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1.
Mol Biol Evol ; 39(2)2022 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34893856

RESUMO

Domestic sheep and their wild relatives harbor substantial genetic variants that can form the backbone of molecular breeding, but their genome landscapes remain understudied. Here, we present a comprehensive genome resource for wild ovine species, landraces and improved breeds of domestic sheep, comprising high-coverage (∼16.10×) whole genomes of 810 samples from 7 wild species and 158 diverse domestic populations. We detected, in total, ∼121.2 million single nucleotide polymorphisms, ∼61 million of which are novel. Some display significant (P < 0.001) differences in frequency between wild and domestic species, or are private to continent-wide or individual sheep populations. Retained or introgressed wild gene variants in domestic populations have contributed to local adaptation, such as the variation in the HBB associated with plateau adaptation. We identified novel and previously reported targets of selection on morphological and agronomic traits such as stature, horn, tail configuration, and wool fineness. We explored the genetic basis of wool fineness and unveiled a novel mutation (chr25: T7,068,586C) in the 3'-UTR of IRF2BP2 as plausible causal variant for fleece fiber diameter. We reconstructed prehistorical migrations from the Near Eastern domestication center to South-and-Southeast Asia and found two main waves of migrations across the Eurasian Steppe and the Iranian Plateau in the Early and Late Bronze Ages. Our findings refine our understanding of genome variation as shaped by continental migrations, introgression, adaptation, and selection of sheep.


Assuntos
Genoma , Carneiro Doméstico , Animais , Ásia , Europa (Continente) , Variação Genética , Irã (Geográfico) , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ovinos/genética , Carneiro Doméstico/genética
2.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(28): 8492-8497, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34754858

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) may be caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Post-infection recovery-associated changes of HBV indicators include decreased hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) level and increased anti-HBsAg antibody titer. Testing to detect HBV DNA is conducted rarely but could detect latent HBV infection persisting after acute infection and prompt administration of treatments to clear HBV and prevent subsequent HBV-induced HCC development. Here, we present an HCC case with an extremely high anti-HBsAg antibody titer and latent HBV infection. CASE SUMMARY: A 57-year-old male patient with abdominal pain who was diagnosed with primary HCC presented with an extremely high level (over 2000 ng/mL) of serum alpha-fetoprotein. Abdominal B-ultrasonography and computed tomography scan results indicated focal liver lesion and mild splenomegaly. Assessments of serological markers revealed a high titer of antibodies against hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBcAg antibodies), an extremely high titer (1000 mIU/mL) of hepatitis B surface antibodies (anti-HBsAg antibodies, anti-HBs) and absence of detectible HBsAg. Medical records indicated that the patient had reported no history of HBV vaccination, infection or hepatitis. Therefore, to rule out latent HBV infection in this patient, a serum sample was collected then tested to detect HBV DNA, yielding a positive result. Based on the aforementioned information, the final diagnosis was HCC associated with hepatitis B in a compensated stage of liver dysfunction and the patient was hospitalized for surgical treatment. CONCLUSION: A rare HCC case with high serum anti-HBsAg antibody titer and detectable HBV DNA resulted from untreated latent HBV infection.

3.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(20): 2458-2473, 2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092969

RESUMO

Hepatitis E virus (HEV), a fecal-orally transmitted foodborne viral pathogen, causes acute hepatitis in humans and is responsible for hepatitis E outbreaks worldwide. Since the identification of HEV as a zoonotic agent, this virus has been isolated from a variety of hosts with an ever-expanding host range. HEV-open reading frame (ORF) 3, the smallest ORF in HEV genomes, initially had been perceived as an unremarkable HEV accessory protein. However, as novel HEV-ORF3 function has been discovered that is related to the existence of a putative third virion structural form, referred to as "quasi-enveloped" HEV particles, HEV is challenging the conventional virion structure-based classification scheme, which assigns all viruses to two groups, "enveloped" or "non-enveloped". In this review, we systematically describe recent progress that has identified multiple pathogenic roles of HEV-ORF3, including roles in HEV virion release, biogenesis of quasi-enveloped virus, regulation of the host innate immune response, and interference with host signaling pathways. In addition, implications of HEV-ORF3-associated quasi-enveloped virions are discussed to guide future development of improved vaccines against zoonotic HEV infection.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite E , Hepatite E , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Humanos , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Proteínas Virais/genética , Vírion
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3157, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33542475

