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1.
Oncologist ; 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134163

RESUMO

LESSONS LEARNED: Results of the KEYNOTE-032 study showed that the safety and pharmacokinetic profiles of pembrolizumab in Chinese patients were comparable with those observed in international studies, and antitumor activity was encouraging. These data support further evaluation of pembrolizumab to improve clinical outcomes in Chinese patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. BACKGROUND: The KEYNOTE-032 study evaluated pembrolizumab pharmacokinetics and clinical outcomes in Chinese patients with locally advanced and/or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and prior treatment failure and/or ineligibility for standard therapy. METHODS: Patients were randomized 1:1:1 to pembrolizumab 2 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, or 200 mg every 3 weeks (up to 35 cycles). Safety and pharmacokinetics were primary endpoints; antitumor activity was a secondary endpoint. RESULTS: A total of 42 of 44 randomized patients received pembrolizumab treatment (2 mg/kg, n = 14; 10 mg/kg, n = 13; 200 mg, n = 15). Treatment-related adverse events (AEs) occurred in 29 of 42 (69%) patients (grade 3-4, 4/42 [10%]); 5 (12%) had immune-mediated AEs and infusion reactions. Pembrolizumab single dose half-life following 2 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, and 200 mg was 15.1, 15.8, and 12.3 days, respectively. Serum exposure at the doses studied (range, 2-10 mg/kg) was approximately linear; steady-state area under the curve0-21 days (95% confidence interval [CI]) was 730.9 (627.4-851.6), 2,819.2 (2,009.4-3,955.4), and 931.0 (724.4-1,196.6) µg•day/mL, respectively. After 7.9 (range, 0.7-13.1) months median follow-up overall, objective response rate was 14.3% (95% CI, 5.4%-28.5%); median progression-free survival was 2.1 (95% CI, 2.1-4.2) months, and median overall survival was not reached (95% CI, 6.6 months-not reached). CONCLUSION: Pembrolizumab had manageable toxicity, linear serum exposure, and encouraging antitumor activity in Chinese patients with advanced NSCLC.

2.
Oncologist ; 25(3): e545-e554, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32162827

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-mutant lung cancer remains an orphan of specific targeted therapy. The variable responses to anti-HER2 therapies in these patients prompt us to examine impact of HER2 variants and co-mutations on responses to anti-HER2 treatments in lung cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with stage IV/recurrent HER2-mutant lung cancers identified through next-generation sequencings were recruited from seven hospitals. The study comprised a cohort A to establish the patterns of HER2 variants and co-mutations in lung cancer and a cohort B to assess associations between HER2 variants, co-mutations, and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: The study included 118 patients (cohort A, n = 86; cohort B, n = 32). Thirty-one HER2 variants and 35 co-mutations were detected. Predominant variants were A775_G776insYVMA (49/118, 42%), G778_P780dup (11/118, 9%), and G776delinsVC (9/118, 8%). TP53 was the most common co-mutation (61/118, 52%). In cohort B, objective response rates with afatinib were 0% (0/14, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0%-26.8%), 40% (4/10, 14.7%-72.6%), and 13% (1/8, 0.7%-53.3%) in group 1 (A775_G776insYVMA, n = 14), group 2 (G778_P780dup, G776delinsVC, n = 10), and group 3 (missense mutation, n = 8), respectively (p = .018). Median progression-free survival in group 1 (1.2 months; 95% CI, 0-2.4) was shorter than those in group 2 (7.6 months, 4.9-10.4; hazard ratio [HR], 0.009; 95% CI, 0.001-0.079; p < .001) and group 3 (3.6 months, 2.6-4.5; HR, 0.184; 95% CI, 0.062-0.552; p = .003). TP53 co-mutations (6.317; 95% CI, 2.180-18.302; p = .001) and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway activations (19.422; 95% CI, 4.098-92.039; p < .001) conferred additional resistance to afatinib. CONCLUSION: G778_P780dup and G776delinsVC derived the greatest benefits from afatinib among HER2 variants. Co-mutation patterns were additional response modifiers. Refining patient population based on patterns of HER2 variants and co-mutations may help improve the efficacy of anti-HER2 treatment in lung cancer. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-mutant lung cancers are a group of heterogenous diseases with up to 31 different variants and 35 concomitant genomic aberrations. Different HER2 variants exhibit divergent sensitivities to anti-HER2 treatments. Certain variants, G778_P780dup and G776delinsVC, derive sustained clinical benefits from afatinib, whereas the predominant variant, A775_G776insYVMA, is resistant to most anti-HER2 treatments. TP53 is the most common co-mutation in HER2-mutant lung cancers. Co-mutations in TP53 and the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway confer additional resistance to anti-HER2 treatments in lung cancer. The present data suggest that different HER2 mutations in lung cancer, like its sibling epidermal growth factor receptor, should be analyzed independently in future studies.

