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1.
Theor Appl Genet ; 2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33942136

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: A novel qualitative locus regulating the uppermost internode elongation of barley was identified and mapped on 6H, and the candidate gene mining was performed by employing various barley genomic resources. The stem of grass crops, such as barley and wheat, is composed of several interconnected internodes. The extent of elongation of these internodes determines stem height, and hence lodging, canopy architecture, and grain yield. The uppermost internode (UI) is the last internode to elongate. Its elongation contributes largely to stem height and facilitates spike exsertion, which is crucial for final grain yield. Despite the molecular mechanism underlying regulation of UI elongation was extensively investigated in rice, little is known in barley. In this study, we characterized a barley spontaneous mutant, Sheathed Spike 1 (SS1), showing significantly shortened UI and sheathed spike (SS). The extension of UI parenchyma cell in SS1 was significantly suppressed. Exogenous hormone treatments and RNA-seq analysis indicated that the suppression of UI elongation is possibly related to insufficient content of endogenous bioactive gibberellin. Genetic analysis showed that SS1 is possibly controlled by a qualitative dominant nuclear factor. Bulked segregant analysis and further molecular marker mapping identified a novel major locus, HvSS1, in a recombination cold spot expanding 173.44-396.33 Mb on chromosome 6H. The candidate gene mining was further conducted by analyzing sequence differences, spatiotemporal expression patterns, and variant distributions of genes in the candidate interval by employing various barley genomic resources of worldwide collections of barley accessions. This study made insight into genetic control of UI elongation in barley and laid a solid foundation for further gene cloning and functional characterization. The results obtained here also provided valuable information for similar research in wheat.

2.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938219

RESUMO

Here, we report the first asymmetric total synthesis of (+)-talassimidine and (+)-talassamine, two hetidine-type C20-diterpenoid alkaloids. A highly regio- and diastereoselective 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of an azomethine ylide yielded a chiral tetracyclic intermediate in high enantiopurity, thus providing the structural basis for asymmetric assembly of the hexacyclic hetidine skeleton. In this key step, the introduction of a single chiral center induces four new continuous chiral centers. Another key transformation is the dearomative cyclopropanation of the benzene ring and subsequent SN2-like ring opening of the resultant cyclopropane ring with water as a nucleophile, which not only establishes the B ring but also precisely installs the difficult-to-achieve equatorial C7-OH group.

3.
Org Biomol Chem ; 19(14): 3207-3212, 2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33885575

RESUMO

A green and efficient approach for the synthesis of selenium-substituted iminoisobenzofuran using 2-vinylbenzamides and diselenides in a continuous electrochemical microreactor has been developed. This strategy enabled the preparation of a series of iminoisobenzofuran derivatives in moderate to good yields under metal-free and oxidant-free conditions. The application of the electrochemical flow system successfully overcomes the difficulty of process control in traditional electrochemistry and achieves efficient transformation of electricity. Moreover, the continuous-flow system combined with electrosynthesis overcomes the difficulty in realizing a scale-up reaction in conventional batch-type electrolysis.

4.
Cell Signal ; 84: 110013, 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901578

RESUMO

Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is a common subtype of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and causes many deaths. Numerous medical studies have suggested that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) exert their biological functions on ccRCC. Herein, functions of lncRNA SNHG16 in ccRCC cells and the mechanism mediated by SNHG16 were investigated. The expression levels of SNHG16 and its downstream genes in ccRCC cells and RCC tissues were examined utilizing reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses. Cell counting kit-8 and 5-Ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine assays were performed to evaluate the proliferation of ccRCC cells, and flow cytometry analyses were employed to determine the apoptosis of ccRCC cells. Western blot analysis was applied to examine protein levels associated with cell proliferation and apoptosis. The combination between SNHG16 and miRNA as well as miRNA and its target gene were explored by luciferase reporter, RNA pull down, and RNA immunoprecipitation assays. The significant upregulation of SNHG16 was observed in RCC tissues and ccRCC cells. SNHG16 downregulation inhibited the proliferation and promoted the apoptosis of ccRCC cells. In addition, SNHG16 served as a competing endogenous RNA for miR-1301-3p, and STARD9 was a target gene of miR-1301-3p in ccRCC cells. SNHG16 upregulated STARD9 expression by binding with miR-1301-3p in ccRCC cells. Rescue assays validated that SNHG16 promoted ccRCC cell promotion and induced ccRCC cell apoptosis by upregulating STARD9 expression. In conclusions, SNHG16 promotes ccRCC cell proliferation and suppresses ccRCC cell apoptosis via interaction with miR-1301-3p to upregulate STARD9 expression in ccRCC cells.

