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1.
Poult Sci ; 100(1): 196-205, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357682

RESUMO

This study was conducted to determine the effects of supplemental dietary benzoic acid on production performance, egg quality, intestinal morphology, and intestinal microbiota of laying hens. A total of seven hundred twenty 45-wk-old Lohman pink-shell laying hens were randomly allocated to 3 dietary treatments: control (CON), diet supplemented with 1,000 mg/kg benzoic acid (BA1), and 2,000 mg/kg benzoic acid (BA2). Each treatment included 10 replicates of 24 hens; laying hens were monitored for 16 wk. Overall, the results indicate that benzoic acid supplementation had no effect on laying rate, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, and breaking rate; however, a decrease in egg weight (P < 0.01) was observed in the BA2 group. Albumen height and Haugh unit (HU) were also linearly increased in the BA1 and BA2 groups (linear effect, P < 0.05). An increase in duodenum villus height (V) (quadratic effect, P = 0.041) and crypt depth (C) (linear effect, P = 0.012) was observed in the BA2 group, whereas an increased jejunum C and decreased V/C (quadratic effect, P < 0.05) in the BA1 group. Moreover, an increase in ileum V and C (quadratic effect, P < 0.05) was observed in the BA1 group. Microbial richness and diversity were reduced in the BA2 group (P < 0.01). An increase in the abundance of Clostridia (class), Clostridiales (order), Ruminococcaceae (family), and Lachnospiraceae (family) was noted in the BA1 group, whereas an enrichment of Bacteroides caecicola (species) was observed in the BA2 group. The HU positively correlated with genus Sphaerochaeta and Enorma (r = 0.56, 0.56; P < 0.05) but negatively correlated with Romboutsia, Subdoligranulum, Helicobacter, and Mucispirillum (r = -0.58, -0.49, -0.48; -0.70; P < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary supplementation with benzoic acid had no effect on production performance, but it significantly improved egg quality. In addition, 1,000 mg/kg benzoic acid positively modulated intestinal health by improving intestinal morphology and enriching microbial composition.

2.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 8(10)2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652580

RESUMO

High dietary levels of molybdenum (MO) can negatively affect productive performances and health status of laying hens, while tea polyphenol (TP) can mitigate the negative impact of high MO exposure. However, our understanding of the changes induced by TP on MO challenged layers performances and oxidative status, and on the microbiota, remains limited. The aim of the present study was to better understand host (performances and redox balance) and microbiota responses in MO-challenged layers with dietary TP. In this study, 200 Lohmann laying hens (65-week-old) were randomly allocated in a 2 × 2 factorial design to receive a diet with or without MO (0 or 100 mg/kg), and supplemented with either 0 or 600 mg/kg TP. The results indicate that 100 mg/kg MO decreased egg production (p = 0.03), while dietary TP increased egg production in MO challenged layers (p < 0.01). Egg yolk color was decreased by high MO (p < 0.01), while dietary TP had no effect on yolk color (p > 0.05). Serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and malonaldehyde (MDA) concentration were increased by high MO, while total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), xanthine oxidase (XOD) activity, glutathione s-transferase (GSH-ST), and glutathione concentration in serum were decreased (p < 0.05). Dietary TP was able to reverse the increasing effect of MO on ALT and AST (p < 0.05). High MO resulted in higher MO levels in serum, liver, kidney, and egg, but it decreased Cu and Se content in serum, liver, and egg (p < 0.05). The Fe concentration in liver, kidney, and eggs was significantly lower in MO supplementation groups (p < 0.05). High MO levels in the diet led to lower Firmicutes and higher Proteobacteria abundance, whereas dietary TP alone and/or in high MO treatment increased the Firmicutes abundance and the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio at phylum level. High MO increased the abundance of Proteobacteria (phylum), Deltaproteobacteria (class), Mytococcales (order), and Nanocystaceae (family), whereas dietary TP promoted the enrichment of Lactobacillus agilis (species). Dietary TP also enhanced the enrichment of Bacilli (class), Lactobacillates (order), Lactobacillus (family), and Lactobacillus gasseri (species). Microbiota analysis revealed differentially enriched microbial compositions in the cecum caused by MO and TP, which might be responsible for the protective effect of dietary TP during a MO challenge.

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