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1.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 20(1): 422, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the corneal biomechanical changes in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) patients treated with long-term prostaglandin analogue (PGA). METHODS: One hundred eleven newly diagnosed POAG patients, including 43 high tension glaucoma (HTG) and 68 normal tension glaucoma (NTG), were measured by Corvis ST to obtain intraocular pressure (IOP), central corneal thickness (CCT) and corneal biomechanical parameters at baseline and at each follow-up visit after initiation of PGA treatment. The follow-up measurements were analyzed by the generalized estimate equation model with an exchangeable correlation structure. Restricted cubic spline was employed to estimate the dose-response relation between follow-up time and corneal biomechanics. RESULTS: The mean follow-up time was 10.3 ± 7.02 months. Deformation amplitude (ß = -0.0015, P = 0.016), the first applanation velocity (AV1, ß = -0.0004, P = 0.00058) decreased and the first applanation time (AT1, ß = 0.0089, P < 0.000001) increased statistically significantly with PGA therapy over time after adjusting for age, gender, axial length, corneal curvature, IOP and CCT. In addition, AT1 was lower (7.2950 ± 0.2707 in NTG and 7.5889 ± 0.2873 in HTG, P = 0.00011) and AV1 was greater (0.1478 ± 0.0187 in NTG and 0.1314 ± 0.0191 in HTG, P = 0.00002) in NTG than in HTG after adjusting for confounding factors. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic use of PGA probably influences the corneal biomechanical properties directly, which is to make cornea less deformable. Besides, corneas in NTG tended to be more deformable compared to those in HTG with long-term treatment of PGA.

2.
Immunobiology ; 225(4): 151960, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747017

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), one of Gram-positive pathogen, is frequently associated with acute lung inflammation. The central feature of S. aureus acute lung inflammation are pulmonary dysfunctioning and impeded host defence response, which cause failure in inflammatory cytokines homeostasis and leads to serious tissue damage. However, the role of the Mer receptor tyrosine kinase (MerTK) in the lung following S. aureus infection remains elusive. Here, we investigate whether MerTK alleviates S. aureus induced uncontrolled inflammation through negatively regulating toll-like receptor 2 and 6 (TLR2/ TLR6) via suppressor of cytokine signalling 1, 3 (SOCS1/SOCS3). METHODS AND RESULTS: We found in mice lung tissues and RAW 264.7 macrophages upon S. aureus infection activates TLR2 and TLR6 driven mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signalling pathways, resulting in production of inflammatory cytokines including tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß), interleukin 6 (IL-6). Furthermore, S. aureus-infection groups showed a significant up-regulation of MerTK which serves as mediator of SOCS1 and SOCS3. Subsequently, through feedback mechanism SOCS1/3 degrade Mal, resulting in inhibition of downstream TLR mediated inflammatory pathways. Moreover, MerTK-/- mice lung tissues and silencing MerTK in RAW 264.7 inhibited the S. aureus-induced activation of MerTK, which significantly upregulated the phosphorylation of crucial protein in MAPKs (ERK, JNK, p38) and NF-κB (IĸBα, p65) signalling pathways, as well as the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. CONCLUSION: Collectively, these findings indicate the important role of MerTK in self-regulatory resolution of S. aureus-induced inflammatory pathways and cytokines through intrinsic SOCS1 and SOCS3 repressed feedback on TLR2, TLR6 both in vivo and in vitro.

3.
Nature ; 584(7820): 210-214, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788736

RESUMO

Of the two stable forms of graphite, hexagonal and rhombohedral, the former is more common and has been studied extensively. The latter is less stable, which has so far precluded its detailed investigation, despite many theoretical predictions about the abundance of exotic interaction-induced physics1-6. Advances in van der Waals heterostructure technology7 have now allowed us to make high-quality rhombohedral graphite films up to 50 graphene layers thick and study their transport properties. Here we show that the bulk electronic states in such rhombohedral graphite are gapped8 and, at low temperatures, electron transport is dominated by surface states. Because of their proposed topological nature, the surface states are of sufficiently high quality to observe the quantum Hall effect, whereby rhombohedral graphite exhibits phase transitions between a gapless semimetallic phase and a gapped quantum spin Hall phase with giant Berry curvature. We find that an energy gap can also be opened in the surface states by breaking their inversion symmetry by applying a perpendicular electric field. Moreover, in rhombohedral graphite thinner than four nanometres, a gap is present even without an external electric field. This spontaneous gap opening shows pronounced hysteresis and other signatures characteristic of electronic phase separation, which we attribute to emergence of strongly correlated electronic surface states.