5.
J Biochem Mol Toxicol ; : e22779, 2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33759307

RESUMO

The aim of the present study is to explore the preventive efficacy of betulin (BE) in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-administered mammary cancer by modulating Ahr/Nrf2 signaling in experimental models. The mammary cancer was stimulated by the addition of DMBA (25 mg/kg/b.Wt) mixed in 1 ml of vehicle solution (sunflower oil and saline 1:1) through subcutaneous injection. The DMBA-exposed mammary tumor models showed low bodyweight, elevated quantities of lipid peroxidation molecules (TBARS and LOOH), and low enzymatic (GPx, SOD, and CAT), and nonenzymatic (GSH, vitamin C, and vitamin E) antioxidant activities in plasma and mammary tissues. Moreover, histopathological studies confirmed that invasive ductal carcinoma was observed in DMBA-induced mammary tissue of the experimental model. Dietary oral supplementation of BE prevents the loss of bodyweight, overproduces lipid peroxidation, and restores the antioxidant activities in DMBA-exposed experimental animals. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a crucial antioxidant protein that involves preventing numerous cancers. Therefore, Nrf2-associated signaling concern is a significant target for preventing mammary cancer. This study observed an increased expression of MAPKs, Keap1, ARNT, AhR, and CYP1A1, whereas decreased expression of HO-1 and Nrf2 in DMBA-induced cancer-bearing experimental animals. The oral supplementation of BE effectively modulates the expression of MAPKs, AhR/Nrf2-associated protein expressions in DMBA-exposed experimental animals. This current study concluded that BE is a strong antioxidant, which triggers the MAPKs-mediated oxidative stress and inhibits proliferative markers by restoring the activity of Nrf2 signaling.

6.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(3): 1005-1014, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754567

RESUMO

The establishment of protected areas is the bottom line of ecological security for promoting the construction of ecological civilization and supporting economic and social development, which is an important strategy to realize sustainable development and maintain ecological security. In order to reveal the large spatial process of protected areas and its influencing factors, we used the methods of nearest neighbor index, kernel density, and standard deviational ellipse to analyze the temporal-spatial variation characteristics of the protected areas in Guizhou Province from 2002 to 2017, as well as the influencing factors combined with geo-detectors. The results showed that, during the study period, the number, area, and types of protected areas in Guizhou Province showed a diversified and rapid development, forming a protected area system with nature reserves, forest parks and scenic spots as the main body and wetland parks, geoparks and natural heritage sites as the supplement. The spatial cohesion of protected areas was strengthened, the scope of spatial distribution was expanding, and the speed of spatial movement was declining, forming a spatial pattern dominated by the northeast-southwest direction and gradually stable. The coalescence process in protected areas was strongly influenced by topography and vegetation distribution. The protected areas tended to cluster in gentle terrain around rivers and mountains and in areas of concentrated vegetation. The spatial differentiation of protected areas was jointly affected by multiple factors at different levels. The explanatory power of different factors to the spatial differentiation of protected areas was different. Among them, the normalized difference vegetation index, areas of forest and highway mileage were the common main factors affecting the spatial differentiation of the number and area of protected areas, and the explanatory power of different factors was significantly consolidated after interaction, characterized as nonlinear or bi-factor enhancement.