RESUMO

Aridity and heat are significant environmental stressors that affect sheep adaptation and adaptability, thus influencing immunity, growth, reproduction, production performance, and profitability. The aim of this study was to profile mRNA expression levels in the spleen of indigenous Kazakh sheep breed for comparative analysis with the exotic Suffolk breed. Spleen histomorphology was observed in indigenous Kazakh sheep and exotic Suffolk sheep raised in Xinjiang China. Transcriptome sequencing of spleen tissue from the two breeds were performed via Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology and validated by RT-qPCR. Blood cytokine and IgG levels differed between the two breeds and IgG and IL-1ß were significantly higher in Kazakh sheep than in Suffolk sheep (p < 0.05), though spleen tissue morphology was the same. A total of 52.04 Gb clean reads were obtained and the clean reads were assembled into 67,271 unigenes using bioinformatics analysis. Profiling analysis of differential gene expression showed that 1158 differentially expressed genes were found when comparing Suffolk with Kazakh sheep, including 246 up-regulated genes and 912 down-regulated genes. Utilizing gene ontology annotation and pathway analysis, 21 immune- responsive genes were identified as spleen-specific genes associated with adaptive traits and were significantly enriched in hematopoietic cell lineage, natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity, complement and coagulation cascades, and in the intestinal immune network for IgA production. Four pathways and up-regulated genes associated with immune responses in indigenous sheep played indispensable and promoting roles in arid and hot environments. Overall, this study provides valuable transcriptome data on the immunological mechanisms related to adaptive traits in indigenous and exotic sheep and offers a foundation for research into adaptive evolution.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa , Fatores de Coagulação Sanguínea/imunologia , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/imunologia , Baço/imunologia , Transcriptoma/imunologia , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Animais , Fatores de Coagulação Sanguínea/genética , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/genética , Secas , Células Eritroides/citologia , Células Eritroides/imunologia , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Temperatura Alta , Imunidade Inata , Imunoglobulina A/biossíntese , Imunoglobulina A/genética , Imunoglobulina G/biossíntese , Imunoglobulina G/genética , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Linfócitos/citologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , Masculino , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Reprodução/genética , Reprodução/imunologia , Carneiro Doméstico , Baço/citologia , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/imunologia
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2815, 2020 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499537

RESUMO

Understanding the genetic changes underlying phenotypic variation in sheep (Ovis aries) may facilitate our efforts towards further improvement. Here, we report the deep resequencing of 248 sheep including the wild ancestor (O. orientalis), landraces, and improved breeds. We explored the sheep variome and selection signatures. We detected genomic regions harboring genes associated with distinct morphological and agronomic traits, which may be past and potential future targets of domestication, breeding, and selection. Furthermore, we found non-synonymous mutations in a set of plausible candidate genes and significant differences in their allele frequency distributions across breeds. We identified PDGFD as a likely causal gene for fat deposition in the tails of sheep through transcriptome, RT-PCR, qPCR, and Western blot analyses. Our results provide insights into the demographic history of sheep and a valuable genomic resource for future genetic studies and improved genome-assisted breeding of sheep and other domestic animals.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais Selvagens/genética , Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/metabolismo , Carneiro Doméstico/genética , Alelos , Animais , Cruzamento , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Variação Genética , Genética , Genômica , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Mutação , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Seleção Genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ovinos , Especificidade da Espécie , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
6.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 83(6): 1045-1061, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935300

