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1.
J Proteomics ; 241: 104220, 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838350

RESUMO

Animal production and health are of significant economic importance, particularly regarding the world food supply. Animal and veterinary sciences have evolved immensely in the past six decades, particularly in genetics, nutrition, housing, management and health. To address major challenges such as those posed by climate change or metabolic disorders, it is of utmost importance to use state-of-the-art research tools. Proteomics and the other post-genomic tools (transcriptomics or metabolomics) are among them. Proteomics has experienced a considerable development over the last decades. This brought developments to different scientific fields. The use and adoption of proteomics tools in animal and veterinary sciences has some limitations (database availability or access to proteomics platforms and funding). As a result, proteomics' use by animal science researchers varies across the globe. In this viewpoint article, we focus on the developments of domestic animal proteomics over the last decade in different regions of the globe and how the researchers have coped with such challenges. In the second part of the article, we provide examples of funding, educational and laboratory establishment initiatives designed to foster the development of (animal-based) proteomics. International scientific collaboration is a definitive and key feature in the development and advancement of domestic animal proteomics. SIGNIFICANCE: Animal production and health are very important for food supply worldwide particularly as a source of proteinaceous foods. Animal and veterinary sciences have evolved immensely in the last decades. In order to address the major contemporary challenges facing animal and veterinary sciences, it is of utmost importance to use state-of-the-art research tools such as Proteomics and other Omics. Herein, we focus on the major developments in domestic animal proteomics worldwide during the last decade and how different regions of the world have used the technology in this specific research field. We address also major international efforts aiming to increase the research output in this area and highlight the importance of international cooperation to address specific problems inherent to domestic animal proteomics.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769931

RESUMO

An effective person re-identification (re-ID) model should learn feature representations that are both discriminative, for distinguishing similar-looking people, and generalisable, for deployment across datasets without any adaptation. In this paper, we develop novel CNN architectures to address both challenges. First, we present a re-ID CNN termed omni-scale network (OSNet) to learn features that not only capture different spatial scales but also encapsulate a synergistic combination of multiple scales, namely omni-scale features. The basic building block consists of multiple convolutional streams, each detecting features at a certain scale. For omni-scale feature learning, a unified aggregation gate is introduced to dynamically fuse multi-scale features with channel-wise weights. OSNet is lightweight as its building blocks comprise factorised convolutions. Second, to improve generalisable feature learning, we introduce instance normalisation (IN) layers into OSNet to cope with cross-dataset discrepancies. Further, to determine the optimal placements of these IN layers in the architecture, we formulate an efficient differentiable architecture search algorithm. Extensive experiments show that, in the conventional same-dataset setting, OSNet achieves state-of-the-art performance, despite being much smaller than existing re-ID models. In the more challenging yet practical cross-dataset setting, OSNet beats most recent unsupervised domain adaptation methods without using any target data.

3.
Food Res Int ; 139: 109847, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33509470

RESUMO

Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) proteins contribute to human nutrition and health. However, differences in MFGM proteome among the buffalo breeds are unknown. In this study, MFGM proteins from Murrah, Nili-Ravi and Mediterranean buffaloes were identified using a tandem mass tag proteomic approach to characterize the components and their potential activities. A total of 1258 MFGM proteins were identified and 103 differentially expressed proteins were found in the studied buffalo breeds. Of these, toll-like receptor 2 had higher abundance in Mediterranean milk; endoplasmic reticulum resident protein 29 had higher levels in Nili-Ravi milk; uromodulin had higher abundance in Murrah milk. A number of 781 newly proteins in buffalo milk exerted antioxidant, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory activities. Our findings reveal the component complexity and functional diversity of MFGM proteins in different buffalo breeds. Thus, our data may path the way to promote raw buffalo milk as a healthy and functional dairy product.