Assuntos
Florestas , Rios , China , Ecossistema
7.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(586)2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33762435

RESUMO

Most basal-like breast cancers (BLBCs) are triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs), which have the worst prognosis and distant metastasis-free survival among breast cancer subtypes. Now, no targeted therapies are available for patients with BLBC due to the lack of reliable and effective molecular targets. Here, we performed the BLBC tissue microarray-based immunohistochemical analysis and showed that Faciogenital Dysplasia 5 (FGD5) abundance is associated with poor prognosis in BLBCs. FGD5 deletion decreased the proliferation, invasion, and tumorsphere formation capacity of BLBC cells. Furthermore, genetic inhibition of Fgd5 in mouse mammary epithelial cells attenuated BLBC initiation and progression by reducing the self-renewal ability of tumor-initiating cells. In addition, FGD5 abundance was positively correlated with the abundance of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in BLBCs. FGD5 ablation decreased EGFR abundance by reducing EGFR stability in TNBC cells in 2D and 3D culture conditions. Mechanistically, FGD5 binds to EGFR and interferes with basal EGFR ubiquitination and degradation induced by the E3 ligase ITCH. Impaired EGFR degradation caused BLBC cell proliferation and promoted invasive properties and self-renewal. To verify the role of the FGD5-EGFR interaction in the regulation of EGFR stability, we screened a cell-penetrating α-helical peptide PER3 binding with FGD5 to disrupt the interaction. Treatment of BLBC patient-derived xenograft-bearing mice with the peptide PER3 disrupting the FGD5-EGFR interaction either with or without chemotherapy reduced BLBC progression. Our study identified FGD5 as a positive modulator of tumor-initiating cells and suggests a potential therapeutic option for the BLBC subtype of breast cancer.

8.
EMBO Rep ; 22(5): e52141, 2021 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764618

RESUMO

Tyrosine phosphorylation of secretion machinery proteins is a crucial regulatory mechanism for exocytosis. However, the participation of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) in different exocytosis stages has not been defined. Here we demonstrate that PTP-MEG2 controls multiple steps of catecholamine secretion. Biochemical and crystallographic analyses reveal key residues that govern the interaction between PTP-MEG2 and its substrate, a peptide containing the phosphorylated NSF-pY83 site, specify PTP-MEG2 substrate selectivity, and modulate the fusion of catecholamine-containing vesicles. Unexpectedly, delineation of PTP-MEG2 mutants along with the NSF binding interface reveals that PTP-MEG2 controls the fusion pore opening through NSF independent mechanisms. Utilizing bioinformatics search and biochemical and electrochemical screening approaches, we uncover that PTP-MEG2 regulates the opening and extension of the fusion pore by dephosphorylating the DYNAMIN2-pY125 and MUNC18-1-pY145 sites. Further structural and biochemical analyses confirmed the interaction of PTP-MEG2 with MUNC18-1-pY145 or DYNAMIN2-pY125 through a distinct structural basis compared with that of the NSF-pY83 site. Our studies thus provide mechanistic insights in complex exocytosis processes.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33783073

RESUMO

We report here a concise, collective, and asymmetric total synthesis of sarpagine alkaloids and biogenetically related koumine alkaloids, which structurally feature a rigid cage scaffold, with L-tryptophan as the starting material. Two key bridged skeleton-forming reactions, namely tandem sequential oxidative cyclopropanol ring-opening cyclization and ketone α-allenylation, ensure concurrent assembly of the caged sarpagine scaffold and installation of requisite derivative handles. With a common caged intermediate as the branch point, by taking advantage of ketone and allene groups therein, total synthesis of five sarpagine alkaloids (affinisine, normacusine B, trinervine, Na -methyl-16-epipericyclivine, and vellosimine) with various substituents and three koumine alkaloids (koumine, koumimine, and N-demethylkoumine) with more complex cage scaffolds has been accomplished.

10.
World Neurosurg ; 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33744424

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the mechanical properties of a new connector rod aiming to preserve implants in revision surgery (RS) for adjacent segment disease, a problematic complication of instrumented spinal fusion, and to assess its clinical applicability. METHODS: The mechanical properties of the connector-rod construct (implant preservation) and traditional rod construct (implant replacement) were evaluated and compared. Forty-three patients underwent RS for adjacent segment disease in the thoracolumbar spine with implant preservation or replacement, and radiological and clinical outcomes were assessed. RESULTS: Mechanical properties in group A were comparable to those in group B. Total mean time from prior surgery to RS was 6.86 ± 1.08 years. Surgical time and blood loss values of group A were 40.14% and 29.29% statistically significantly smaller than values of group B. In group B, 12% (3/25) of patients developed surgical site infections. In both groups, the visual analog scale leg score decreased significantly after RS. Early postoperative (at 1-month and 3-month follow-up) Oswestry Disability Index and visual analog scale back scores of group A were significantly lower than those of group B; the difference in the visual analog scale back score between groups was significant until the 6-month follow-up. No implant failures occurred, and spinal fusion was achieved in all cases. CONCLUSIONS: The connector rod is considered safe and can reduce the surgical time, blood loss, risk of complications, and medical costs. Better early postoperative clinical outcomes can be achieved with the rod owing to less surgical trauma.