4.
ESMO Open ; 5(1)2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32054633

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with a history of prior cancer are frequently excluded from cancer trials. Previous studies indicated that prior cancer does not adversely impact clinical outcomes for patients with lung cancer older than 65 years. However, it remains unknown whether these results are applicable to patients with lung cancer aged younger than 65 years old. The study aimed to investigate the impact of prior cancer history on younger patients with lung cancer. METHODS: We identified younger patients with lung cancer (<65 years) diagnosed between 2004 and 2009 in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. Propensity score matching was performed to balance differences in baseline characteristics between groups. Kaplan-Meier method and the Cox proportional hazards model were used to evaluate the impact of prior cancer on overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Among 103 370 eligible patients with lung cancer, 15.18% had a history of prior cancer. Lung and bronchus (25.83%), breast (14.13%), prostate (8.85%) and cervix uteri (4.74%) were the most common prior cancer types. Of prior cancers, 61.56% are localised and regional stages. More than 67.98% of prior cancers were diagnosed within 5 years of the index lung cancer diagnosis. The median times of diagnosis for prior cancers were 38 months. Patients with prior cancer had the same/non-inferior OS as that of patients without a prior cancer diagnosis (propensity score-adjusted HR=1.01, 95% CI=0.99 to 1.04, p=0.324). Subgroup analyses stratified by timing of prior cancer displayed almost the same tendency (p>0.05). Interestingly, early-stage patients with a history of prior cancer had adverse survival curves (p<0.05). Advanced-stage patients with prior cancer had non-inferior survival (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: A prior cancer diagnosis has a heterogeneous effect on the survival of patients with lung cancer aged <65 years across different stages, but further prospective studies are still warranted.

5.
J Thorac Oncol ; 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036069

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: HER2 exon 20 insertion (ex20ins) is one of the most intractable problems in lung cancer. Most ex20ins are resistant to available EGFR or pan-HER tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), with the exception of a few mutants. However, the mechanism for TKI response and resistance of HER2 ex20ins remains poorly understood. METHODS: Next-generation sequencing-based genomic profiling data of 4139 patients with lung cancer were interrogated for HER2 ex20ins. Structural modeling and molecular dynamics simulations of common HER2 ex20ins were carried out to provide insights into the mechanism of activation and response heterogeneity of ex20ins. Molecular docking was performed to predict affinity to TKIs. Therapeutic decisions for patients were made on the basis of the results of genomic profiling. RESULTS: From 155 HER2-mutant lung cancer cases, Y772_A775dup and G778_P780dup were identified in 74 (47.7%) and 18 (11.6%) cases, respectively. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed that HER2 ex20ins led to ligand-independent kinase activation by changing the conformational landscape of HER2 kinase and restricting kinase conformation in the active state. G778_P780dup had a three-amino acid extension in the αC-ß4 loop and retained the HER2-characteristic G776 and G778. Compared with Y772_A775dup, it had less restriction on kinase conformational sampling and higher affinity to afatinib, dacomitinib, pyrotinib, and poziotinib. Treating lung adenocarcinomas carrying G778_P780dup with these inhibitors led to sustained tumor responses in six of the 10 patients. CONCLUSIONS: The kinase conformational landscape dictated by the length of the αC-ß4 loop and residues at HER2 776 and 778 position explains TKI sensitivity in ex20ins. This finding could guide therapeutic decisions with currently available therapies and future drug development strategies.