4.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(2): 718-725, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic variants of ß-casein are cosnidered to affect the components of milk. However, limited data are available on the bovine protein components correlated with ß-casein variants at the proteome level. In the present study, cows producing milk containing ß-casein variants (A1A1 and A2A2) and their heterozygote (A1A2) were identified using a high-resolution melting method, and milk samples were collected and tested. Comparative analyses of casein micelles, whey and milk fat globule membrane fractions in each milk variant were performed using a label-free proteomics approach. RESULTS: The results obtained showed that ceruloplasmin and cathelicidin-2 were the most abundant proteins in milk containing variant A1A1; lactoferrin and CD5 molecule-like were the most abundant proteins in milk containing variant A2A2; and selenoprotein P and osteopontin were the most abundant proteins in milk containing heterozygote A1A2. Differences in protein components in milk containing the different ß-casein variants were visualized using hierarchical clustering, and profiles were separated using principal components analysis. The differentially expressed proteins in milk containing A1A1, A2A2 or A1A2 were predominantly involved in response to stress and defense response according to their Gene Ontology annotations. CONCLUSION: Our findings provide new insights into differentially expressed milk proteins corresponding to the presence of different ß-casein variants. This knowledge will help determine their potential biological functions in dairy products and the effects on human health. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Caseínas/genética , Bovinos/genética , Leite/química , Animais , Caseínas/química , Caseínas/metabolismo , Bovinos/metabolismo , Feminino , Variação Genética , Heterozigoto , Leite/metabolismo , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/química , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/genética , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/metabolismo
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(50): e23652, 2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327349

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polymorphisms in the cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) gene have been reported to be associated with coronary heart disease (CHD), but the results were not consistently analyzed among different patient groups. To derive a more precise estimation of these associations, we will conduct a meta-analysis to investigate the polymorphisms of CYP2C19 in all published studies. METHODS: Electronic databases (Google Scholar, ISI Web of Science, Pubmed, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, and China Biological Medicine) will be used to search clinical case-control or cohort studies about CYP2C19 polymorphism and CHD published until November 2020. Two reviewers will independently select the study, extract the data, and evaluate the quality of the study. Odds ratios with 95% confidence interval will be used to evaluate the strength of the association between the CYP2C19 polymorphism and CHD susceptibility under 4 genetic models. Subgroup analysis will be conducted by different ethnicity and genotyping method. Sensitivity analysis will be performed via sequentially omitting each of the included studies 1 at a time. Begg funnel plots and Egger test will be used to examine the potential publication bias. All the statistical analyses will be performed using Review Manager 5.3 and Stata 12.0. RESULTS: This study will provide a better understanding of the association between CYP2C19 polymorphisms and coronary heart disease risk. CONCLUSION: The publication of this protocol will minimize the possibility of bias due to post hoc changes to the analysis protocol, thus helping to obtain reliable evidence. OSF REGISTRATION NUMBER: DOI 10.17605/OSF.IO/R7U93.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C19/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Doença das Coronárias/etnologia , Grupos Étnicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença/etnologia , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo Genético , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Risco , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto/métodos
6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 19626, 2020 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33184404