11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(10): e24979, 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725867

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Advanced signet ring cell (SRC) carcinoma has a worse prognosis. Therefore, early diagnosis and prevention is particularly important; SRC tumors have lower R0 resection rate and are thought to be less chemosensitive than non-SRCC. Consequently, a novel postoperative adjuvant treatment is urgently needed to improve clinical outcomes. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 41-year-old female with advanced gastric SRC carcinoma was treated with radical gastrectomy and oxaliplatin-based regimen for 6 cycles after surgery. She was suspected of recurrence with the high level of carbohydrate antigen (CA) 72-4. DIAGNOSES: The gastroscopy revealed SRC carcinoma of gastric antrum and poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in some areas. The diagnosis of postoperative pathology report was gastric cancer with stage III C (T4a, N3a, M0). INTERVENTIONS: The level of CA72-4 rapidly increased during the 2 follow-up after the completion of conventional treatment, ex vivo-cultured allogeneic natural killer (NK) cell infusion was offered to prevent recurrence. OUTCOMES: Intravenous injections of NK cells combination with surgical treatment and chemotherapy showed therapeutic effects in this patient with possible relapse. The patient remained disease-free 46 months after the infusion of NK cells until the latest follow-up. LESSONS: CA72-4 appeared to be the most sensitive and specific marker in the gastric cancer patient, and the high level of CA72-4 may indicate the risk of recurrence. This case report provide rationale for NK cell infusion following the rapid increase of CA72-4 to prevent recurrence.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células em Anel de Sinete/terapia , Gastrectomia , Células Matadoras Naturais/transplante , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/métodos , Neoplasias Gástricas/terapia , Adulto , Antígenos Glicosídicos Associados a Tumores/sangue , Antígenos Glicosídicos Associados a Tumores/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células em Anel de Sinete/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células em Anel de Sinete/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células em Anel de Sinete/patologia , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Gástricas/imunologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Transplante Homólogo , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(2): 513-529, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645152

RESUMO

Bispecific antibody (BsAb) has two different antigen-binding sites, divided into the "IgG-like" format and the "non-IgG-like" format. Different formats have different characteristics and applications. BsAb has higher sensitivity and specificity than conventional antibodies, with special functions such as recruitment of immune cells and blocking of dual signaling pathways, playing an important role in immune-diagnosis and therapy. With the deterioration of the global environment and the irregular living habits of people, the incidence of tumor is becoming higher and higher. Tumor becomes the most serious fatal disease threatening human health after cardiovascular disease. There are 12 million estimated new tumor cases each year worldwide. The major clinical treatments of tumor are surgical resection, chemoradiotherapy, target therapy. Tumor immunotherapy is a novel approach for tumor treatment in recent years, and activates human immune system to control and kill tumor cells. Although the traditional monoclonal antibodies have already acquired some therapeutic effects in tumor targeted therapy and immunotherapy, they induce drug resistance resulted from the heterogeneity and plasticity of tumors. Binding to two target antigens at the same time, BsAb has been used in the clinical treatment of tumors and obtained promising outcomes. This review elaborates the research progress and applications of bispecific antibody in clinical tumor therapy.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Biespecíficos , Neoplasias , Anticorpos Biespecíficos/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias/terapia
13.
J Nutr Biochem ; 95: 108633, 2021 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789150