4.
Breast Cancer ; 27(6): 1147-1157, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780321

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aim to evaluate the prognostic and predictive value of TOP2A and HER2 expression in T1N0 breast cancer patients. METHODS: 299 cases with T1N0 breast cancer were obtained from the Oncomine database (Cohort 1) and 963 of T1N0 breast cancer patients from Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital (Cohort 2) were retrospectively enrolled. Kaplan-Meier product was applied to estimate survival curve. Cox proportional hazard models was used to identify prognostic factors. We used PSM (propensity score matching) to balance clinicopathologic characteristics among four groups of different HER2/TOP2A status. Survival between groups and chemotherapy regimens were analyzed, before and after PSM. RESULTS: In Cohort 1, we found that the group with HER2+ and higher expression of TOP2A mRNA was associated with poor breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) compared to the group of HER2- with lower expression of TOP2A mRNA. In Cohort 2, HER2+ patients with higher TOP2A protein expression had greater risk of recurrence and distant recurrence compared to HER2- patients with lower expression of TOP2A protein. Among the patients who developed both HER2+ and higher expression of TOP2A protein and received chemotherapy, patients who received an anthracycline-based regimen had a significantly better recurrence-free survival (RFS) than those with a non-anthracycline-based regime. CONCLUSION: Patients with both HER2+ and high expression level of TOP2A protein predicts poor prognosis in T1N0 breast cancer patients. Patients with double positive for TOP2A protein and HER2 may benefit from anthracycline-based regimens.

5.
Genet Med ; 2020 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32655138

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to assess the scale of low-level parental mosaicism in exome sequencing (ES) databases. METHODS: We analyzed approximately 2000 family trio ES data sets from the Baylor-Hopkins Center for Mendelian Genomics (BHCMG) and Baylor Genetics (BG). Among apparent de novo single-nucleotide variants identified in the affected probands, we selected rare unique variants with variant allele fraction (VAF) between 30% and 70% in the probands and lower than 10% in one of the parents. RESULTS: Of 102 candidate mosaic variants validated using amplicon-based next-generation sequencing, droplet digital polymerase chain reaction, or blocker displacement amplification, 27 (26.4%) were confirmed to be low- (VAF between 1% and 10%) or very low (VAF <1%) level mosaic. Detection precision in parental samples with two or more alternate reads was 63.6% (BHCMG) and 43.6% (BG). In nine investigated individuals, we observed variability of mosaic ratios among blood, saliva, fibroblast, buccal, hair, and urine samples. CONCLUSION: Our computational pipeline enables robust discrimination between true and false positive candidate mosaic variants and efficient detection of low-level mosaicism in ES samples. We confirm that the presence of two or more alternate reads in the parental sample is a reliable predictor of low-level parental somatic mosaicism.

6.
Hum Mutat ; 2020 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643838

RESUMO

Congenital heart defects and skeletal malformations syndrome (CHDSKM) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by congenital heart disease, skeletal abnormalities, and failure to thrive. CHDSKM is caused by germline mutations in ABL1. To date, three variants have been in association with CHDSKM. In this study, we describe three de novo missense variants, c.407C>T (p.Thr136Met), c.746C>T (p.Pro249Leu), and c.1573G>A (p.Val525Met), and one recurrent variant, c.1066G>A (p.Ala356Thr), in six patients, thereby expanding the phenotypic spectrum of CHDSKM to include hearing impairment, lipodystrophy-like features, renal hypoplasia, and distinct ocular abnormalities. Functional investigation of the three novel variants showed an increased ABL1 kinase activity. The cardiac findings in additional patients with p.Ala356Thr contribute to the accumulating evidence that patients carrying either one of the recurrent variants, p.Tyr245Cys and p.Ala356Thr, have a high incidence of cardiac abnormalities. The phenotypic expansion has implications for the clinical diagnosis of CHDSKM in patients with germline ABL1 variants.