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the most common malignant tumor in China and even in the world. DNA repair genes can lead to tumor metastasis by affecting cancer cell resistance. Studies have preliminarily shown that DNA repair genes are related to breast cancer metastasis, but it is not clear whether they can be used as a prediction of the risk of breast cancer metastasis. Therefore, this study mainly discusses the predictive value of DNA repair genes in postoperative metastasis of breast cancer. The nested case-control method was used in patients with breast cancer metastasis after surgery (n = 103) and patients without metastasis after surgery (n = 103). The proteins and mRNA of DNA repair genes were detected by immunohistochemistry and Real-time PCR respectively. In protein expression, PARP1 (OR 1.147, 95% CI 1.067 ~ 1.233, P < 0.05), XRCC4 (OR 1.088, 95% CI 1.015 ~ 1.166, P < 0.05), XRCC1 (OR 1.114, 95% CI 1.021 ~ 1.215, P < 0.05), ERCC1 (OR 1.068, 95% CI 1.000 ~ 1.141, P < 0.10) were risk factors for postoperative metastasis of breast cancer. In addition, we used the ROC curve to study the optimal critical values of MSH2, MLH1, PARP1, XRCC1, XRCC4, 53BP1, ERCC1 and XPA combined with the Youden index, and the effects of MSH2, MLH1, PARP1, XRCC1, XRCC4, 53BP1, ERCC1 and XPA on breast cancer metastasis were verified again. Among them, the risk of metastasis in the PARP1 high expression group was 3.286 times that of the low expression group (OR 3.286, 95% CI 2.013 ~ 5.364, P < 0.05). The risk of metastasis in the XRCC4 high expression group was 1.779 times that of the low expression group (OR 1.779, 95% CI 1.071 ~ 2.954, P < 0.05). The risk of metastasis in patients with ERCC1 high expression group was 2.012 times that of the low expression group (OR 2.012, 95% CI 1.056 ~ 3.836, P < 0.05). So we can conclude that protein expression of PARP1 (cut-off value = 6, Se = 76.70%, Sp = 79.61%), XRCC4 (cut-off value = 6, Se = 78.64%0, Se = 79.61%), ERCC1 (cut-off value = 3, Se = 89.32%, Sp = 50.49%), suggesting that when the PARP1 score is higher than 6 or the XRCC4 score is higher than 6 or the ERCC1 score is higher than 3, the risk of metastasis will increases. Due to PARP1, XRCC4 and ERCC1 belong to a part of DNA repair gene system, and the three proteins are positively correlated by correlation analysis (rPARP1-XRCC4 = 0.343; rPAPR1-ERCC1 = 0.335; rXRCC4-ERCC1 = 0.388). The combined diagnosis of the PARR1, XRCC4 and ERCC1 have greater predictive value for the risk of metastasis of breast cancer (Se = 94.17%, Sp = 75.73%; OR 11.739, 95% CI 2.858 ~ 40.220, P < 0.05). The postoperative metastasis of breast cancer could be effectively predicted when the immunohistochemical scores met PARP1 (IHC score) > 6, XRCC4 (IHC score) > 6 and ERCC1 (IHC score) > 3. In addition, the combined diagnosis of PARP1, XRCC4 and ERCC1 has great predictive value for the risk of breast cancer metastasis.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026989

RESUMO

Given pixel-level annotated data, traditional photo segmentation techniques have achieved promising results. However, these photo segmentation models can only identify objects in categories for which data annotation and training have been carried out. This limitation has inspired recent work on few-shot and zero-shot learning for image segmentation. In this paper, we show the value of sketch for photo segmentation, in particular as a transferable representation to describe a concept to be segmented. We show, for the first time, that it is possible to generate a photo-segmentation model of a novel category using just a single sketch and furthermore exploit the unique fine-grained characteristics of sketch to produce more detailed segmentation. More specifically, we propose a sketch-based photo segmentation method that takes sketch as input and synthesizes the weights required for a neural network to segment the corresponding region of a given photo. Our framework can be applied at both the category-level and the instance-level, and fine-grained input sketches provide more accurate segmentation in the latter. This framework generalizes across categories via sketch and thus provides an alternative to zero-shot learning when segmenting a photo from a category without annotated training data. To investigate the instance-level relationship across sketch and photo, we create the SketchySeg dataset which contains segmentation annotations for photos corresponding to paired sketches in the Sketchy Dataset.