RESUMO

The liver is a critical mediator of lipid and/or glucose homeostasis and is a primary organ involved in dynamic changes during feeding and fasting. Additionally, hepatic-centric pathways are prone to dysregulation during pathophysiological states including metabolic syndrome (MetS) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Omics platforms and GWAS have elucidated genes related to increased risk of developing MetS and related disorders, but mutations in these metabolism-related genes are rare and cannot fully explain the increasing prevalence of MetS-related pathologies worldwide. Complex interactions between diet, lifestyle, environmental factors, and genetic predisposition jointly determine inter-individual variability of disease risk. Given the complexity of these interactions, researchers have focused on master regulators of metabolic responses incorporating and mediating the impact of multiple environmental cues. Transcription factors are DNA binding, terminal executors of signaling pathways that modulate the cellular responses to complex metabolic stimuli and are related to the control of hepatic lipid and glucose homeostasis. Among numerous hepatic transcription factors involved in regulating metabolism, three emerge as key players in transducing nutrient sensing, which are dysregulated in MetS-related perturbations in both clinical and preclinical studies: cAMP Responsive Element Binding Protein 3 Like 3 (CREB3L3), Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Alpha (PPAR), and Forkhead Box O1 (FOXO1). Additionally, these three transcription factors appear to be amenable to dietary and/or nutrient-based therapies, being potential targets of nutritional therapy. In this review we aim to describe the activation, regulation, and impact of these transcription factors in the context of metabolic homeostasis. We also summarize their perspectives in MetS and nutritional therapies.

14.
Preprint | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-432450

RESUMO

Viral proteins localize within subcellular compartments to subvert host machinery and promote pathogenesis. To study SARS-CoV-2 biology, we generated an atlas of 2422 human proteins vicinal to 17 SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins using proximity proteomics. This identified viral proteins at specific intracellular locations, such as association of accessary proteins with intracellular membranes, and projected SARS-CoV-2 impacts on innate immune signaling, ER-Golgi transport, and protein translation. It identified viral protein adjacency to specific host proteins whose regulatory variants are linked to COVID-19 severity, including the TRIM4 interferon signaling regulator which was found proximal to the SARS-CoV-2 M protein. Viral NSP1 protein adjacency to the EIF3 complex was associated with inhibited host protein translation whereas ORF6 localization with MAVS was associated with inhibited RIG-I 2CARD-mediated IFNB1 promoter activation. Quantitative proteomics identified candidate host targets for the NSP5 protease, with specific functional cleavage sequences in host proteins CWC22 and FANCD2. This data resource identifies host factors proximal to viral proteins in living human cells and nominates pathogenic mechanisms employed by SARS-CoV-2. Author SummarySARS-CoV-2 is the latest pathogenic coronavirus to emerge as a public health threat. We create a database of proximal host proteins to 17 SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins. We validate that NSP1 is proximal to the EIF3 translation initiation complex and is a potent inhibitor of translation. We also identify ORF6 antagonism of RNA-mediate innate immune signaling. We produce a database of potential host targets of the viral protease NSP5, and create a fluorescence-based assay to screen cleavage of peptide sequences. We believe that this data will be useful for identifying roles for many of the uncharacterized SARS-CoV-2 proteins and provide insights into the pathogenicity of new or emerging coronaviruses.

15.
Pharm Biol ; 59(1): 97-105, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524272

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a recrudescent and chronic inflammatory disease. Artesunate (ART) has shown its anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties in severe diseases, including UC. OBJECTIVE: The present study investigates the molecular mechanisms for effects of ART on UC, and the role of miR-155 in this process. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The in vitro UC model was established by using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 cells. For BALB/c mice model, different concentrations/doses of ART were treated once a day for 7 days. The apoptosis and viability were measured by CCK-8 and flow cytometry assay, respectively. The expressions and concentrations of inflammatory factors were detected by qRT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Colon tissues of mice were used for detecting the activity of MPO, and the histological changes were observed by H&E staining. RESULTS: The IC50 of ART for RAW264.7 cells was 107.3 µg/mL. In LPS-induced cells, ART treatment inhibited the cell apoptosis and promoted cell viability compared with the model group. Besides, ART treatment also reduced the expressions of pro-inflammatory factors and miR-155. However, overexpression of miR-155 showed opposite effects and attenuated the effects of ART. Meanwhile, inhibiting miR-155 expression also improved the inflammatory response induced by LPS. In UC mice model, ART treatment also alleviated the mice's survival and alleviated the inflammatory response. In addition, the expression of p-NF-κB was suppressed by ART. CONCLUSION: ART reduced the inflammatory response by inhibiting the expression of miR-155 in UC to inhibit the NF-κB pathway. This research showed ART might have potential in UC treatment.