6.
Cancer Med ; 9(5): 1721-1732, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Platinum-based chemotherapy is the standard of care as first-line treatment for recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (RM-NPC); however, the prognosis of patients with RM-NPC remains poor. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (anti-EGFR) antibody plus chemotherapy for RM-NPC. METHODS: RM-NPC patients who received first-line chemotherapy plus an anti-EGFR antibody were recruited from Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center between July 2007 and November 2017. Survival analyses were performed using the Kaplan-Meier method with a log-rank test. A Cox proportional hazards model was used for the multivariate analyses. RESULTS: A total of 203 patients were enrolled in the present study. The median follow-up time was 34.3 months (interquartile range: 19.7-66.5 months). The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 8.9 months (95% CI: 7.7-10.0 months) and the median overall survival (OS) was 29.1 months (95% CI: 23.5-34.6 months). The 1-, 3-, and 5-year PFS and OS rates were 35.5% and 79.6%, 15.2% and 42.5%, and 11.6% and 23.6%, respectively. The objective response rate (ORR) was 67.5% and the disease control rate (DCR) was 91.1%. The multivariate analysis identified the following prognostic factors for PFS: anti-EGFR agent (P = .010), recurrence/metastasis sequence (P = .016), KPS (P = .017), and combined chemotherapy regimen (P = .015). Independent risk factors for OS included age >43 years (P = .002), Karnofsky performance score ≤80 (P < .001), and higher level of baseline Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA (P = .008). Leukopenia was the most common adverse event (AE) in this cohort (any grade, 84.2%; grades 3-4, 43.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Anti-EGFR antibody plus chemotherapy achieved promising antitumor activity with a tolerable toxicity profile in RM-NPC. Thus, randomized clinical trials are warranted to compare the efficacy of chemotherapy with or without anti-EGFR antibody in these patients.

7.
Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol ; 13(2): 135-146, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990596

RESUMO

Introduction: The use of ketamine infusions for chronic pain has surged, with utilization exceeding the proliferation of knowledge. A proposed mechanism for the long-term benefit in chronic pain is that ketamine may alter the affective-motivational component of pain.Areas covered: In this review, we discuss the classification and various dimensions of pain, and explore the effects of ketamine on different pain categories and components. The relationship between ketamine's action at the NMDA receptor, the development of chronic pain, and the its possible role in preventing the persistence of pain are examined. We also summarize animal models evaluating the antinociceptive effects of ketamine and risk mitigation strategies of ketamine-associated side effects.Expert opinion: Although ketamine exerts most of its analgesic effects via the NMDA receptor, recent evidence suggests that other receptors such as AMPA, and active metabolites such as nor-ketamine, may also play a role in pain relief and alleviation of depression. Data from clinical studies performed in patients with chronic pain and depression, and the observation that ketamine's analgesic benefits outlast its effects on quantitative sensory testing, suggest that the enduring effects on chronic pain may be predominantly due ketamine's ability to modulate the affective-motivational dimension of pain.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Ketamina/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Animais , Dor Crônica/fisiopatologia , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Antagonistas de Aminoácidos Excitatórios/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Aminoácidos Excitatórios/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas de Aminoácidos Excitatórios/farmacologia , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Ketamina/efeitos adversos , Ketamina/farmacologia , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo
8.
Lancet Respir Med ; 8(1): 45-53, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ensartinib is a potent new-generation ALK inhibitor with high activity against a broad range of known crizotinib-resistant ALK mutations and CNS metastases. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of ensartinib in ALK-positive patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), in whom crizotinib therapy was unsuccessful. The associations between ensartinib efficacy and crizotinib-resistant mutations were also explored. METHODS: We did a single-arm, open-label, phase 2 study at 27 centres in China. Patients were aged 18 years or older, had stage IIIb or stage IV ALK-positive NSCLC that had progressed while they were on crizotinib therapy, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 or less, had measurable disease, and had received fewer than three previous treatments. Patients with CNS metastases were included if these metastases were asymptomatic and did not require steroid therapy. All patients received 225 mg ensartinib orally once daily on a continuous dosing schedule. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with an objective response according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (version 1.1), as assessed by an independent review committee in all patients who received at least one dose of ensartinib with no major violations of the inclusion criteria (ie, the full analysis set). Safety was assessed in all enrolled patients who received at least one dose of ensartinib. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03215693. FINDINGS: Between Sept 28, 2017, and April 11, 2018, 160 patients were enrolled and had at least one dose of ensartinib (safety analysis set). Four patients had inclusion violations and were excluded from the efficacy analysis, which thus included 156 patients (full analysis set). 97 (62%) patients in the full analysis set had brain metastases. 76 (52% [95% CI 43-60]) of 147 patients in the full analysis set, with responses that could be assessed by the independent review committee, had an objective response. 28 (70% [53-83]) of 40 patients with measurable brain metastases as assessed by the independent review committee had an intracranial objective response. 145 (91%) of 160 patients had at least one treatment-related adverse event, which were mostly grade 1 or 2. The most common treatment-related adverse events were rash (89 [56%]), increased alanine aminotransferase concentrations (74 [46%]), and increased aspartate aminotransferase concentrations (65 [41%]). INTERPRETATION: Ensartinib has activity and is well tolerated in patients with crizotinib-refractory, ALK-positive NSCLC, including those with brain metastases. The role of ensartinib in patients in whom other second-generation ALK inhibitors have been unsuccessful warrants further studies. FUNDING: Betta Pharmaceuticals.

