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1.
Opt Lett ; 46(20): 5216-5219, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653156

RESUMO

By incorporating the CsPbBr3 quantum dots (QDs) into a glass host, we report for the first time, to our knowledge, the measurement of non-resonant optical nonlinearity and multiphoton upconversion (UC) processes for this QD-in-glass composite. We observe up to four-photon stable UC photoluminescence under excitation by infrared femtosecond pulses, low optical limiting thresholds, and high nonlinear optical absorption coefficients close to those of colloid processed metal halide perovskite (MHP) QDs. Combined with high robustness against air and moisture, the monolithic inorganic glass with incorporated MHP QDs could be a better platform for exploiting strong light-matter interaction for MHPs.

2.
Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi ; 45(5): 492-496, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628759

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease commonly seen in clinical practice. It can lead to thickening of vascular intima, occlusion of lumen stenosis and thrombosis, leading to angina pectoris, hypertension, myocardial infarction and other diseases, posing a serious threat to human life and health. This study provides a method for removing shield needles from graphene oxide thrombus and its preparation. The graphene oxide shield needle mainly includes flexible rotating shaft, radial flexible rod, rotating needle, adsorption main pipe and dosing main pipe, laser measuring device, high definition camera and other structures, which has the following advantages:firstly, it achieves multi-angle rotation grinding thrombosis, precise rotation grinding, avoids vascular damage and infection; secondly, thrombolytic drugs can be applied in the process of rotary grinding and small thrombus can be adsorbed to effectively avoid secondary embolization of blood vessels; thirdly, it a coating of graphene oxide on a rotating needle, which protects against bacteria and infection. This study has practical reference value for the development of thrombotherapy and the application of graphene in the medical field.


Assuntos
Grafite , Trombose , Adsorção , Humanos , Agulhas , Trombose/prevenção & controle
3.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 13: 736026, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34658839

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the altered expression of peripheral clock genes, circulating melatonin levels, and their correlations with sleep-wake phenotypes including probable rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (pRBD) symptoms in a relatively large population of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Methods: We determined the expression profiles of five principal clock genes, BMAL1, CLOCK, CRY1, PER1, and PER2, in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of PD patients (n = 326), and healthy controls (HC, n = 314) using quantitative real-time PCR. Melatonin concentration in the plasma of two groups was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Then we performed comprehensive association analyses on the PBMCs clock gene expression, plasma melatonin levels and sleep characteristics. Results: Our data showed that the expression levels of BMAL1, CLOCK, CRY1, PER1, and PER2 were significantly decreased in the PBMCs of PD as compared with that of HC (P < 0.05). PD patients had reduced plasma melatonin levels compared with HC (P < 0.0001). pRBD and excessive daytime sleepiness are common in these PD patients and are associated with the expression levels of all five clock genes (r = -0.344∼-0.789, P < 0.01) and melatonin concentration (r = -0.509∼-0.753, P < 0.01). Statistical analyses also revealed that a combination of five clock genes and melatonin could reach a high diagnostic performance (areas under the curves, 97%) for PD comorbid pRBD. Conclusion: This case-control study demonstrates that peripheral BMAL1, CLOCK, CRY1, PER1, PER2, and melatonin levels are altered in PD patients and may serve as endogenous markers for sleep and wakefulness disturbances of PD.

4.
Brain Pathol ; : e13028, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668266

RESUMO

Circadian disruption is prevalent in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and may contribute to cognitive impairment, psychological symptoms, and neurodegeneration. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of environmental and genetic factors on the molecular clock and to establish a link between circadian rhythm disturbance and AD. We investigated the pathological effects of chronic sleep deprivation (CSD) in the APPswe /PS1ΔE9 transgenic mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates for 2 months and evaluated the expression levels of clock genes in the circadian rhythm-related nuclei. Our results showed that CSD impaired learning and memory, and further exaggerated disease progression in the AD mice. Furthermore, CSD caused abnormal expression of Bmal1, Clock, and Cry1 in the circadian rhythm-related nuclei of experimental mice, and these changes are more significant in AD mice. Abnormal expression of clock genes in AD mice suggested that the expression of clock genes is affected by APP/PS1 mutations. In addition, abnormal tau phosphorylation was found in the retrosplenial cortex, which was co-located with the alteration of BMAL1 protein level. Moreover, the level of tyrosine hydroxylase in the locus coeruleus of AD and WT mice was significantly increased after CSD. There may be a potential link between the molecular clock, Aß pathology, tauopathy, and the noradrenergic system. The results of this study provided new insights into the potential link between the disruption of circadian rhythm and the development of AD.

