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1.
Chemosphere ; 248: 126014, 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995737

RESUMO

Microbial fuel cell constructed wetlands (CW-MFCs) with different circuit operation conditions and hydraulic retention time (HRT) were constructed to evaluate their ability to remove and accumulate pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) (sulfadiazine (SDZ), carbamazepine (CBZ), naproxen (NPX) and ibuprofen (IBP)) during four months running process. The abundance level of corresponding sulfonamide antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) was also investigated. The results showed that closed circuit operation of CW-MFC contributed to the decrease in mass loading of COD, NH4+-N, PPCPs, and wastewater toxicity in the effluent. Additionally, closed circuit operation with low HRT contributed to enhancing selected PPCP mass accumulation on electrodes by electro-adsorption, and thus the higher sulfonamide ARG abundance was detected in the electrodes and effluent. Moreover, the composition of bacteria was greatly influenced by the mass accumulation of PPCPs revealed by redundancy analysis results. Procrustes analysis results further demonstrated that bacterial community contributed greatly to the ARGs profiles. Therefore, ARGs with their host bacteria revealed by network analysis were partially deposited on electrode substrates, and thus ARGs were effectively accumulated on electrodes. Function analysis of the bacterial community from PICRUSt predicted metagenomes revealed that closed circuit mode enhanced the abundances of the function genes of metabolic and the multiple ARGs, suggesting that closed circuit operation exhibited positive effects on metabolic process and ARG accumulation in CW-MFC system.

2.
Bioresour Technol ; 296: 122290, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677404

RESUMO

Three-dimensional biofilm electrode reactors (3D-BERs) with high treatment efficiency were constructed to treat wastewater containing sulfadiazine (SDZ) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) coexposure with Zinc (Zn). The results showed that coexposure to target antibiotics and Zn increased the absolute and relative abundances of target antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Additionally, the target ARG abundances were higher on cathode of 3D-BER compared with ordinary anaerobic reactor while the abundances of total ARGs were decreased in the effluent. Meanwhile, redundancy analysis results revealed that the composition of bacteria carrying ARGs was greatly influenced in the cathode by the accumulation of Zn and antibiotic, which dominated the changes of ARG abundances. Additionally, ARGs with their host bacteria revealed by network analysis were partially deposited on electrode substrates when being removed from wastewater. Thus, 3D-BER exhibits capability of simultaneously eliminating antibiotic and Zn, and greatly reduces the risks of ARGs spread.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Ciprofloxacino , Bactérias , Biofilmes , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Eletrodos , Genes Bacterianos , Características de Residência , Sulfadiazina , Águas Residuárias , Zinco
3.
Bioresour Technol ; 296: 122352, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708385

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to study reverse solute flux (RSF) from osmotic membrane bioreactor (OMBR) and consequent solute buildup in the feed side. A polyelectrolyte (PAA-Na) served as a draw solute (DS) to minimize RSF in OMBRs. In addition, a bioelectrochemical system (BES) was employed to drive accumulated cations from the feed/anode side into the cathode compartment, subsequently achieving PAA-Na DS recovery with the aid of high catholyte pH. Compared to the 1 M NH4HCO3 DS, the 0.48 g mL-1 PAA-Na DS produced consistently stable water flux, enhanced water recovery and increased ammonium removal efficiency. Due to a dynamic balance between PAA removal and continuing RSF, the residual PAA concentration was 72 mg L-1 on the feed side (27.0% of TOC). These results demonstrate the advantages of integrating a PAA-Na DS with a BES to mitigate RSF and to support further development of OMBR technology.