7.
Phytomedicine ; 76: 153248, 2020 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mastitis has a severe impact on human health and breastfeeding. Gram-positive bacteria are one of the most common pathogens, of which lipoteichoic acid (LTA) serves as the main pathogenic factor. Bio-active extractions from herbs is regarded as an alternative method to antibiotics. 6-Gingerol is used for the treatment of tumors and inhibition of inflammation in liver and gallbladder. PURPOSE: To determine whether 6-gingerol can be used as a therapeutic medicine for mastitis. RESULTS: In this article, we used mice as the animal model and RAW264.7/PMECs as cell models. Western blot was for detecting the expression of proteins in NF-κB/MAPK signaling pathways and MMPs/TIMPs. MPO was for the detection of the amount of immune cells. H&E, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were used for locating and detecting the expression of proteins. The detection of inflammatory cytokines was conducted by ELISA and RT-qPCR. We found that the NF-κB/MAPK signaling pathways, formation of ECM, production of inflammatory cytokines and injury to mammary gland cells were attenuated both in vivo and in vitro when 6-gingerol was administered. CONCLUSION: We discovered the function and efficacy of 6-gingerol as a therapeutic compound in LTA-induced mastitis and its probable mechanism of action.

8.
Genet Med ; 22(10): 1633-1641, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576985

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Improved resolution of molecular diagnostic technologies enabled detection of smaller sized exonic level copy-number variants (CNVs). The contribution of CNVs to autosomal recessive (AR) conditions may be better recognized using a large clinical cohort. METHODS: We retrospectively investigated the CNVs' contribution to AR conditions in cases subjected to chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA, N = ~70,000) and/or clinical exome sequencing (ES, N = ~12,000) at Baylor Genetics; most had pediatric onset neurodevelopmental disorders. RESULTS: CNVs contributed to biallelic variations in 87 cases, including 81 singletons and three affected sibling pairs. Seventy cases had CNVs affecting both alleles, and 17 had a CNV and a single-nucleotide variant (SNV)/indel in trans. In total, 94.3% of AR-CNVs affected one gene; among these 41.4% were single-exon and 35.0% were multiexon partial-gene events. Sixty-nine percent of homozygous AR-CNVs were embedded in homozygous genomic intervals. Five cases had large deletions unmasking an SNV/indel on the intact allele for a recessive condition, resulting in multiple molecular diagnoses. CONCLUSIONS: AR-CNVs are often smaller in size, transmitted through generations, and underrecognized due to limitations in clinical CNV detection methods. Our findings from a large clinical cohort emphasized integrated CNV and SNV/indel analyses for precise clinical and molecular diagnosis especially in the context of genomic disorders.

9.
Oncologist ; 2020 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate whether an immunohistochemical prognostic model (IHC4 score) can predict the prognosis and the chemotherapy benefit in patients with estrogen receptor-positive (ER+)/human epidermal growth receptor 2-negative (HER2-) metastatic breast cancer (MBC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We developed a method to calculate the modified IHC4 (mIHC4) scores based on routine pathological reports and compared them with the original IHC4 scores that were much more difficult to calculate. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to study the prognostic factors of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). The predictive value of mIHC4 score was also investigated. RESULTS: The Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital data set included 315 patients with newly diagnosed ER+ MBC with a median follow-up of 25.6 months. Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that higher mIHC4 scores in metastatic lesions, but not the ones in primary tumors, were significantly associated with worse PFS and OS. The prognostic value of mIHC4 scores for PFS was validated using an independent Chinese Society of Clinical Oncology- Breast Cancer (CSCO-BC) data set. More importantly, subpopulation treatment effect pattern plot analysis showed that first-line endocrine therapy achieved better PFS and OS than chemotherapy in low-risk patients with ER+/HER2- MBC, whereas first-line chemotherapy was associated with improved PFS and OS compared with endocrine therapy in high-risk ones. The predictive value of mIHC4 score for PFS in selecting first-line endocrine therapy versus chemotherapy was also confirmed in the CSCO-BC data set. CONCLUSION: mIHC4 scores in metastatic lesions are prognostic for the PFS and OS in patients with ER+ MBC. Low or high mIHC4 score may indicate the survival benefit in choosing first-line endocrine therapy or chemotherapy in patients with ER+/HER2- MBC, respectively. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: The modified IHC4 (mIHC4) score is easy to implement and able to predict patients with advanced and/or metastatic breast cancer. In addition, with the help of the mIHC4 score, physicians might be able to recommend chemotherapy or endocrine therapy as the first-line treatment for patients with high and low risk as predicted by the mIHC4 score.