5.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 607(Pt 1): 826-835, 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536937

RESUMO

The development of non-precious metal catalysts for oxygen reduction reactions (ORR) is vital for promising clean energy technologies such as fuel cells, and zinc-air batteries. Herein, we present a stepwise synthesis of N-doped and carbon encapsulated BiOCl-CNTs heterostructures. Electrocatalytic ORR studies show that the optimized catalyst has a high half-wave potential (E1/2) of 0.85 V (vs. RHE), large limiting current density (-5.34 mA cm-2@0.6 V) in alkaline medium, and nearly perfect 4e- reduction characteristics, even surpassing commercial Pt/C. Meanwhile, the catalyst has exceptional durability (above 97.5 % after 40000 s) and strong resistance towards methanol poisoning. The good ORR activity also results in high-performance zinc-air batteries with a specific capacity (724 mAh g-1@10 mA cm-2), a high open-circuit potential of 1.51 V and a peak power density of 170.7 mW cm-2, as well as an ultra-long charge-discharge cycle stability (155 h), comparable with the Pt/C catalyst. The catalytic mechanism reveals that the excellent electrocatalytic performance originates from the synergistic effect of N doping, oxygen vacancies, and BiOCl sites.

6.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570230

RESUMO

To date, only some cancer patients can benefit from chemotherapy and targeted therapy. Drug resistance continues to be a major and challenging problem facing current cancer research. Rapidly accumulated patient-derived clinical transcriptomic data with cancer drug response bring opportunities for exploring molecular determinants of drug response, but meanwhile pose challenges for data management, integration, and reuse. Here we present the Cancer Treatment Response gene signature DataBase (CTR-DB, http://ctrdb.ncpsb.org.cn/), a unique database for basic and clinical researchers to access, integrate, and reuse clinical transcriptomes with cancer drug response. CTR-DB has collected and uniformly reprocessed 83 patient-derived pre-treatment transcriptomic source datasets with manually curated cancer drug response information, involving 28 histological cancer types, 123 drugs, and 5139 patient samples. These data are browsable, searchable, and downloadable. Moreover, CTR-DB supports single-dataset exploration (including differential gene expression, receiver operating characteristic curve, functional enrichment, sensitizing drug search, and tumor microenvironment analyses), and multiple-dataset combination and comparison, as well as biomarker validation function, which provide insights into the drug resistance mechanism, predictive biomarker discovery and validation, drug combination, and resistance mechanism heterogeneity.

7.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 125899, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492837

RESUMO

Incidental oral ingestion is considered to be an important exposure route for humans to soil contaminants, such as fluoride (F). For 25 soil samples containing 4000 mg F/kg from aluminium smelting site in southwestern China, this study investigated F bioaccessibility in the human gastrointestinal tract in vitro. Fluoride bioaccessibility (2.4-48.8%) in the gastric phase was primarily caused by the dissolution of F-Ca and F-Al compounds (assigned to residual phase), identified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and sequential extraction. Following modification to the small intestinal phase, the variation in F bioaccessibility (2.5-38.8%) should be the result of concurrent processes, including the formation of F complexes and competitive adsorption, and inversely the precipitation of fluorite and surface adsorption of formed F-Al complexes. The colon incubation with human gut microbiota yielded a 1.3-fold increase in F bioaccessibility (3.9-45.7%), probably due to the dissolution of F bound to Fe (hydr)oxides. Bioaccessibility adjustment can reduce hazard quotient of fluoride, and non-carcinogenic risk for children should be noted that soil F intake contributed 21.7% on average, up to 76.6% of oral reference dose. This will result in better understanding of human health risk assessment associated with F exposures.