Assuntos
Polieletrólitos , Purificação da Água , Reatores Biológicos , Membranas , Membranas Artificiais , Osmose
4.
Theranostics ; 9(22): 6396-6411, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588225

RESUMO

Effective therapeutic targets against post-myocardial infarction (MI) arrhythmias remain to be discovered. We aimed to investigate the role of macrophages in post-MI arrhythmias. Methods: Mononuclear cell accumulation, macrophage polarization from M0 to M1 subset, and gap junction formation were analyzed in MI patients and MI mice by flow cytometry, immunofluorescence and patch clamping. Differentially expressed genes were identified by RNA sequencing. Macrophages and cardiomyocytes were cocultured in vitro, and the effects of gap junction and KCa3.1 on electrophysiological properties were assessed by patch clamping. The effects of KCa3.1 inhibition on post-MI arrhythmias were assessed by intracardiac stimulation and ambulatory electrocardiograms in vivo. Results: Percentage of pro-inflammatory mononuclear cells were significantly elevated in patients with post-MI arrhythmias compared with MI patients without arrhythmias and healthy controls (p<0.001). Macrophages formed gap junction with cardiomyocytes in MI border zones of MI patient and mice, and pro-inflammatory macrophages were significantly increased 3 days post-MI (p<0.001). RNA sequencing identified Kcnn4 as the most differentially expressed gene encoding ion channel, and the upregulation is mainly attributed to macrophage accumulation and polarization into pro-inflammatory subset. In vitro coculture experiments demonstrated that connection with M0 macrophages via gap junction slightly shortened the action potential durations (APDs) of cardiomyocytes. However, the APD90 of cardiomyocytes connected with M1 macrophages were significantly prolonged (p<0.001), which were effectively attenuated by gap junction inhibition (p=0.002), KCa3.1 inhibition (p=0.008), KCa3.1 silencing (p<0.001) and store-operated Ca2+ channel inhibition (p=0.005). In vivo results demonstrated that KCa3.1 inhibition significantly decreased the QTc durations (p=0.031), intracardiac stimulation-induced ventricular arrhythmia durations (p=0.050) and incidence of premature ventricular contractions (p=0.030) in MI mice. Conclusion: Macrophage polarization leads to APD heterogeneity and post-MI arrhythmias via gap junction and KCa3.1 activation. The results provide evidences of a novel mechanism of post-MI heterogeneous repolarization and arrhythmias, rendering macrophages and KCa3.1 to be potential therapeutic targets.

5.
Water Res ; 165: 114988, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442759

RESUMO

This study assessed the influence of substrate type on pollutants removal, antibiotic resistance gene (ARG) fate and bacterial community evolution in up-flow microbial fuel cell constructed wetlands (UCW-MFC) with graphite and Mn ore electrode substrates. Better COD removal and higher bacterial community diversity and electricity generation performance were achieved in Mn ore constructed UCW-MFC (Mn). However, the lower concentration of sulfadiazine (SDZ) and the total abundances of ARGs were obtained in the effluent in the graphite constructed UCW-MFC (s), which may be related to higher graphite adsorption and filter capacity. Notably, both reactors can remove more than 97.8% of ciprofloxacin. In addition, significant negative correlations were observed between SDZ, COD concentration, ARG abundances and bacterial a-diversity indices. The LEfse analysis revealed significantly different bacterial communities due to the substrate differences in the two reactors, and Geobacter, a typical model electro-active bacteria (EAB), was greatly enriched on the anode of UCW-MFC (Mn). In contrast, the relative abundance of methanogens (Methanosaeta) was inhibited. PICRUSt analysis results further demonstrated that the abundance of extracellular electron transfer related functional genes was increased, but the methanogen function genes and multiple antibiotic resistance genes in UCW-MFC (Mn) anode were reduced. Redundancy analyses indicated that substrate type, antibiotic accumulation and bacterial community were the main factors affecting ARGs. Moreover, the potential ARG hosts and the co-occurrence of ARGs and intI1 were revealed by network analysis.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Grafite , Antibacterianos , Bactérias , Eletrodos , Águas Residuárias , Áreas Alagadas
6.
Chemosphere ; 217: 599-608, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30445405