8.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 148(3): 1337, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33003871

RESUMO

Conventional compressive beamforming assumes that the acoustic sources fall on the discretized grid points. The performance degrades when the acoustic source lies off the discretized grid point, that is, when the basis mismatch occurs. This paper proposes a two-dimensional Newtonized orthogonal matching pursuit compressive beamforming, including single and multiple snapshot versions, which constructs the maximum likelihood estimation model, taking the position and strength of sources on a two-dimensional continuous plane as parameters. This method first captures the grid point near the source based on the discrete grid. Then it optimizes the coordinate estimation within the local continuous plane by a combination of the two-dimensional Newton optimization and a feedback mechanism to converge to the actual source position. It allows acoustic source identification in the near field utilizing arbitrary geometry planar array and works without the prior knowledge of signal-to-noise ratio and/or regularization parameters. Simulations and experiments show that the proposed method can overcome the basis mismatch issue and provide high spatial resolution, obtaining an accurate estimation for the position and strength of the acoustic source. Moreover, the multiple snapshot version outperforms the single snapshot version, especially under low signal-to-noise ratio. The larger the number of snapshots, the better the performance.

9.
Animals (Basel) ; 10(6)2020 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32486279

RESUMO

ß-casein is a primary protein in milk, and its variants have been associated with changes in the protein content of bovine milk. However, there has been little research focused on the effects of ß-casein variants on milk metabolites. In the present study, dairy cows producing milk with ß-casein variant A1/A1 (A1), A2/A2 (A2), and their heterozygote A1/A2 (A12) were screened by a high-resolution melting method. Individual milk samples were then collected from each of the cows, and the milk metabolites were separated and analyzed using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy- and liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry-based metabolomics techniques. Differences in metabolites among the variant groups were evaluated by multivariate statistical analysis. The relative abundances of methionine, proline, and α-lactose were the highest in ß-casein variant A2 milk, whereas choline, glycine, citric acid, and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) showed the highest abundances in variant A1 milk. Metabolic pathways analysis indicated that the differential metabolites between variants A1 and A2 were involved in pantothenate and coenzyme A biosynthesis, butanoate metabolism, and valine, leucine, and isoleucine biosynthesis. Our results reveal the differences in milk metabolites among the ß-casein variants A1, A2, and the heterozygote. These findings, thus, provide novel insights into the effects of ß-casein variants on milk metabolites, facilitating further research into the mechanism of the biosynthesis of milk components in the mammary gland and the potential physiological function of milk associated with ß-casein variants.

10.
J Med Genet ; 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early-onset scoliosis (EOS), defined by an onset age of scoliosis less than 10 years, conveys significant health risk to affected children. Identification of the molecular aetiology underlying patients with EOS could provide valuable information for both clinical management and prenatal screening. METHODS: In this study, we consecutively recruited a cohort of 447 Chinese patients with operative EOS. We performed exome sequencing (ES) screening on these individuals and their available family members (totaling 670 subjects). Another cohort of 13 patients with idiopathic early-onset scoliosis (IEOS) from the USA who underwent ES was also recruited. RESULTS: After ES data processing and variant interpretation, we detected molecular diagnostic variants in 92 out of 447 (20.6%) Chinese patients with EOS, including 8 patients with molecular confirmation of their clinical diagnosis and 84 patients with molecular diagnoses of previously unrecognised diseases underlying scoliosis. One out of 13 patients with IEOS from the US cohort was molecularly diagnosed. The age at presentation, the number of organ systems involved and the Cobb angle were the three top features predictive of a molecular diagnosis. CONCLUSION: ES enabled the molecular diagnosis/classification of patients with EOS. Specific clinical features/feature pairs are able to indicate the likelihood of gaining a molecular diagnosis through ES.