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate the development and growth cycle of hair follicles (HFs). The molecular mechanism by which miRNAs determine the development of HFs in the sheep foetus remains elusive. In this study, the expression profiles of miRNAs at 11 development periods (45, 55, 65, 75, 85, 95, 105, 115, 125, 135 and 145 d) in sheep foetus skin were analysed by high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. A total of 72 conserved miRNAs, 44 novel miRNAs and 32 known miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed. qRT-PCR results for 18 miRNAs were consistent with the sequencing data. 85 d of foetal development was the starting point for secondary hair follicle (SF) development according to tissue morphology and cluster analysis. In SF development, the prolactin signalling pathway and platelet activation played important roles, and 10 miRNAs were potential candidate miRNAs in SF initiation.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Fetal/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Folículo Piloso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , MicroRNAs/genética , Ovinos/embriologia , Animais , Biologia Computacional , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Ativação Plaquetária , Prolactina/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Transdução de Sinais , Regulação para Cima ,
7.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22860425

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the protective effects of natakalim against rat aortic vascular endothelial cells (RAVECs) injuries induced by hypoxia and its mechanisms. METHODS: Selecting RAVECs as a cell model injured by hypoxia, these RAVECs were divided into 5 groups: i.e. control group, hypoxia group, natakalim low, medium and high group. The cell survival rate was determined by MTT assay, con was measured using Griess Assay, RT-PCR was used to examine t he expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), endothelin-1 (ET-1) mRNA in RAVEC. RESULTS: Natakalim could reverse hypoxia-induced changes in endothelial cell function, including increased endothelial cell survival rate and level of NO concentration, significantly inhibited the hypoxia-induced endothelial ICAM-1, ET-1, VEGF mRNA expression levels increased. CONCLUSION: Natakalim have protective effects on hypoxia-induced changes in endothelial cell function, increasing of permeation, excess expression of cell adhesion molecules.


Assuntos
Compostos Alílicos/farmacologia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Propilaminas/farmacologia , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/metabolismo , Animais , Aorta/citologia , Aorta/metabolismo , Hipóxia Celular , Células Cultivadas , Endotelina-1/metabolismo , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/metabolismo , Masculino , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
8.
Yi Chuan ; 34(6): 719-26, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22698743

RESUMO

Integrin linked kinase (ILK) is a scaffold protein, which plays important roles in hair follicle development. The cDNA sequence of novel ILK gene in sheep was cloned by PCR method and analyzed by bioinformatics. Tissue expression profiling in eight tissues and temporal profiling at different wool follicle anagen stages in skin was analyzed. The results showed that the whole open reading frame (ORF) of ILK gene was 1 359 bp in length, which encoded 452 amino acids. Bioinformatic analysis indicated that the secondary structure of ILK gene was mainly made up of three ankyrin repeats and a kinase domain, and there were multiple phosphorylation and Protein Kinase C sites in this gene. The RT-PCR result confirmed that ILK mRNA was expressed in heart, liver, spleen, lung, skeletal muscle, skin, and small intestine, and the expression level was much higher in skin, spleen, and liver than others. The q-PCR analysis demonstrated that the ex-pression level of ILK was significantly increased from March to May (early follicle anagen initiation) in both sheep breeds, Chinese Merino and Kazakh sheep, and there were certain differences from June to October between the two breeds. The above results indicated that ILK gene may play key roles in regulating secondary follicle growth.