RESUMO

This study aims to demonstrate that an up-flow microbial fuel cell-coupled constructed wetland (UCW-MFC) can effectively treat synthetic wastewater that contains a high concentration of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs, 10 mg L-1 level), such as ibuprofen (IBP) and bisphenol A (BPA). A significant decline in chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N) removal was observed when BPA was added, which indicated that BPA was more toxic to bacteria. The closed circuit operation of UCW-MFC performed better than the open circuit mode for COD and NH4+-N removal. Similarly, the removal rates of IBP and BPA were increased by 9.3% and 18%, respectively, compared with the open circuit mode. The majority of PPCPs were removed from the bottom and anode layer, which accounted for 63.2-78.7% of the total removal. The main degradation products were identified. The removal rates of IBP and BPA decreased by 14.6% and 23.7% due to a reduction in the hydraulic detention times (HRTs) from 16 h to 4 h, respectively. Electricity generation performance, including voltage and maximum power density, initially increased and then declined with a decrease in the HRT. Additionally, both the current circuit operation mode and the HRT have an impact on the bacterial community diversity of the anode according to the results of high-throughput sequencing. The possible bacterial groups involved in PPCP degradation were identified. In summary, UCW-MFC is suitable for enabling the simultaneous removal of IBP and BPA and successful electricity production.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/química , Ibuprofeno/química , Microbiota , Fenóis/química , Purificação da Água/métodos , Áreas Alagadas , Bactérias/metabolismo , Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica/microbiologia , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Eletricidade , Águas Residuárias/química
7.
Materials (Basel) ; 11(8)2018 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30065194

RESUMO

Bitumen ageing is a very complex process and poses a threat to the performance of pavements. In the present work, a fluorescence spectrophotometer was employed to research the change rule of components and the structure of bitumen after the ageing process. The Thin Film Oven Test (TFOT) and Ultraviolet (UV) light treatment were carried out as ageing methods. The properties and components of bitumen were tested before and after aging. The 2D and 3D fluorescence spectra of bitumen were analyzed. The vector of fluorescence peak was calculated for evaluating the ageing process. The results indicated that the ideal concentration of bitumen- tetrachloromethane solution was 0.1 g/L or smaller for avoiding the fluorescence quenching. The coordinates of fluorescent peak appeared "blue-shift" after ageing due to the change of aromatics. In addition, bitumen has already occurred serious ageing when the magnitude of a vector is more than 36.

8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 162: 376-382, 2018 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30015182

RESUMO

A previous study revealed that the electrolytic stimulation process in bio-electrochemical reactors (BER) can accelerate growth of sulfadiazine (SDZ) antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) in nutrient broth medium. However, the influence of different medium nutrient richness on the fate of ARB and the relative abundance of their corresponding antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in this process is unknown. Specifically, it is not clear if the fate of ARB in minimal nutrition simulated wastewater is the same as in nutrient broth under electrolytic stimulation. Therefore, in this study, nutrient broth medium and the simulated wastewater were compared to identify differences in the relative abundance of Klebsiella michiganensis LH-2 ARGs in response to the electrolytic stimulation process, as well as the fate of the strain in simulated wastewater. Lower biomass, specific growth rates and viable bacterial counts were obtained in response to the application of increasing current to simulated wastewater medium. Furthermore, the percentage of ARB lethality, which was reflected by flow cytometry analysis, increased with current in the medium. A significant positive correlation of sul genes and intI gene relative abundance versus current was also observed in nutrient broth. However, a significant negative correlation was observed in simulated wastewater because of the higher metabolic burden, which may have led to decreased ARB viability. Further investigation showed that the decrease in ARGs abundance was responsible for decreased strain tolerance to SDZ in simulated wastewater. These results reveal that minimal nutrition simulated wastewater may reduce ARB and ARGs propagation in BER.