11.
Food Res Int ; 128: 108760, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955735

RESUMO

Milk yield and several components of milk that are affected by physiological factors have been widely investigated. However, the effects of lactation stage and parity on bovine milk whey proteins have not been well elucidated. To aid in unraveling the proteome profile and exploring the protein biosynthesis of mammary glands, a label-free proteomic approach was used to characterize whey proteomes depending on the lactation stage and parity of dairy cows. The results of this study show that the abundances of several proteins, such as early lactation protein, syntenin, and heparanase, were associated with specific stages of the lactation cycle; this was evidenced by a principal component analysis. In addition, several proteins, such as hemoglobin subunits beta and alpha, ß-lactoglobulin, CD320, and apolipoprotein E, corresponded to the parity of the dairy cows and were herein considered as useful biomarkers to distinguish different parities. Most of the differentially expressed proteins from specific lactation stages and parity milk groups were annotated in the response to stimulus and protein metabolic processes. The findings reveal that developmental changes in whey proteomes correspond to lactation stages and parities, which in turn provides new insight into the underlying implications of the production of specific proteins to meet the health benefits of offspring and host, and allow us to explore the mechanisms of protein biosynthesis in mammary glands associated with physiological changes in dairy cows.

12.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 454, 2020 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31949201

RESUMO

The periodic regrowth of rabbit fur is economically important. Here, we aimed to characterise the histological traits and microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles in the skin tissue of Wan Strain Angora rabbits at different weeks after plucking. Haematoxylin-eosin staining showed that hair follicles were in the telogen phase in the first week, while they were in the anagen phase from the fourth to twenty-fourth weeks. In addition, two small RNA libraries derived from skin samples of Wan Strain Angora rabbits at telogen and anagen stages yielded over 24 million high-quality reads. Specifically, 185 miRNAs were differentially expressed between the telogen and anagen phases. The function of the differentially expressed miRNAs was explored by comparing them with known mammalian miRNAs and by Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis of their predicted targets. Five new functional miRNAs were validated using quantitative real-time PCR. Moreover, the fibroblast growth factor 5 (FGF5) gene was verified to be a target of conservative_NC_013672.1_9290 and conservative_NC_013675.1_10734. We investigated differential miRNA profiles between the telogen and anagen phases of the hair cycle and our findings provide a basis for future studies focusing on the mechanisms of miRNA-mediated regulation of rabbit hair follicle cycling.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs/genética , Pele/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pele/metabolismo , Animais , Folículo Piloso/metabolismo , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Coelhos
13.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 19131, 2019 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31836784

RESUMO

Bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMECs) are the main cells of the dairy cow mammary gland. In addition to their role in milk production, they are effector cells of mammary immunity. However, there is little information about changes in metabolites of bMECs when stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This study describes a metabolomics analysis of the LPS-stimulated bMECs to provide a basis for the identification of potential diagnostic screening biomarkers and possible treatments for bovine mammary gland inflammation. In the present study, bMECs were challenged with 500 ng/mL LPS and samples were taken at 0 h, 12 h and 24 h post stimulation. Metabolic changes were investigated using high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-Q-TOF MS) with univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. Clustering and metabolic pathway changes were established by MetaboAnalyst. Sixty-three differential metabolites were identified, including glycerophosphocholine, glycerol-3-phosphate, L-carnitine, L-aspartate, glutathione, prostaglandin G2, α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid. They were mainly involved in eight pathways, including D-glutamine and D-glutamic acid metabolism; linoleic acid metabolism; α-linolenic metabolism; and phospholipid metabolism. The results suggest that bMECs are able to regulate pro-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory, antioxidation and energy-producing related metabolites through lipid, antioxidation and energy metabolism in response to inflammatory stimuli.

14.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12073, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427626

RESUMO

Compressive beamforming is a powerful approach for the direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation and strength quantification of acoustic sources. The conventional grid-based discrete compressive beamformer suffers from the basis mismatch conundrum. Its result degrades under the situation that sources fall off the grid. The existing continuous compressive beamformer with linear or planar microphone arrays can circumvent the conundrum, but work well only for sources in a local region. Here we develop a panoramic continuous compressive beamformer with cuboid microphone arrays based on an atomic norm minimization (ANM) and a matrix pencil and paring method. To solve the positive semidefinite programming equivalent to the ANM efficiently, we formulate a solving algorithm based on the alternating direction method of multipliers. We also present an iterative reweighted ANM to enhance sparsity and resolution. The beamformer is capable of estimating the DOAs and quantifying the strengths of acoustic sources panoramically and accurately, whether a standard uniform or a sparse cuboid microphone array is utilized.