Assuntos
Alumínio , Poluentes do Solo , Alumínio/metabolismo , Alumínio/toxicidade , Disponibilidade Biológica , Criança , Fluoretos/toxicidade , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
8.
Cell Prolif ; 54(9): e13105, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382270

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp) is widely used to develop imaging probes and drug carriers due to its excellent bioactivity and biocompatibility. However, traditional methods usually need cumbersome and stringent conditions such as high temperature and post-modification to prepare the functionalized nHAp, which do not benefit the particles to enter cells due to the increased particle size. Herein, a biomimetic synthesis strategy was explored to achieve the AS1411-targeted tumour dual-model bioimaging using DNA aptamer AS1411 as a template. Then, the imaging properties and the biocompatibility of the synthesized AS-nFAp:Gd/Tb were further investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The AS-nFAp:Gd/Tb was prepared under mild conditions through a one-pot procedure with AS1411 as a template. Besides, the anticancer drug DOX was loaded to AS-nFAp:Gd/Tb so as to achieve the establishment of a multifunctional nano-probe that integrated the tumour diagnosis and treatment. The AS-nFAp:Gd/Tb was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy disperse X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) mapping, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectrum, X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier-transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, capillary electrophoresis analyses, zeta potential and particle sizes. The in vitro magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluorescence imaging were performed on an MRI system and a confocal laser scanning microscope, respectively. The potential of the prepared multifunctional nHAp for a targeted tumour therapy was investigated by a CCK-8 kit. And the animal experiments were conducted on the basis of the guidelines approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee of Sichuan University, China. RESULTS: In the presence of AS1411, the as-prepared AS-nFAp:Gd/Tb presented a needle-like morphology with good monodispersity and improved imaging performance. Furthermore, due to the specific binding between AS1411 and nucleolin up-expressed in cancer cells, the AS-nFAp:Gd/Tb possessed excellent AS1411-targeted fluorescence and MRI imaging properties. Moreover, after loading chemotherapy drug DOX, in vitro and in vivo studies showed that DOX@AS-nFAp:Gd/Tb could effectively deliver DOX to tumour tissues and exert a highly effective tumour inhibition without systemic toxicity compared with pure DOX. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that the prepared multifunctional nHAp synthesized by a novel biomimetic strategy had outstanding capabilities of recognition and treatment for the tumour and had good biocompatibility; hence, it might have a potential clinical application in the future.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/química , Durapatita/química , Nanopartículas/química , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão/métodos , Oligodesoxirribonucleotídeos/farmacologia , Tamanho da Partícula
9.
Environ Entomol ; 50(5): 1241-1247, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387308

RESUMO

In most organisms, various physiological and behavioral functions are expressed rhythmically. Previous studies have shown that thermoperiod is an important factor affecting circadian clock-related genes that regulate insect locomotor activity. Bradysia odoriphaga Yang & Zhang is an underground pest that attacks more than 30 crops but is especially damaging to Chinese chives. In this study, we analyzed the adult eclosion time and period (Boper) gene expression in B. odoriphaga as affected by temperature (cycling vs constant temperature), insect stage, and tissue specific. We found that the eclosion time and expression of the Boper gene changed during the temperature cycle but not under a constant temperature. Silencing of Boper expression significantly decreased the adult eclosion rate and significantly increased adult mortality and malformation. The findings indicate that thermoperiod alters Boper expression and regulates the eclosion rhythm.