10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 8660, 2020 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32457446

RESUMO

Substantia nigra (SN) hyperechogenicity is present in most Parkinson's disease (PD) cases but is occasionally absent in some. To date, age, gender, disease severity, and other factors have been reported to be associated with SN hyperechogenicity in PD. Previous studies have discovered that excess iron deposition in the SN underlies its hyperechogenicity in PD, which may also indicate the involvement of genes associated with iron metabolism in hyperechogenicity. The objective of our study is to explore the potential associations between variants in iron metabolism-associated genes and SN echogenicity in Han Chinese PD. Demographic profiles, clinical data, SN echogenicity and genotypes were obtained from 221 Han Chinese PD individuals with a sufficient bone window. Serum ferritin levels were quantified in 92 of these individuals by immunochemical assay. We then compared factors between PD individuals with SN hyperechogenicity and those with SN hypoechogenicity to identify factors that predispose to SN hyperechogenicity. Of our 221 participants, 122 (55.2%) displayed SN hyperechogenicity, and 99 (44.8%) displayed SN hypoechogenicity. Gender and serum ferritin levels were found to be associated with SN hyperechogenicity. In total, 14 genes were included in the sequencing part. After data processing, 34 common single nucleotide polymorphisms were included in our further analyses. In our data, we also found a significantly higher frequency of PANK2 rs3737084 (genotype: OR = 2.07, P = 0.013; allele: OR = 2.51, P = 0.002) in the SN hyperechogenic group and a higher frequency of PLA2G6 rs731821 (genotype: OR = 0.45, P = 0.016; allele: OR = 0.44, P = 0.011) in the SN hypoechogenic group. However, neither of the two variants was found to be correlated with serum ferritin. This study demonstrated that genetic factors, serum ferritin level, and gender may explain the interindividual variability in SN echogenicity in PD. This is an explorative study, and further replication is warranted in larger samples and different populations.

12.
Genet Med ; 22(9): 1560-1566, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32439973

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A primary barrier to improving exome sequencing diagnostic rates is the interpretation of variants of uncertain clinical significance. We aimed to determine the contribution of integrated untargeted metabolomics in the analysis of exome sequencing data by retrospective analysis of patients evaluated by both exome sequencing and untargeted metabolomics within the same clinical laboratory. METHODS: Exome sequencing and untargeted metabolomic data were collected and analyzed for 170 patients. Pathogenic variants, likely pathogenic variants, and variants of uncertain significance in genes associated with a biochemical phenotype were extracted. Metabolomic data were evaluated to determine if these variants resulted in biochemical abnormalities that could be used to support their interpretation using current American College of Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) guidelines. RESULTS: Metabolomic data contributed to the interpretation of variants in 74 individuals (43.5%) over 73 different genes. The data allowed for the reclassification of 9 variants as likely benign, 15 variants as likely pathogenic, and 3 variants as pathogenic. Metabolomic data confirmed a clinical diagnosis in 21 cases, for a diagnostic rate of 12.3% in this population. CONCLUSION: Untargeted metabolomics can serve as a useful adjunct to exome sequencing by providing valuable functional data that may not otherwise be clinically available, resulting in improved variant classification.

13.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 21(4): 341, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32253843

RESUMO

Erratum to: J Zhejiang Univ-Sci B (Biomed & Biotechnol) 2019 2019 20(10):816-827. https://doi.org/10.1631/jzus.B1900071. The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. In p.823, Figs. 8c and 8d were in-correct, and the obvious pathological changes were mistakenly placed in the picture. The correct versions should be as follows.