Assuntos
Folículo Piloso/fisiologia , /genética , Ovinos/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Clonagem Molecular/métodos , Biologia Computacional/métodos , DNA Complementar/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Folículo Piloso/metabolismo , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Ovinos/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo
9.
Environ Technol ; 33(7-9): 961-6, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22720421

RESUMO

A novel strain of thermophilic bacteria with a highly efficient sludge dissolution performance was isolated from garden soil at 65 degrees C in this study. The colony morphology, physiological and biochemical characteristics of the strain were investigated. The results showed that the strain was Gram-positive, small rod-shaped, sporulating and secreted extracellular enzymes (protease and amylase). The 16S rDNA analysis demonstrated that this strain had not been previously reported. Therefore, it was labelled Bacillus thermophilic bacteria AT07-1 (registration number: FJ231108). To evaluate its capability for excess sludge solubilization, a pure culture of the strain was used in sludge solubilization tests; an enhanced solubilization process was subsequently obtained. After 36 h digestion, the protease activity in the inoculated system reached 0.37 U/ml, an increase of 0.16 U/ml compared with the non-inoculated system (0.21 U/ml). The solubilization rate for volatile suspended solids reached 46.45% in 48 h after inoculation with Bacillus thermophilic bacteria AT07-1, which was 10.24% higher than the non-inoculated system, and which could meet the standard of sludge stability suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency.


Assuntos
Bacilos Gram-Positivos Formadores de Endosporo/isolamento & purificação , Esgotos/microbiologia , Bacilos Gram-Positivos Formadores de Endosporo/classificação , Bacilos Gram-Positivos Formadores de Endosporo/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
10.
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 28(4): 404-6, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22482413

RESUMO

AIM: To study the magnitude and correlation of humoral and cellular immune responses to hepatitis surface antigen(HBsAg), preS1+S2 antigen, and core antigen(HBcAg) in the blood donors. METHODS: Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was employed to scan the humoral immune responses to HBsAg, preS1+S2 antigen, and HBcAg. Enzyme linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT) was used to check the antigen specific IFN-γ secreting cells stimulated by HBsAg, preS1+S2 antigen or HBcAg in peripheral blood mononuclear cell from blood donors. RESULTS: The prevalence of humoral immune response to preS1+S2 antigen was as high as 85.7% (48/56), compared with the lower response to HBcAg (30.4%, 17/56). In the cellular immune response, there was no difference between preS1+S2 antigen and HBcAg, both of which were stronger than the response stimulated by HBsAg. PreS1+S2 antigen or HBsAg specific humoral immune and cellular immune responses were highly correlated, which could not be observed in the HBcAg specific humoral immune and cellular immune responses(P>0.05). CONCLUSION: Either humoral or cellular immune responses to HBsAg, preS1+S2 antigen and HBcAg could be detected in the blood donors. PreS1+S2 antigen immune responses, however, were most powerful, which may suggest that PreS1+S2 antigen may be a candidate for the further HBV vaccine.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Imunidade Celular/imunologia , Imunidade Humoral/imunologia , Adulto , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/imunologia , Antígenos do Núcleo do Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/imunologia , Humanos , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Masculino , Precursores de Proteínas/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 27(1): 87-9, 2011 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21473180

RESUMO

AIM: To expand HBV special interferon-γ secreting human T lymphocytes in vitro and sustain the ability to recognize special T cell epitodes of HBcAg. METHODS: After stimulated by peptide 22 hours, feeded with autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells ( PBMCs) deproliferated by mitomycin C and low concentration of IL-2 to expand in vitro for other 4 weeks. Then cells were collected and tested by flow cells assay every week. The ability of these cells to recognize special epitodes was tested by enzyme linked immunospot assay in which autologous lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) produced from PBMC was transfected by epstein-barr virus pulsed with peptides and used as target cell. RESULTS: HBV special interferon-secreting human T lymphocytes were selected and expanded more than 1000 times in vitro. The ability of the T cells to recognize special epitodes is as same as unexpanded cells and the proportion of CD4 and CD8 positive cells likely remained native state. CONCLUSION: HBV special interferon-γ secreting T lymphocytes are effectively expanded in vitro and keep the ability to recognize stringently special T cell epotides.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Interferon gama/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , ELISPOT/métodos , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Antígenos do Núcleo do Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Herpesvirus Humano 4/imunologia , Humanos , Interleucina-2/farmacologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Mitomicina/farmacologia
12.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 30(4): 1227-31, 2009 Apr 15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19545034