10.
J Int Med Res ; 49(8): 3000605211035895, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433328

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Tuberous sclerosis (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder, often detected during childhood. We present the results of genetic testing in a newborn with suspected TSC. METHODS: A newborn with no specific clinical manifestations of TSC showed evidence of TSC on magnetic resonance imaging and echocardiography. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) and multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) of the TSC1 and TSC2 gene exons were carried out to confirm the diagnosis. RESULTS: The results of MLPA were negative, but NGS showed a heterozygous mutation in the TSC1 gene comprising insertion of a T residue at c.2165 (exon 17) to c.2166 (exon 17), indicating a loss of function mutation. These results were verified by Sanger sequencing. This genetic change was present in the newborn but the parental genotypes were wild-type, indicating a de novo mutation. CONCLUSIONS: In this case, a case of TSC caused by a heterozygous mutation in the TSC1 gene was confirmed by NGS sequencing. This indicates the suitability of genetic testing for the early diagnosis of clinically rare and difficult-to-diagnose diseases, to guide clinical treatment.


Assuntos
Proteína 1 do Complexo Esclerose Tuberosa , Esclerose Tuberosa , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Diagnóstico Precoce , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Mutação , Esclerose Tuberosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Esclerose Tuberosa/genética , Proteína 1 do Complexo Esclerose Tuberosa/genética , Proteína 2 do Complexo Esclerose Tuberosa/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética
11.
Food Chem ; 363: 130205, 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237559

RESUMO

In this study, a novel modified metal organic framework (MOF) was prepared and used as adsorbent of miniaturized solid-phase extraction (M-D-µSPE) for analyzing 8-2 FTOH and its metabolites in edible tissues by LC-MS/MS. This synthesized adsorbent, named as Fe3O4@Fe-MIL 101-NH2 (magnetic Fe-MOF), was characterized. Moreover, the effects factors on the adsorption behavior of the adsorbents for the analytes were investigated and optimized in detail, such as solution pH, adsorbent amount, extraction time, desorption condition. The adsorbtion mechanism of magnetic Fe-MOF might be electrostatic interaction, CF-π hydrophobic and Lewis acid base. Compared with conventional adsorbents (such as PSA, C18), magnetic Fe-MOF reduced matrix effect. The limits of quantification ranged 0.10-1.5 µg/kg. The recoveries of analytes ranged 78.0% - 90.3% in spiked samples, with relative standard deviations less than 12.0%. The developed method was successfully utilized to analyze incurred samples, which proves that it is a rapid, efficient, and sensitive method.


Assuntos
Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Adsorção , Álcoois , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Extração em Fase Sólida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
12.
Exp Cell Res ; 405(2): 112730, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242624

RESUMO

CBL (Casitas B cell lymphoma), an important ubiquitin protein ligase, is involved in protein folding, protein maturation, and proteasome-dependent protein catabolism in different cells. However, its role in cardiac hypertrophy is still unclear. In this study, we found that expression of CBL is increased in an Ang II-induced mouse cardiac hypertrophy animal model and in Ang II-treated H9C2 cells. Interference with CBL expression attenuates the degree of myocardial hypertrophy as well as the expression of hypertrophy-related genes in H9C2 cells. Further research found that CBL aggravates myocardial hypertrophy by activating HIF-1α, which is an aggravating factor for hypertrophy. The effect of CBL on promoting myocardial hypertrophy was reversed by interference with HIF-1α. Mechanistically, we found that CBL directly interacted with and degraded VHL by increasing its ubiquitination level, which is a widely accepted regulatory factor of HIF-1α. Finally, our results showed that CBL was partially dependent on degradation of VHL and that activation of HIF-1α promoted myocardial hypertrophy. Collectively, these findings suggest that strategies based on activation of the CBL/HIF-1α axis might be promising for the treatment of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.


Assuntos
Cardiomegalia/patologia , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Linfoma de Células B/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor Von Hippel-Lindau/metabolismo , Animais , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação , Proteína Supressora de Tumor Von Hippel-Lindau/genética
13.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 675429, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34194451