14.
Mol Immunol ; 122: 1-12, 2020 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32247834

RESUMO

Mastitis is the most commonly diagnosed infectious disease reducing milk yield and quality and is accompanied by mammary tissue damage in both humans and animals. Mastitis incurs welfare and economic costs as well as environmental concerns regarding treatment. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a prevalent Gram-positive bacteria and a major cause of mastitis, however, pathogenesis of the intrinsic anti-inflammatory response in mammary tissues is still principally unknown. Our aim, in combatting the S. aureus induced inflammatory response in mammary tissues, was to elucidate the intrinsic anti-inflammatory role of MerTK signaling. Here, we demonstrate that Mer receptor tyrosine kinase (MerTK) regulates an intrinsic negative feedback to balance the over-reaction of the host defense system. S. aureus elicits toll-like receptors 2 and 6 (TLR2/TLR6) signaling pathways, subsequently recruiting TRAF6, whose ubiquitination is intricate to the downstream signaling including MAPKs and NF-κB. We observed that TLR2/TLR6 activation, in response to S. aureus, was concomitant with induced MerTK activation, leading to raised expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 and 3 (SOCS1, SOCS3) in wild type mice mammary tissues and epithelial cells. Meanwhile, S. aureus infection in MerTK-/- mice showed significant increased phosphorylation of p65, IκBα, p38, JNK and ERK along with production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, MerTK-/- evidently inhibited S. aureus induced phosphorylation of STAT1 and subsequent SOCS1/SOCS3 expression which are pivotal in the negative feedback mechanism for targeting TRAF6 to inhibit the TLR2/TLR6 mediated immune response. Taken together, our findings demonstrate the importance of MerTK in the regulation of the intrinsic feedback during the inflammatory response induced by S. aureus through STAT1/SOCS1/SOCS3 in mice mammary tissues and mice mammary epithelial cells (MMECs).

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32233023

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome is a relatively common arrhythmia affecting ~1-3/1,000 individuals. Mutations in PRKAG2 have been described in rare patients in association with cardiomyopathy. However, the genetic basis of WPW in individuals with a structurally normal heart remains poorly understood. Sudden death due to atrial fibrillation (AF) can also occur in these individuals. Several studies have indicated that despite ablation of an accessory pathway, the risk of AF remains high in patients compared to general population. METHODS: We applied exome sequencing in 305 subjects, including 65 trios, 80 singletons, and 6 multiple affected families. We used de novo analysis, candidate gene approach, and burden testing to explore the genetic contributions to WPW. RESULTS: A heterozygous deleterious variant in PRKAG2 was identified in one subject, accounting for 0.6% (1/151) of the genetic basis of WPW in this study. Another individual with WPW and left ventricular hypertrophy carried a known pathogenic variant in MYH7. We found rare de novo variants in genes associated with arrhythmia and cardiomyopathy (ANK2, NEBL, PITX2, and PRDM16) in this cohort. There was an increased burden of rare deleterious variants (MAF ≤ 0.005) with CADD score ≥ 25 in genes linked to AF in cases compared to controls (P = .0023). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show an increased burden of rare deleterious variants in genes linked to AF in WPW syndrome, suggesting that genetic factors that determine the development of accessory pathways may be linked to an increased susceptibility of atrial muscle to AF in a subset of patients.

16.
Microb Pathog ; 143: 104109, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171710

RESUMO

Acute lung injury (ALI) is considered as an uncontrolled inflammatory response that can leads to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which limits the therapeutic strategies. Ginsenosides Rb1 (Rb1), an active ingredient obtained from Panax ginseng, possesses a broad range of pharmacological and medicinal properties, comprising the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-tumor activities. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of Rb1 against S. aureus-induced (ALI) through regulation of Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic pathways in mice (in-vivo), and RAW264.7 cells (in-vitro). For that purpose, forty Kunming mice were randomly assigned into four treatment groups; (1) Control group (phosphate buffer saline (PBS); (2) S. aureus group; (3) S. aureus + Rb1 (20 mg/kg) group; and (4) Rb1 (20 mg/kg) group. The 20 µg/mL dose of Rb1 was used in RAW264.7 cells. In the present study, we found that Rb1 treatment reduced ALI-induced oxidative stress via suppressing the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) and increase the antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxidase dismutase 1 (SOD1), Catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase 1 (Gpx1). Similarly, Rb1 markedly increased messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of antioxidant genes (SOD1, CAT and Gpx1) in comparison with ALI group. The histopathological results showed that Rb1 treatment ameliorated ALI-induced hemorrhages, hyperemia, perivascular edema and neutrophilic infiltration in the lungs of mice. Furthermore, Rb1 enhanced the antioxidant defense system through activating the Nrf2 signaling pathway. Our findings showed that Rb1 treated group significantly up-regulated mRNA and protein expression of Nrf2 and its downstream associated genes down-regulated by ALI in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, ALI significantly increased the both mRNA and protein expression of mitochondrial-apoptosis-related genes (Bax, caspase-3, caspase-9, cytochrome c and p53), while decreased the Bcl-2. In addition, Rb1 therapy significantly reversed the mRNA and protein expression of these mitochondrial-apoptosis-related genes, as compared to the ALI group in vivo and in vitro. Taken together, Rb1 alleviates ALI-induced oxidative injury and apoptosis by modulating the Nrf2 and mitochondrial signaling pathways in the lungs of mice.