9.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 35(12): 2227-2237, 2019 Dec 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880132

RESUMO

Enzymes are widely used in medical and biopharmaceuticals. They can be used not only for various disease treatments, but also clinical diagnosis. The use of microorganisms to express heterologous proteins has become the easiest and fastest way to obtain enzymes. In order to obtain high concentration and high-quality heterologous proteins, a common method is codon optimization of gene sequences. The traditional codon optimization strategy is mainly based on codon bias and GC content, ignoring complex and varied factors such as translational dynamics and metabolic levels. We provide here comprehensive codon optimization strategy based on gene level, transcriptional level, translational level, post-translational level and metabolic level, mainly including codon bias, codon harmonization, codon sensitivity, adjustment of gene sequence structure and some other influencing factors. We also summarize the aspects of strategy content, theoretical support and application. Besides, the advantages and disadvantages of each strategy are also systematically compared, providing an all-round, multi-level and multi-selection optimization strategy for heterogeneous protein expression, and also providing references for the enzyme industry and biopharmaceuticals.


Assuntos
Códon , Composição de Bases
10.
Chin Clin Oncol ; 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865713

RESUMO

Review the clinical evidence of tropisetron or palonosetron, an old- and new-generation serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonist (RA), respectively, for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in patients with cancer, and evaluate any difference in efficacy trends. A literature search of the EMBASE and PubMed databases was performed to identify publications of intravenous (IV) tropisetron (generic forms or Navoban®) for the treatment of CINV in patients with various cancers. Data from the pivotal clinical studies evaluating the IV formulation of Aloxi® (palonosetron HCl) were also considered. The effectiveness and safety of each antiemetic was summarized. Sixteen papers for tropisetron fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were extracted for full analysis; publications from six pivotal palonosetron clinical trials were considered. No direct data comparisons could be made between the two drugs, due to the varying definitions of efficacy endpoints between studies. For tropisetron, the rates of no emesis were lower in patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC) versus moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC). For palonosetron, the rates of complete response (no emesis, no rescue medication) were comparable in the MEC and HEC settings, demonstrating the effectiveness of this agent in patients receiving HEC. Both antiemetics offered some protection against nausea, although lower rates of no nausea were achieved compared with rates of no emesis. Two trials that evaluated the efficacy of palonosetron and tropisetron within the same study reported that palonosetron was more effective than tropisetron in controlling delayed vomiting in the HEC and MEC settings, with significantly higher rates of no emesis observed (P≤0.01). Palonosetron was non-inferior or more efficacious in controlling CINV compared with other older 5-HT3RAs, such as dolasetron, ondansetron, and granisetron. Conversely, tropisetron was no more efficacious than ondansetron or granisetron. Both tropisetron and palonosetron were generally well tolerated, with adverse event profiles consistent with drugs of this class (e.g., headache, constipation, and diarrhea). These data suggest that palonosetron is a highly selective prophylactic agent that may have an improved therapeutic profile compared with tropisetron, and is a feasible treatment option for controlling CINV in patients with cancer.