RESUMO

The root-knot nematode (RKN), Meloidogyne incognita, is a devastating pathogen for cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) specially in production under protected environments or continuous cropping. High level RKN resistance has been identified in African horned melon Cucumis metuliferus (CM). However, the resistance mechanism remains unclear. In this study, the comparative analysis on phenotypic and transcriptomic responses in the susceptible cucumber inbred line Q24 and the resistant CM, after M. incognita infection, was performed. The results showed that, in comparison with Q24, the CM was able to significantly reduce penetration numbers of second stage juveniles (J2), slow its development in the roots resulting in fewer galls and smaller giant cells suggesting the presence of host resistance in CM. Comparative transcriptomes analysis of Q24 and CM before and after M. incognita infection was conducted and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with host resistance were identified in CM. Enrichment analyses revealed most enriched DEGs in Ca2+ signaling, salicylic acid (SA)/jamonate signaling (JA), as well as auxin (IAA) signaling pathways. In particular, in CM, DEGs in the Ca2+ signaling pathway such as those for the calmodulin and calcium-binding proteins were upregulated at the early stage of M. incognita infection; genes for SA/JA synthesis/signal transduction were markedly activated, whereas the IAA signaling pathway genes were inhibited upon infection suggesting the importance of SA/JA signaling pathways in mediating M. incognita resistance in CM. A model was established to explain the different molecular mechanisms on M. incognita susceptibility in cucumber and resistance to M. incognita infection in CM.

14.
Mol Med Rep ; 24(3)2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34296293

RESUMO

It has been shown that ferroptosis is involved in doxorubicin (DOX)­induced cardiotoxicity and that ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 2 (ENPP2) can protect cardiomyocytes from ferroptosis. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate whether ENPP2 could protect cardiomyocytes from DOX­induced injury by inhibiting ferroptosis. H9c2 cardiomyocytes were exposed to various concentrations (0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 5 or 10 µM) of DOX for different time periods. Cell viability and ENPP2 expression were determined. ENPP2­overexpressing H9c2 cells were treated with DOX and subsequently cell viability, oxidative stress, autophagy and ferroptosis were measured using the corresponding assays (MTT assay, commercial kits and western blot analysis). Dual­luciferase reporter and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, as well as bioinformatics analysis, were applied to detect the interaction between ENPP2 and FoxO4. Following FoxO4 overexpression in H9c2 cells, the aforementioned cellular processes were assessed. The results indicated that ENPP2 expression was downregulated following treatment of the cells with DOX. DOX also led to the decreased cell viability, reduced autophagy and elevated ferroptosis in H9c2 cells, which were notably reversed by ENPP2 overexpression. In addition, FoxO4 bound to the ENPP2 promoter, resulting in inhibition of its expression. Following FoxO4 overexpression in H9c2 cells, further experiments conducted using commercial kits and western blot analysis revealed that FoxO4 overexpression partially inhibited the effects of ENPP2 overexpression on DOX­induced oxidative stress, autophagy and ferroptosis in H9c2 cells. In conclusion, the data indicated that ENPP2 was transcriptionally regulated by FoxO4 to protect cardiomyocytes from DOX­induced toxicity by inhibiting ferroptosis. Therefore, specific treatment approaches targeting the FoxO4/ENPP2 axis and ferroptosis may provide potential therapies for alleviating DOX­induced cardiotoxicity.

15.
Exp Ther Med ; 22(2): 849, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34149895

RESUMO

Danshen (Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae) and Honghua (Flos Carthami) (Danhong) are two drugs commonly prescribed together, which are often used in the treatment of cerebrovascular diseases in China. Due to the complexity of the ingredients of Danhong, the present study focused on performing the orthogonal compatibility method on the primary effective molecules of this drug: Tanshinol, salvianolic acid A, salvianolic acid B and hydroxysafflor yellow A. These four molecules were studied to determine their protective effects and to screen for the most compatible ingredients to improve cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (IR) in rats. Focal middle cerebral artery occlusion was performed to establish the cerebral IR model in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham operation group, IR group and nine orthogonal administration groups with different ratios of Danhong effective ingredients and Danhong injection group. Neurological deficit score and cerebral infarction volume were measured postoperatively. Morphological pathological alterations were observed via H&E staining. Bcl-2 and Bax were quantified using ELISA. Immunohistochemistry was conducted to analyze the expression of caspase-3 in the hippocampus. The expression levels of cytochrome c, apoptotic peptidase activating factor 1 (apaf-1), caspase-9, caspase-3 and p53 mRNA in the hippocampus were assessed via reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. The results demonstrated that different compatibility groups significantly reduced the neurological function score and decreased the volume of cerebral infarct compared with the IR group. These groups were also indicated to improve the pathological damage to the brain tissue. In addition, certain compatibility groups significantly decreased the number of caspase-3 positive cells in the hippocampus and the expression levels of cytochrome c, apaf-1, caspase-9, caspase-3 and p53 mRNA in the brain tissue. Orthogonal group 4 (30 mg/kg tanshinol; 2.5 mg/kg salvianolic acid A; 16 mg/kg salvianolic acid B; 8 mg/kg hydroxysafflor yellow A) was indicated to be the most effective. The four effective ingredients of Danhong exhibited a protective effect on rats with cerebral IR injury, potentially through the inhibition of apoptosis via the downregulation of key targets upstream of the caspase-3 pathway. In addition, the present study provided novel insights for the continued study of the drug compatibility rules of TCM.