15.
Materials (Basel) ; 12(12)2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234381

RESUMO

Elevated temperature exposure has a negative effect on the performance of the matrix resin in Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP) plates, whereas limited quantitative research focuses on the deteriorations. Therefore, 30 CFRP specimens were designed and tested under elevated temperatures (10, 30, 50, 70, and 90 °C) to explore the degradations in tensile properties. The effect of temperature on the failure mode, stress-strain curve, tensile strength, elastic modulus and elongation of CFRP plates were investigated. The results showed that elevated temperature exposure significantly changed the failure characteristics. When the exposed temperature increased from 10 °C to 90 °C, the failure mode changed from the global factures in the whole CFRP plate to the successive fractures in carbon fibers. Moreover, with temperatures increasing, tensile strength and elongation of CFRP plates decreases gradually while the elastic modulus shows negligible change. Finally, the results of One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) show that the degradation of the tensile strength of CFRP plates was due to the impact of elevated temperature exposure, rather than the test error.

17.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 13: 124, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31024279

RESUMO

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2016.00004.].

18.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 13: 125, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31024280

RESUMO

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2015.00098.].

19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(8)2019 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31018599

RESUMO

To achieve effective communication in ad hoc sensor networks, researchers have been working on finding a minimum connected dominating set (MCDS) as a virtual backbone network in practice. Presently, many approximate algorithms have been proposed to construct MCDS, the best among which is adopting the two-stage idea, that is, to construct a maximum independent set (MIS) firstly and then realize the connectivity through the Steiner tree construction algorithm. For the first stage, this paper proposes an improved collaborative coverage algorithm for solving maximum independent set (IC-MIS), which expands the selection of the dominating point from two-hop neighbor to three-hop neighbor. The coverage efficiency has been improved under the condition of complete coverage. For the second stage, this paper respectively proposes an improved Kruskal-Steiner tree construction algorithm (IK-ST) and a maximum leaf nodes Steiner tree construction algorithm (ML-ST), both of which can make the result closer to the optimal solution. Finally, the simulation results show that the algorithm proposed in this paper is a great improvement over the previous algorithm in optimizing the scale of the connected dominating set (CDS).

20.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 140, 2019 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30770723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hair fibre length is an important economic trait of rabbits in fur production. However, molecular mechanisms regulating rabbit hair growth have remained elusive. RESULTS: Here we aimed to characterise the skin traits and gene expression profiles of short-hair and long-hair rabbits by histological and transcriptome analyses. Haematoxylin-eosin staining was performed to observe the histological structure of the skin of short-hair and long-hair rabbits. Compared to that in short-hair rabbits, a significantly longer anagen phase was observed in long-hair rabbits. In addition, by RNA sequencing, we identified 951 genes that were expressed at significantly different levels in the skin of short-hair and long-hair rabbits. Nine significantly differentially expressed genes were validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. A gene ontology analysis revealed that epidermis development, hair follicle development, and lipid metabolic process were significantly enriched. Further, we identified potential functional genes regulating follicle development, lipid metabolic, and apoptosis as well as important pathways including extracellular matrix-receptor interaction and basal cell carcinoma pathway. CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides transcriptome evidence for the differences in hair growth between short-hair and long-hair rabbits and reveals that lipid metabolism and apoptosis might constitute major factors contributing to hair length.


Assuntos
Cabelo/anatomia & histologia , Cabelo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Coelhos/anatomia & histologia , Coelhos/genética , Pele/anatomia & histologia , Transcriptoma , Processamento Alternativo , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Epiderme/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Epiderme/metabolismo , Feminino , Folículo Piloso/anatomia & histologia , Folículo Piloso/fisiologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele
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