11.
Opt Express ; 27(20): 27431-27440, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684510

RESUMO

Reservoir computing (RC) by supervised training, a bio-inspired paradigm, is gaining popularity for processing time-dependent data. Compared to conventional recurrent neural networks, RC is facilely implemented by available hardware and overcomes some obstacles in training period, such as slow convergence and local optimum. In this paper, we propose and characterize a novel reservoir computing system based on a semiconductor laser with double optoelectronic feedback loops. This system shows obvious improvement on prediction, speech recognition and nonlinear channel equalization compared to the traditional reservoir computing systems with single feedback loop. Then some influencing factors to optimize the performance of the new RC are numerically studied, and its great potential of addressing more complex and troubling problems in information processing is expected to be exploited.

12.
Ann Transl Med ; 7(18): 439, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31700875

RESUMO

Background: With the improvement of survival for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), research focused on second primary malignancy (SPM) in NSCLC survivors is becoming urgent. This study aimed to estimate the risk of SPM in NSCLC patients. Methods: We retrospectively analysed NSCLC patients diagnosed between 2004 and 2010 in SEER database. We firstly evaluated the crude and cumulative incidence of SPM. SPM incidence in NSCLC survivors compared to that in the reference population was calculated as standardized incidence ratio (SIR). A competing risk nomogram was also built, to predict the incidence of SPM. Results: The crude and 10-year cumulative incidences of SPM were 4.04% and 5.05%, respectively, while the SIR was 1.62. The nomogram was well calibrated and had good discriminative ability, with c-index of 0.80. It showed a significantly wide interval of SPM cumulative incidence between the first and tenth-decile according to the risk model (1.04% vs. 16.70%, P<0.05). The decision curve analysis indicated that the clinical net benefit of risk model was larger than that in other scenarios (all-screening or no-screening) in a range of threshold probabilities (1% to 20%). Conclusions: Our study firstly performed a systematic estimation of the incidence of SPM in NSCLC, which implied the necessity of a risk predicting model. We developed the first competing risk nomogram to predict the risk of SPM, which performed well in the evaluation and might be helpful for individualized SPM screening.

13.
Ann Transl Med ; 7(18): 452, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31700888

RESUMO

Background: Four multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) including apatinib, anlotinib, fruquintinib and lenvatinib are currently available as third-line regimen for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who failed at least two lines of systemic therapy. Limited evidence was provided to demonstrate the general efficacy and safety profile of these drugs as third-line treatment approach for NSCLC. Methods: Eligible literature was searched from electronic database. Data of objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), treatment related adverse event (TRAE), treatment related adverse event grade 3-5 (TRAE3-5), hypertension, proteinuria, hand-foot skin reaction (HFSR), elevated ALT/AST, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea were synthetically extracted. Multiple-treatments comparisons (MTCs) based on a Bayesian consistency model integrated the efficacy and toxicity outcomes. Rank probabilities of each regimen were assessed and clustered by the surface under the cumulative ranking curve. Results: Five phase II/III randomized trials involving 915 advanced NSCLC patients were enrolled. MTCs showed that four multi-targeted TKIs shared equivalent efficacy in terms of outcome measures, of which anlotinib stood out in ORR (OR =39.26; 95% CI: 2.36-2,748.06), DCR (OR =8.69; 95% CI: 1.70-50.18) and PFS (HR =0.27; 95% CI: 0.10-0.78) when compared with placebo plus BSC. No significantly differences were observed among these TKIs and placebo with respect to OS, TRAE and TRAE 3-5. Fruquintinib and lenvatinib may relate to high rate of HFSR while anlotinib may relate to hypertension. Conclusions: Multi-targeted TKIs (apatinib, anlotinib, fruquintinib and lenvatinib) with acceptable efficacy and safety profile were options for advanced NSCLC in third-line setting.