Assuntos
Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Klebsiella/efeitos dos fármacos , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Reatores Biológicos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Eletrólise/métodos , Genes Bacterianos , Klebsiella/genética , Purificação da Água/métodos
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 637-638: 295-305, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29751310

RESUMO

A continuous flow microbial fuel cell constructed wetland (MFC-CW) coupled with a biofilm electrode reactor (BER) system was constructed to remove sulfamethoxazole (SMX). The BER unit powered by the stacked MFC-CWs was used as a pretreatment unit, and effluent flowed into the MFC-CW for further degradation. The experimental results indicated that the removal rate of 2 or 4 mg/L SMX in a BER unit was nearly 90%, and the total removal rate in the coupled system was over 99%. As the hydraulic retention time (HRT) was reduced from 16 h to 4 h, the SMX removal rate in the BER decreased from 75% to 48%. However, the total removal rate in the coupled system was still over 97%. The maximum SMX removal rate in the MFC-CW, which accounted for 42%-55% of the total removal, was obtained in the anode layer. In addition, the relative abundances of sul genes detected in the systems were in the order of sulI > sulII > sulIII, and significant positive correlations of sul gene copy numbers versus SMX concentration and 16S rRNA gene copy numbers were observed. Furthermore, significant negative correlations were identified between sul genes, 16S rRNA gene copy numbers, and HRT. The abundances of the sul genes in the effluent of the MFC-CW were lower than the abundances observed in the BER effluent. High-throughput sequencing revealed that the microbial community diversity of the BER was affected by running time, power supply forms and HRT. Bio-electricity from the MFC-CW may reduce microbial community diversity and contribute to reduction of the antibiotic resistance gene (ARG) abundance in the BER. Taken together, the BER-MFC-CW coupled system is a potential tool to treat wastewater containing SMX and attenuate corresponding ARG abundance.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Eletrodos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Águas Residuárias , Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Sulfametoxazol
10.
Chemosphere ; 203: 434-441, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29635154

RESUMO

The intensive use of antibiotics results in their continuous release into the environment and the subsequent widespread dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), thus posing potential risks for public health. Although vertical up-flow constructed wetlands (VUF-CWs) have been widely used to treat wastewater in remote or rural regions, few studies have assessed the potential risks of ARG dissemination when VUF-CWs are applied to treat wastewaters containing antibiotics. In this study, the removal performance of two typical antibiotics (sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and tetracycline (TC)) and the fate of ARGs were evaluated in three lab-scale VUF-CWs. The results indicated that high removal efficiencies (>98%) could be achieved for both SMX and TC. However, the exposure of antibiotics resulted in harboring abundant ARGs (mainly sul- and tet-related genes), even with increasing abundances with operation time. The abundances of ARGs had a positive correlation with the accumulation of SMX and TC in different layers of VUF-CWs, where the tet and sul genes have the highest abundance in the bottom layer due to the highest antibiotic exposure concentration. Positive correlations were observed between the abundance of tet gene and antibiotic concentration in effluent. Although the effluent had lower abundances of the ARGs than that in the wetland media, the occurrence of ARGs in effluent might still pose risk for public health. Further studies are required to explore effective control strategies to eliminate ARGs from VUF-CWs.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Águas Residuárias/química , Áreas Alagadas , Genes Bacterianos , Sulfametoxazol/análise , Tetraciclina/análise , Águas Residuárias/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
11.
Int J Ophthalmol ; 10(7): 1021-1027, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28730101

RESUMO

AIM: To explore the possibility of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs), human umbilical vein endothelial cells (hUVECs), human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) and human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) serving as feeder cells in co-culture systems for the cultivation of limbal stem cells. METHODS: Different feeder layers were cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM)/F12 and were treated with mitomycin C. Rabbits limbal stem cells (LSCs) were co-cultured on hUCMSCs, hUVECs, hDPSCs, hPDLSCs and NIH-3T3, and then comparative analysis were made between each group to see their respective colony-forming efficiency (CFE) assay and immunofluorescence (IPO13,CK3/12). RESULTS: The efficiency of the four type cells in supporting the LSCs morphology and its cellular differentiation was similar to that of NIH-3T3 fibroblasts as demonstrated by the immunostaining properties analysis, with each group exhibiting a similar strong expression pattern of IPO13, but lacking CK3 and CK12 expression in terms of immunostaining. But hUCMSCs, hDPSCs and hPDLSCs feeder layers were superior in promoting colony formation potential of cells when compared to hUVECs and feeder-cell-free culture. CONCLUSION: hUCMSCs, hDPSCs and hPDLSCs can be a suitable alternative to conventional mouse NIH-3T3 feeder cells, so that risk of zoonotic infection can be diminished.