16.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33527328

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of chronic intestinal inflammatory disorders with a prolonged duration characterized by recurrent relapse and remission. The exact etiology of IBD remains poorly understood despite the identification of relevant risk factors, including individual genetic susceptibility, environmental triggers, and disruption of immune homeostasis. Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota is believed to exacerbate the progression of IBD. Recently, increasing evidence has also linked oral microbiota dysbiosis with the development of IBD. On the one hand, IBD patients show significantly unbalanced composition and function of the oral microbiota known as dysbiosis. On the other, overabundances of oral commensal bacteria with opportunistic pathogenicity have been found in the gut microbiota of IBD patients. Herein, we review the current information on the causative factors of IBD, especially recent evidence of IBD-associated oral microbiota dysbiosis, which has seldom been covered in the previous literature review, highlighting the pathogenic mechanisms of specific oral bacteria in the development of IBD. Ectopic colonization of several oral bacteria, including a subset of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Streptococcus mutans, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Campylobacter concisus, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, may lead to destruction of the intestinal epithelial barrier, excessive secretion of inflammatory cytokines, disruption of the host immune system, and dysbiosis of gut microbiota, consequently aggravating chronic intestinal inflammation. Studying oral microbiota dysbiosis may open future horizons for understanding IBD pathogenesis and provide novel biomarkers for IBD. This review also presents the current treatment and new perspectives for IBD treatment.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33587587

RESUMO

The design and synthesis of low-cost and efficient bifunctional electrocatalysts for water splitting are critical and challenging. Hereby, a bimetallic phosphide embedded in a N and P co-doped porous carbon (FeCoP2@NPPC) material was synthesized by using sustainable biomass-derived N- and P-containing carbohydrates and non-noble metal salts as precursors. The obtained material exhibits good catalytic activities in hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), oxygen evolution reaction (OER), and overall water splitting. The bimetallic alloy phosphide (FeCoP2) is the active site for electrocatalysis. Theoretical calculation indicates that the sub-layer Fe atoms and top-layer Co atoms in FeCoP2 exhibit a synergistic effect for enhanced electrocatalytic performance. The carbon matrix around the FeCoP2 can prevent the corrosion during the catalytic reactions. The hierarchically porous structure of the FeCoP2@NPPC material can promote the transfer of electrons and electrolyte, and increase the contact area of the active sites and electrolytes. N- and P-containing functionalities improve the wetting and conductivity properties of the porous carbon. Due to the synergistic effects, FeCoP2@NPPC requires a low overpotential of 114 and 150 mV at the current density of 10 mA cm-2 for HER in 0.5 M H2SO4 and 1.0 M KOH, and an overpotential of 236 mV for OER in 1.0 M KOH solution, which are much lower than those of FeP@NPPC and CoP@NPPC. Based on the density functional theory calculation, FeCoP2 yields the smallest Gibbs free energy change of rate-determining step among the samples, which leads to better electrochemical performances. In addition, when FeCoP2@NPPC was used as a bifunctional catalyst in water splitting, the electrolyzer needed a low voltage of 1.60 V to deliver the current density of 10 mA cm-2. Furthermore, this work provides a strategy for preparing sustainable, stable, and highly active electrocatalysts for water splitting.

18.
Nature ; 589(7843): 620-626, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33408414

RESUMO

Adhesion G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a major family of GPCRs, but limited knowledge of their ligand regulation or structure is available1-3. Here we report that glucocorticoid stress hormones activate adhesion G-protein-coupled receptor G3 (ADGRG3; also known as GPR97)4-6, a prototypical adhesion GPCR. The cryo-electron microscopy structures of GPR97-Go complexes bound to the anti-inflammatory drug beclomethasone or the steroid hormone cortisol revealed that glucocorticoids bind to a pocket within the transmembrane domain. The steroidal core of glucocorticoids is packed against the 'toggle switch' residue W6.53, which senses the binding of a ligand and induces activation of the receptor. Active GPR97 uses a quaternary core and HLY motif to fasten the seven-transmembrane bundle and to mediate G protein coupling. The cytoplasmic side of GPR97 has an open cavity, where all three intracellular loops interact with the Go protein, contributing to the high basal activity of GRP97. Palmitoylation at the cytosolic tail of the Go protein was found to be essential for efficient engagement with GPR97 but is not observed in other solved GPCR complex structures. Our work provides a structural basis for ligand binding to the seven-transmembrane domain of an adhesion GPCR and subsequent G protein coupling.