16.
ChemSusChem ; 14(14): 2992-3000, 2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076948

RESUMO

Designing a bifunctional catalyst for hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is significant toward developing sustainable hydrogen-electric conversion systems. Herein, a cost-effective bifunctional catalyst, Ru/N-doped Carbon@WO3 -W2 C (Ru/NC@WOC), was developed via co-precipitation and polyol reduction. Ru/NC@WOC showed superior HOR/HER activity in alkaline solution in comparison with commercial Pt/C. HOR electrochemical tests showed that the mass activity at 0.05 V (1.96  m A µ g R u - 1 ) and exchange-current density were 7.5 and 1.2 times that of Pt/C. Additionality, Ru/NC@WOC exhibited up 30-fold HOR activity in mass activity compared with benchmark Ru/C. Moreover, it also displayed exceptional electrocatalytic HER with overpotentials of 31 mV at 10 mA cm-2 and 119 mV at 100 mA cm-2 , surpassing Pt/C, benchmark Ru/C, and most of the previously reported electrocatalysts. The outstanding catalytic activity of Ru/NC@WOC probably arises from the synergy between Ru and NC@WOC matrix, suitable hydrogen binding energy, and highly conductive substrate. Thus, this work may pave a new avenue to fabricate low-cost bifunctional HOR/HER catalysts for alkaline fuel cells and water electrolyzer.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34166835

RESUMO

Phoxinus lagowskii is a popular fish in Chinese cuisine. Though it is found mainly in China's high-latitude regions, where diel-cycling hypoxia (DCH) is known to have unique impacts on aquatic organisms, there is little known about its response to hypoxia. Currently, nothing is known about the changes in blood parameters, gill and liver morphology, glucose and lipid metabolism, or expression of genes involved in clock and glucose metabolism in response to sustained hypoxia (SH) and diel-cycling hypoxia (DCH). To elucidate the influence of sustained and diel-cycling hypoxia on fish hypoxia tolerance, resting oxygen consumption (MO2) analysis was performed after ten days of hypoxia. This analysis revealed that hypoxia tolerance profoundly improved after ten days of either sustained or diel-cycling hypoxia acclimation, with DCH groups showing greater improvements than SH groups. Additionally, an increase in RBCs was found in P. lagowskii, suggesting an increase in the O2-carrying capacity of the blood to tolerate hypoxia. Hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations in P. lagowskii were increased at four days of diel-cycling hypoxia, confirming that physiological and metabolic adaptation to hypoxia is based on the duration of O2 exposure. Increased Hb and hematocrit (Hct) were found in DCH-exposed fish, both of which have been directly linked to high-latitude hypoxia tolerance. In the gills, lamella surface area increased in SH-exposed fish more than DCH-exposed fish, and these increases were accompanied by a decrease in the volume of interlamellar cell mass (ILCM). Histology changes in the liver showed a higher frequency of cytoplasmic vacuolization in DCH-exposed fish. PK increases in SH-exposed fish suggest that fish can use more energy sources in persistent hypoxia. Meanwhile, DCH-exposed fish use TG as an energy source. In SH-exposed fish, self-regulation of Cry1a was observed, whereas Cry1b gene was up-regulated significantly. In DCH-exposed fish, three of eight clock genes studied had increased expression, including Per1a, Clocka, and Cry1b, suggesting that SH and DCH result in different hypoxic responses. This study presents a novel approach to the study of fish responses to hypoxia in high latitude and shows that sustained hypoxia and diel-cycling hypoxia induce large differences in fish physiology.