13.
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi ; 44(1): 42-5, 2008 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18510242

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate clinical manifestation, diagnosis and treatment of orbital natural killer (NK)-T cell lymphoma. METHODS: It was a retrospective case series. Seven orbital NK-T cell lymphoma patients confirmed by surgical biopsies were collected during the past 22 years. We reviewed the records, surgical and treatment procedures. Surgical specimens were studied with HE staining, immunohistochemical staining and molecular biological analysis. RESULTS: These patients had proptosis, eye motive inhibition or fixation and visual acuity was decreased or even without light perception. Skin of inner canthus and eyelids appeared red and swollen, with ulceration and cavity formation. CT scan revealed that the tumor showed uneven density and an unclear border. Tremendous lymphocyte infiltration and tissue necrosis in the tumor were observed in the biopsy tissue. LCA, CD45RO and CD57 immunohistochemical staining revealed positive results. Clonal T-cell-receptor gene rearrangements of two patients showed negative results and the Epstein-Barr virus was detected. CONCLUSIONS: Orbital NK-T cell lymphoma is a rare disease. The characteristics of this disease include a highly aggressive clinical course, severe destruction and a poor prognosis. The final diagnosis depends on HE staining, immunohistochemical staining and molecular biological examination.


Assuntos
Linfoma de Células T/patologia , Células T Matadoras Naturais , Neoplasias Orbitárias/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Rearranjo Gênico do Linfócito T , Humanos , Linfoma de Células T/genética , Linfoma de Células T/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Orbitárias/genética , Neoplasias Orbitárias/imunologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Foot Ankle Surg ; 44(4): 259-64, 2005.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16012431

RESUMO

Defects in the distal third of the lower leg with bone or tendon exposure may require local or free flap reconstruction. For small and moderate lesions, the distally pedicled peroneus brevis muscle flap may be an effective procedure with less morbidity than a free tissue transfer. Six cadaveric specimens were dissected to determine the location of distal pedicles and the flap type. This flap was found to be a Type IV flap, and the location of distal pedicle was always located within 6 cm from the fibula tip. This flap was performed on 6 patients to cover defects in the distal third of the lower leg. The defect areas were the pretibial region in 2 cases, the lateral malleolus in 3 cases, and the Achilles tendon in 1 case. The peroneus brevis muscle was detached from the uppermost point of the fibula to obtain enough length to cover the defect. All flaps survived except 1 that experienced distal flap necrosis. Minor complications included skin graft failure in 2 cases. However, the final results demonstrated a smooth contour that eliminated dead space. Limited donor site morbidity was obtained in all cases. The distally peroneus brevis muscle flap therefore offers an alternative for reconstructive surgeons dealing with soft tissue defects of the lower leg.


Assuntos
Úlcera da Perna/cirurgia , Músculo Esquelético/cirurgia , Retalhos Cirúrgicos , Adolescente , Idoso , Cadáver , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/patologia
15.
Ann Plast Surg ; 53(4): 343-7, 2004 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15385768

RESUMO

Pressure sores in the ischial and the trochanteric regions are usually encountered in long-term bedridden and wheelchair-dependent patients. A number of techniques have been developed for the reconstruction of pressure sores. Tensor fasciae latae musculocutaneous flap has been extensively employed to close the trochanteric defect. Despite its utility of having a constant pedicle and proximal bulky muscle, the relative shortness of the flap and insufficient padding in the distal portion limit the applications for distant locations of pressure sores. From January 2001 to December 2003, 8 patients with ischial and trochanteric pressure sores underwent tensor fasciae latae reconstruction in combination with tangentially split vastus lateralis muscle. The descending branches of the lateral circumflex femoral arteries were also included in these flaps. All of the procedures have been successful, and no flap necrosis has been observed. Sufficient bulk of the flap and reliable distal skin paddle constitute the advantages of this flap.