Assuntos
Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Subunidades alfa Gi-Go de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/química , Subunidades alfa Gi-Go de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Glucocorticoides/química , Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/química , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/ultraestrutura , Sítios de Ligação , Subunidades alfa Gi-Go de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Ligantes , Lipoilação , Modelos Moleculares , Ligação Proteica , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo
19.
Environ Res ; 194: 110716, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421429

RESUMO

The complex and changeable environment is a brand-new living condition for the viruses and pathogens released by the infected people to the indoor air or deposited on the surface of objects, which is an important external condition affecting the decay and transmission risk of the viruses. Exposure to contaminated surfaces is one of the main routes of respiratory diseases transmission. Therefore, it is very important for epidemic prevention and control to study the law of virus decay and the environmental coupling effect on various surfaces. Based on the analysis of the influencing mechanism, a large amount of experimental evidence on the survival of viruses on the surface of objects were excavated in this paper, and the effects of various factors, such as surface peripheral temperature, relative humidity, virus-containing droplet volume, surface materials and virus types, on the decay rate constants of viruses were comprehensively analyzed. It was found that although the experimental methods, virus types and experimental conditions varied widely in different experiments, the virus concentrations on the surface of objects all followed the exponential decay law, and the coupling effect of various factors was reflected in the decay rate constant k. Under different experimental conditions, k values ranged from 0.001 to 100 h-1, with a difference of 5 orders of magnitude, corresponding to the characteristic time t99 between 500 and 0.1 h when the virus concentration decreased by 99%. This indicates a large variation in the risk of virus transmission in different scenarios. By revealing the common law and individuality of the virus decay on the surface of objects, the essential relationship between the experimental observation phenomenon and virus decay was analyzed. This paper points out the huge difference in virus transmission risk on the surface at different time nodes, and discusses the prevention and control strategies to grasp the main contradictions in the different situations.


Assuntos
Vírus , Clima , Humanos , Umidade , Temperatura
20.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421457

RESUMO

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: The national prevalence of dialysis in China has not been well studied. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of kidney disease treated with dialysis and predict the trend using claims data in order to provide evidence for developing prevention strategies. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of insurance claims. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Medical claims data from January 1, 2013, to December 31, 2017, were extracted from a large claims database by using a 2-stage sampling design to obtain a national sample covered by the urban basic medical insurance, the most predominant insurance program in China. EXPOSURE: Patients receiving maintenance dialysis, including hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD), were identified according to medical billing data and International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) codes. OUTCOMES: The age- and sex-standardized population prevalence of kidney disease treated with dialysis was estimated by year and treatment modality. ANALYTICAL APPROACH: Crude and age- and sex-standardized prevalence of kidney disease treated with dialysis were calculated stratified by year and treatment modality. The gray Verhulst model was used to predict dialysis prevalence from 2018 to 2025. RESULTS: The age-and sex-standardized prevalence of dialysis patients increased from 255.11 per million population (pmp) in 2013 to 419.39 pmp in 2017. The age- and sex-standardized prevalence of HD and PD in 2017 were 384.41 pmp and 34.98 pmp, respectively, and the total number of dialysis patients in China was estimated to be 581,273. The prevalence of dialysis was predicted to rise above 2017 levels, with a predicted prevalence of 534.60 pmp in 2020 and 629.67 pmp in 2025, corresponding to 744,817 and 874,373 patients, respectively. LIMITATIONS: Claims data have potential errors in classification of patients, and population selection bias may have limited inferences to the entire Chinese population. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of kidney disease treated with dialysis has risen between 2013 and 2017 in China and is predicted to increase further through 2025. These findings highlight the importance of prevention and control strategies to reduce the escalating burden of kidney failure.

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