18.
Anal Chem ; 93(20): 7399-7404, 2021 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33973472

RESUMO

The unique capability of surface plasmon resonance microscopy (SPRM) in single nanoparticle analysis has found use in various chemical and biological applications. While SPRM offers exceptional sensitivity, the statistical analysis of numerous nanoparticles has been extremely laborious and time-consuming. Herein, we presented an image processing software package for nanoparticle analysis in SPRM, which is empowered by a deep learning algorithm. This package enabled fully automated nanoparticle identification, digital counting, three-dimensional tracking of particle locations, and quantification of dwell time and Brownian motion properties. With a built-in image filtering process to improve the contrast, robust identification and analysis have been achieved from SPRM images of low refractive index nanoparticles. This software tool would largely promote the translation of SPRM technology into the digital sensing platform for high throughput sample screening.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície , Algoritmos , Microscopia , Movimento (Física)
19.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 13: 653379, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33815093

RESUMO

Abnormal α-Synuclein (α-SYN) aggregates are the pathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD), which may affect dopamine (DA) neuron function and DA metabolism. Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) is an enzyme located on the outer mitochondrial membrane that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of DA. Both α-SYN and MAOA are associated with PD pathogenesis, suggesting possible crosstalk between these two molecules. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the potential impacts of α-SYN on MAOA function and further explore the underlying mechanisms. Our study showed that overexpression of α-SYN [both wild-type (WT) and A53T] increased MAOA function via upregulating its expression without impacting MAOA stability. Overexpression of α-SYNWT or α-SYNA53T enhanced the transcription activity of the MAOA promoter region containing the binding sites of cell division cycle associated 7 like (R1, a transcriptional repressor of MAOA) and trans-acting transcription factor 1 (Sp1, a transcription factor of MAOA). Interestingly, α-SYN selectively increased Sp1 expression, thereby enhancing the binding capacity of Sp1 with MAOA promoter to increase MAOA expression. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that α-SYN can upregulate MAOA expression via modulation of Sp1 and may shed light on future studies of α-SYN associated PD pathogenesis.

20.
Environ Res ; 197: 111168, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857463

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Few studies have investigated the associations of child development with air pollution, land-use type, and maternal mental health simultaneously. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of exposure to air pollutants during several critical periods of life, with adjustment for land-use type and maternal mental status, on child development at 6, 12, and 24 months of age in the Greater Taipei area. METHODS: Participants were selected from an ongoing Taiwanese birth cohort study. We analyzed the data of the participants who had been recruited from January 2011 to April 2014. Self-administered standardized questionnaires were used to collect information on sociodemographic factors, infant development and health, maternal mental status, etc. Air pollution levels in pre- and postnatal periods were estimated using a spatial interpolation technique (ordinary kriging) at children's residential addresses. Land-use types around participants' homes were evaluated using buffer analysis. We used multiple logistic regression analysis to examine the relationships between child development delay and environmental factors. RESULTS: In total, 228, 361, and 441 families completed child development forms at 6, 12, and 24 months of age, respectively. Our results indicated that prenatal exposure to particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm and O3 and postnatal exposure to NO2 were negatively associated with child development. Traffic-related land-use types, gas stations, and power generation areas around participants' homes were also adversely correlated with child development. Moreover, poor maternal mental health was associated with child development delay. CONCLUSION: Prenatal exposure and postnatal exposure to air pollution were associated with development delay in children under 2 years of age, specifically those under 1 year of age, even after adjustment for land-use type and maternal mental status. Living environment is critical for the development of children under 2 years of age.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Saúde Materna , Saúde Mental , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Gravidez
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