17.
J Cell Physiol ; 235(9): 5925-5937, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32003008

RESUMO

Acute lung injury (ALI), characterized by increased excessive pulmonary inflammation, is a pervasive inflammatory disease with clinically high incidence. MicroRNA (miRNAs) have been associated with the progression of multiple diseases and are regarded as novel regulators of inflammation. However, it remains largely unknown whether the miRNAs-mediated regulatory mechanism has an effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in ALI. We discovered that miR-182 distinctly lessened expression in the lung tissue of mice with ALI and macrophages stimulated by LPS. We also found that overexpression of miR-182 significantly cut down the secretion of inflammatory cytokines, while this change was reversed by inhibition of miR-182. In addition, miR-182 suppressed the activation of NF-κB by targeting TLR4 expression. And it was confirmed that miR-182 directly regulated TLR4 expression at the posttranscriptional level by binding to the 3'-UTR of TLR4. Together, these data suggested that inhibition of TLR4 expression assuaged LPS-stimulated inflammation through negative feedback regulation of miR-182.

18.
J Cell Physiol ; 235(10): 7081-7093, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32052456

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)-induced mastitis is the most frequent, pathogenic, and prevalent infection of the mammary gland. The ligand growth arrest-specific 6 (Gas6) is a secretory protein that binds to and activates Tyro3, Axl, and MerTK receptors. This study explored the role of Gas6 in S. aureus-induced mastitis. Our results revealed that TLR receptors initiate the innate immune response in mammary gland tissues and epithelial cells and that introducing S. aureus activates TLR2 and TLR6 to drive multiple intracellular mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) pathways. Moreover, S. aureus also induces Gas6, which then activates the TAM receptor kinase pathway, which is related to the inhibition of TLR2- and TLR6-mediated inflammatory pathways through SOCS1 and SOCS3 induction. Gas6 absence alone was found to be involved in the downregulation of TAM receptor-mediated anti-inflammatory effects by inducing significantly prominent expression of TRAF6 and low protein and messenger RNA expression of SOCS1 and SOCS3. S. aureus-induced MAPK and NF-ĸB p65 phosphorylation were also dependent on Gas6, which negatively regulated the production of Pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α) in S. aureus-treated mammary tissues and mammary epithelial cells. Our in vivo and in vitro study uncovered the Gas6-mediated negative feedback mechanism, which inhibits TLR2- and TLR6-mediated MAPK and NF-ĸB signaling by activating TAM receptor kinase (MerTK, Axl, and Tyro3) through the induction of SOCS1/SOCS3 proteins.

20.
Hum Mutat ; 41(5): 921-925, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999386

RESUMO

The bromodomain adjacent to zinc finger 2B gene (BAZ2B) encodes a protein involved in chromatin remodeling. Loss of BAZ2B function has been postulated to cause neurodevelopmental disorders. To determine whether BAZ2B deficiency is likely to contribute to the pathogenesis of these disorders, we performed bioinformatics analyses that demonstrated a high level of functional convergence during fetal cortical development between BAZ2B and genes known to cause autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and neurodevelopmental disorder. We also found an excess of de novo BAZ2B loss-of-function variants in exome sequencing data from previously published cohorts of individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders. We subsequently identified seven additional individuals with heterozygous deletions, stop-gain, or de novo missense variants affecting BAZ2B. All of these individuals have developmental delay (DD), intellectual disability (ID), and/or ASD. Taken together, our findings suggest that haploinsufficiency of BAZ2B causes a neurodevelopmental disorder, whose cardinal features include DD, ID, and ASD.

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