14.
Opt Lett ; 44(23): 5776-5779, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774777

RESUMO

Chaotic optical communications were originally proposed to provide high-level physical layer security for optical communications. Limited by the difficulty of chaos synchronization, there has been little experimental demonstration of high-speed chaotic optical communications, and point to multipoint chaotic optical networking is hard to implement. Here, we propose a method to overcome the current limitations. By using a deep-learning-based scheme to learn the complex nonlinear model of the chaotic transmitter, wideband chaos synchronization can be realized in the digital domain. Therefore, the chaotic receiver can be significantly simplified while still guaranteeing security. A successful transmission of 32 Gb/s messages hidden in a wideband chaotic optical carrier was experimentally demonstrated over a 20 km fiber link. We believe the proposed deep-learning-based chaos synchronization method will enable a new direction for further development of high-speed chaotic optical communication systems and networks.

15.
J Immunother Cancer ; 7(1): 322, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation is a serious complication in patients with cancers and HBV infection undergoing immunosuppressant treatment or chemotherapy. However, the safety of anti-programmed cell death (PD) -1 and anti-programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) therapy in these patients is unknown because they were excluded from clinical trials of immunotherapy. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study involved consecutive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) -positive cancer patients who were referred to Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center and received an anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibody between January 1, 2015 and July 31, 2018. The primary end point was the rate of the occurrence of HBV reactivation. RESULTS: In total, 114 eligible patients were included, among whom 90 (79%) were male, and the median (range) age was 46 (16-76) years. Six patients (5.3%) developed HBV reactivation, occurring at a median of 18 weeks (range, 3-35 weeks) from the commencement of immunotherapy. Among these patients, all of them had undetectable baseline HBV DNA; one had prophylactic antiviral therapy while five did not; four were positive for Hepatitis B e antigen while the other two were negative. At reactivation, the median HBV DNA level was 3.89 × 104 IU/mL (range, 1.80 × 103-6.00 × 107 IU/mL); five had HBV-related hepatitis and one exhibited increasing HBV DNA level without alanine transaminase elevation. No HBV-related fatal events occurred. The lack of antiviral prophylaxis was the only significant risk factor for HBV reactivation (odds ratio, 17.50 [95% CI, 1.95-157.07], P = .004). CONCLUSIONS: HBV reactivation occurs in a subset of HBsAg-positive cancer patients undergoing anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 immunotherapy. Regular monitoring of HBV DNA and antiviral prophylaxis are advised to prevent this potentially fatal complication.