Assuntos
Fascia Lata/transplante , Músculo Esquelético/transplante , Lesão por Pressão/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Transplante de Pele/métodos , Retalhos Cirúrgicos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
Ann Plast Surg ; 51(4): 372-5, 2003 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14520064

RESUMO

Gout is a condition characterized by the deposition of monosodium urate crystals in the joints or soft tissue. A gouty tophus occasionally mimics an infectious or neoplastic process. However, the conventional enucleating procedure might cause complications. In severe cases, skin necrosis and tendon or joint exposure can occur after debridements. In this series, the soft-tissue shaver is used for deformity management of the chronic tophaceous patients and the results are encouraging. From November 2000 to August 2002, 17 patients with chronic tophaceous gout were treated by the shaver technique. Suction and irrigation were performed simultaneously while the shaver was operating, and chalky deposits of sodium urate could be removed efficiently. Skin necrosis was minimized by means of proper incision planning. Also, bedside debridements and wound wet dressing were helpful for improving the outcomes. The families and patients were satisfied with the results. In conclusion, severe chronic tophaceous gout can be a surgical challenge. The soft-tissue shaving technique can be useful for cosmetic debulking of large tophi in patients with advanced chronic tophaceous gouty arthritis.


Assuntos
Deformidades Adquiridas do Pé/cirurgia , Gota/cirurgia , Procedimentos Ortopédicos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença Crônica , Desbridamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Kaohsiung J Med Sci ; 19(4): 188-92, 2003 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12795349

RESUMO

Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a common cancer. Although most patients with primary cutaneous SCC have an excellent prognosis, for those with metastatic disease, the long-term prognosis is poor. The most common sites of metastasis are regional lymph nodes, lung, liver, brain, skin, and bone. However, metastatic soft tissue SCC from cutaneous lesions is extremely rare, with only two reported cases. We report a case in which the patient had a primary SCC lesion on his left palm in 1986. A second primary SCC on his left forearm was confirmed in 2001, with subsequent metastasis to the proximal muscles and bone invasion in spite of the initial wide excision.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/secundário , Neoplasias Musculares/secundário , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Musculares/patologia , Músculo Esquelético/patologia
18.
Ann Plast Surg ; 49(6): 559-66, 2002 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12461435

RESUMO

The gross anatomy of varicose veins is one of the most important factors in the study of varicosity. Because of wide variations in the extent of involvement and degree of severity of varicose veins, it is difficult to obtain live and intact specimens of varicose veins. With good illumination and magnified monitor viewing, the varicositic main channel, its tributaries, and the incompetent perforating veins can be dissected and visualized clearly during endoscopic surgery. Thus, the whole range of varicosities can be observed directly in situ. Characteristic features of the varicosities of 350 limbs have been recorded by video and photographs for study and classification. These features include: 1) poor contractility of varicose veins; 2) dilated and tortuous changes of varicose veins; 3) saccular or lateral bulging deformities of vein walls, or both; 4) uniformly dilated and tortuous deformities of a long vein; 5) varicositic changes of the accessory vein; 6) anatomic abnormalities of varicose veins, such as supernumerary tributaries, varicositic clusters, and a crowded relationship among the long saphenous vein, perforating vein and tributaries; 7) various conditions of the perforating veins; and 8) the close relationship among the long saphenous vein, perforating veins, and the saphenous nerve. These data provide valuable information for the study and management of primary varicose veins.


Assuntos
Endoscopia , Varizes/patologia , Varizes/cirurgia , Humanos , Perna (Membro)/irrigação sanguínea , Fotografação , Gravação de Videoteipe
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