RESUMO

A single-chamber and membrane-less microbial fuel cells were successfully started up using anaerobic sludge as inoculums without any chemical substance for 20 d. The electricity generation of the microbial fuel cell using surplus sludge as fuel and the change of substrate were investigated. The results showed that the obtained maximum voltage and power density were 495 mV and 44 mW x m(-2) (fixed 1,000 Omega), and the internal resistance was about 300 Omega during steady state. In a cycle, the removal efficiency of SS and VSS were 27.3% and 28.7%, pH was 6.5-8.0. In addition, the COD increased from 617 mg x L(-1) to 1,150 mg x L(-1) and decreased afterwards with time. The change of glucose was similar to that of COD, glucose increased from 47 mg x L(-1) to 60 mg x L(-1) and decreased afterwards with time. Consequently, the microbial fuel cell can transform chemical energy of surplus sludge into the cleanest electrical energy, and it provides a new way of sludge recycling.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Eletricidade , Esgotos/microbiologia , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Anaerobiose , Eletrodos , Glucose/química , Esgotos/química
13.
Yi Chuan ; 30(9): 1182-6, 2008 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18779177

RESUMO

In this study, PCR-SSCP analysis was used to identify genetic variation in IGFBP-3 gene in Chinese Merino and Kazakh sheep. A PCR product of 178 bp corresponding to partial intron1 illustrated three unique binding patterns by SSCP analysis. Frequencies of the genotype AA, AB, BB and allele A, B in Chinese Merino sheep were 0.70, 0.24, 0.06, and 0.82, 0.18 respectively , and they were 0.87, 0.13, 0.00, and 0.93, 0.07 respectively in Kazaka sheep. Sequence analysis revealed a G/T transversion at position 122 of the fragment. This polymorphic locus of IGFBP-3 gene was at Hardy-Weinberg dis-equilibrium (P<0.01) in the two breeds. Different genotypes slightly affected several wool traits of Chinese Merino sheep. The individuals of genotype AA, AB, and BB had no significant difference in post-shearing weight and clean wool rate. Sta-ple length (SL) was decreased with the genotype of AA, AB, and BB, and the difference between AA and AB was significant (P<0.01). Greasy fleece weight (GFW) and follicle density in individuals of genotype AA was significantly lower than that in individuals of genotype AB (P<0.01) and BB (P<0.05); Average fiber diameter (AFD) in individuals of genotype AA was significantly higher than that in individuals of genotype AB (P<0.01) and BB (P<0.05).


Assuntos
Genótipo , Proteína 3 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Carneiro Doméstico/genética , Lã/economia , Alelos , Animais , DNA/análise , Proteína 3 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/metabolismo
14.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 29(4): 996-1001, 2008 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18637352

RESUMO

Batch tests of anaerobic fermentative hydrogen production by Pseudomonas sp. GL1 were investigated using sterilization, microwave and ultrasonication pretreated sludge as substrate. The profiles of soluble COD, protein, carbohydrate and pH value during the fermentation process were monitored. The results showed that only hydrogen and carbon dioxide were produced and methane was not observed during the process. A maximal hydrogen yield (30.07 mL x g(-1)) and bio-hydrogen content (81.45%) were obtained from the sterilization pretreated sludge run. The shortest lag time for hydrogen production was in ultrasonication pretreated sludge run (3 h), while the longest one was in sterilization pretreated sludge run (15 h), and the medial one was in microwave pretreated sludge run (12 h). It was found that the changes of sludge substrates (soluble COD, protein, carbohydrate and pH value) were various with different pretreated sludge during the fermentation process, especially in the sterilization sludge run, which implied that the pretreatment method could affect substrate utilization by Pseudomonas sp. GL1.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Pseudomonas/metabolismo , Esgotos/química , Fermentação , Pseudomonas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Esgotos/microbiologia , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos
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