16.
Oncologist ; 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-mutant lung cancer remains an orphan of specific targeted therapy. The variable responses to anti-HER2 therapies in these patients prompt us to examine impact of HER2 variants and co-mutations on responses to anti-HER2 treatments in lung cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with stage IV/recurrent HER2-mutant lung cancers identified through next-generation sequencings were recruited from seven hospitals. The study comprised a cohort A to establish the patterns of HER2 variants and co-mutations in lung cancer and a cohort B to assess associations between HER2 variants, co-mutations, and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: The study included 118 patients (cohort A, n = 86; cohort B, n = 32). Thirty-one HER2 variants and 35 co-mutations were detected. Predominant variants were A775_G776insYVMA (49/118, 42%), G778_P780dup (11/118, 9%), and G776delinsVC (9/118, 8%). TP53 was the most common co-mutation (61/118, 52%). In cohort B, objective response rates with afatinib were 0% (0/14, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0%-26.8%), 40% (4/10, 14.7%-72.6%), and 13% (1/8, 0.7%-53.3%) in group 1 (A775_G776insYVMA, n = 14), group 2 (G778_P780dup, G776delinsVC, n = 10), and group 3 (missense mutation, n = 8), respectively (p = .018). Median progression-free survival in group 1 (1.2 months; 95% CI, 0-2.4) was shorter than those in group 2 (7.6 months, 4.9-10.4; hazard ratio [HR], 0.009; 95% CI, 0.001-0.079; p < .001) and group 3 (3.6 months, 2.6-4.5; HR, 0.184; 95% CI, 0.062-0.552; p = .003). TP53 co-mutations (6.317; 95% CI, 2.180-18.302; p = .001) and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway activations (19.422; 95% CI, 4.098-92.039; p < .001) conferred additional resistance to afatinib. CONCLUSION: G778_P780dup and G776delinsVC derived the greatest benefits from afatinib among HER2 variants. Co-mutation patterns were additional response modifiers. Refining patient population based on patterns of HER2 variants and co-mutations may help improve the efficacy of anti-HER2 treatment in lung cancer. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-mutant lung cancers are a group of heterogenous diseases with up to 31 different variants and 35 concomitant genomic aberrations. Different HER2 variants exhibit divergent sensitivities to anti-HER2 treatments. Certain variants, G778_P780dup and G776delinsVC, derive sustained clinical benefits from afatinib, whereas the predominant variant, A775_G776insYVMA, is resistant to most anti-HER2 treatments. TP53 is the most common co-mutation in HER2-mutant lung cancers. Co-mutations in TP53 and the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway confer additional resistance to anti-HER2 treatments in lung cancer. The present data suggest that different HER2 mutations in lung cancer, like its sibling epidermal growth factor receptor, should be analyzed independently in future studies.

17.
Cancer Commun (Lond) ; 39(1): 69, 2019 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699150

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gefitinib, as the first epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKI) approved for the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), has been proved to significantly improve the progression-free survival (PFS) in the first-line setting but suffers from resistance 7-10 months after treatment initiation. Apatinib (YN968D1), a potent vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) 2-TKI, specifically binds to VEGFR2 and leads to anti-angiogenetic and anti-neoplastic effect. Concurrent inhibition of VEGFR and EGFR pathways represents a rational approach to improve treatment responses and delay the onset of treatment resistance in EGFR-mutant NSCLC. This ACTIVE study aims to assess the combination of apatinib and gefitinib as a new treatment approach for EGFR-mutant NSCLC as a first-line setting. METHODS: This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III study (NCT02824458) has been designed to assess the efficacy and safety of apatinib or placebo combined with gefitinib as a first-line treatment for patients with EGFR-mutant advanced NSCLC. A total of 310 patients with EGFR-mutation (19del or 21L858R), pathological stage IIIB to IV non-squamous NSCLC were to be enrolled. The primary endpoint is investigator assessment of PFS, and the secondary endpoints include independent radiological central (IRC)-confirmed PFS, overall survival (OS), objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), time to progressive disease (TTPD), duration of response (DoR), quality of life (QoL) and safety. The patients are randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive gefitinib (250 mg, p.o. q.d.) plus apatinib (500 mg, p.o. q.d.) or gefitinib plus placebo, given until disease progression or intolerable adverse events. Exploratory biomarker analysis will be performed. This study is being conducted across China and comprises of 30 participating centers. Enrollment commenced in August 2017 and finished in December 2018, most of the patients are in the follow-up period. ANTICIPATED OUTCOMES AND SIGNIFICANCE: The present study will be the first to evaluate the efficacy and safety profile of the combination of apatinib plus gefitinib as a first-line therapy for patients with EGFR-positive advanced non-squamous NSCLC. Importantly, this trial will provide comprehensive evidence on the treatment of EGFR-TKIs combined with antiangiogenic therapy. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02824458. Registered 23 June 2016.

