea batatas/fisiologia , Mikania/fisiologia , Animais , Abelhas/fisiologia , Dípteros/fisiologia , Ipomoea batatas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mikania/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Reprodução
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