18.
J Thorac Dis ; 11(8): 3347-3359, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559038

RESUMO

Background: A phase II study to evaluate the efficacy, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of oral or intravenous vinorelbine (VRL) plus cisplatin (CDDP) in Chinese patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: One hundred and thirty-one patients were randomised to oral VRL 60 mg/m2 (arm A) or intravenous VRL 25 mg/m2 (arm B) on days 1 and 8, plus CDDP 80 mg/m2 on day 1 (both arms). VRL was increased to 80 mg/m2 (arm A) or 30 mg/m2 (arm B) in cycles 2-4 in the absence of toxicity. Primary efficacy endpoint was objective response rate (ORR). VRL pharmacokinetics was evaluated for possible drug-drug interactions with CDDP. Results: ORR was 25.8% in arm A and 23.1% in arm B. Disease control rate was 72.7% in arm A, 72.3% in arm B. Median overall survival was 16.1 months in arm A and 19.0 months in arm B. Median progression-free survival was 4.6 months in arm A and 4.9 months in arm B. Forty-three point nine percent and 86.2% of patients had grade 3/4 neutropenia in arms A and B, respectively; incidence of febrile neutropenia was low (6.1% and 9.2%, respectively). Frequency of grade 3/4 non-haematological adverse events was also low. VRL pharmacokinetics was not affected by co-administration of CDDP. Conclusions: Oral and intravenous VRL in combination with CDDP is effective and well-tolerated in Chinese patients with advanced NSCLC. VRL pharmacokinetics is unaffected by CDDP co-administration. Oral VRL could be an effective alternative to intravenous VRL as a first-line treatment for NSCLC, as it optimises treatment convenience while maintaining high efficacy.

19.
Ann Transl Med ; 7(14): 299, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475169

RESUMO

Background: Prior cancer is a common exclusion criterion in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) trials. However, whether a prior cancer diagnosis affects trial outcomes is still unknown. We aimed to determine the impact of prior cancer on survival in NPC patients. Methods: We identified patients diagnosed with NPC between 2004 and 2009 in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Variables were compared by chi-squared test and t-test as appropriate. Propensity score-adjusted Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate the impact of prior cancer on overall survival (OS). Results: Among 3,131 eligible NPC patients, 349 (11.15%) patients had a history of prior cancer. The Kaplan-Meier curves did not show a statistically significantly different OS (P=0.19). Subgroup analyses stratified by timing of prior cancer and AJCC TNM stage of index cancer displayed the same tendency: prior cancer did not adversely affect OS compared to patients without prior cancer (P>0.05). Furthermore, in propensity score-adjusted COX models analysis, patients with prior cancer had the same/non-inferior OS [hazard ratio (HR) =1.12; 95% confidence interval, 0.88 to 1.42]. Conclusions: Among patients with NPC, prior cancer does not convey an adverse effect on clinical outcomes, regardless of the timing of prior cancer and AJCC TNM stage of index cancer. Broader inclusion trial criteria could be adopted in NPC patients with a history of prior cancer. However, further studies are still needed to confirm this conclusion.

20.
J Chem Inf Model ; 59(9): 3871-3878, 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442042

RESUMO

Mitochondrial serine hydroxymethyl transferase isoform 2 (SHMT2) has attracted increasing attention as a pivotal catalyzing regulator of the serine/glycine pathway in the one-carbon metabolism of cancer cells. However, few inhibitors that target this potential anticancer target have been discovered. Quantitative characterization of the interactions between SHMT2 and its known inhibitors should benefit future discovery of novel inhibitors. In this study, we employed a recently developed alanine-scanning-interaction-entropy method to quantitatively calculate the residue-specific binding free energy of 28 different SHMT2 inhibitors that originate from the same skeleton. Major contributing residues from SHMT2 and chemical groups from the inhibitors were identified, and the binding energy of each residue was quantitatively determined, revealing essential features of the protein-inhibitor interaction. The most important contributing residue is Y105 of the B chain followed by L166 of the A chain. The calculated protein-ligand binding free energies are in good agreement with the experimental results and showed better correlation and smaller errors compared with those obtained using the conventional MM/GBSA with the normal mode method. These results may aid the rational design of more effective SHMT2 inhibitors.

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