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2.
Nanotechnology ; 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899904

RESUMO

Polytriazine imide (PTI), a triazine-based carbon nitride has a wider band gap and more positive conduction band (CB) potential compared to those of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4). Therefore, it is highly desired to develop an effective strategy to optimize the band structure of PTI for the enhancement of the photocatalytic performance, especially upshift the conductive band potential. Here, a ternary C-PTI/ZnO (CPZ) photocatalyst was developed via a simple one-step molten salt method. In the obtained CPZ sample, the carbon ring in-plane connects to the triazine ring, leading to the formation of C-PTI nanosheets. The carbon ring incorporation not only efficiently narrows the band gap of PTI, but also shifts its conduction band potential negatively and accelerates the photogenerated electron transport. In addition, ZnO nanoparticles are well dispersed on the C-PTI nanosheets, further promoting the charge carriers transfer and separation. As a result, the CPZ sample presents a photocatalytic H2 evolution rate up to 52 µmol·h-1 under visible light, which is 60 and 179 times higher than that of C-PTI and PTI, respectively.

3.
Food Chem ; 308: 125590, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644970

RESUMO

A novel fluorescent nanoprobe was for the first time developed for the efficient detection of ferrocyanide ions ([Fe(CN)6]4-) based on nitrogen (N), sulfur (S) and chlorine (Cl) co-doped carbon nanoparticles (N,S,Cl-CNPs). The N,S,Cl-CNPs were fabricated through a simple and ultrafast acid-base neutralization method. The sensing mechanism was based on the quenching effect of [Fe(CN)6]4- on the fluorescence emission of N,S,Cl-CNPs via dynamic interaction. The N,S,Cl-CNPs were found to show high selectivity and sensitivity towards [Fe(CN)6]4- detection with two good linear relationships were achieved in the concentration ranges of 0.01-1.0 µg/mL and 1.0-50.0 µg/mL, respectively, and the detection limits are as low as 3.3 and 21.8 ng/mL, respectively. The proposed fluorescence method was successfully applied for [Fe(CN)6]4- analyses in food samples with high accuracy. The results of this study indicate the great application prospects of N,S,Cl-CNPs for [Fe(CN)6]4- detection in complex food matrix.


Assuntos
Carbono/química , Ferrocianetos/análise , Nanopartículas , Cloro/química , Ferrocianetos/química , Fluorescência , Análise de Alimentos , Limite de Detecção , Nitrogênio/química , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos , Enxofre/química
4.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 15(1): 67-72, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31844287

RESUMO

Topological insulators are materials that behave as insulators in the bulk and as conductors at the edge or surface due to the particular configuration of their bulk band dispersion. However, up to date possible practical applications of this band topology on materials' bulk properties have remained abstract. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a topological bulk laser. We pattern semiconductor nanodisk arrays to form a photonic crystal cavity showing topological band inversion between its interior and cladding area. In-plane light waves are reflected at topological edges forming an effective cavity feedback for lasing. This band-inversion-induced reflection mechanism induces single-mode lasing with directional vertical emission. Our topological bulk laser works at room temperature and reaches the practical requirements in terms of cavity size, threshold, linewidth, side-mode suppression ratio and directionality for most practical applications according to Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and other industry standards. We believe this bulk topological effect will have applications in near-field spectroscopy, solid-state lighting, free-space optical sensing and communication.

5.
Food Chem ; 311: 125982, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31862568

RESUMO

Faba bean can respond to the need for plant-based proteins for human consumption. The aim of this work was to study the role of lipid-modifying enzymes in faba bean in causing off-flavour compounds during processing. The faba bean exhibited high lipase and lipoxygenase (LOX) activities, with pH optima being 8.0 and 6.0, respectively. Faba bean LOX preferred free fatty acids (FFAs) over triacylglycerols as substrates, and together with other LOX pathway enzymes, it formed specific volatile products, as measured using headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography. During the preparation of the food models (i.e. the extracts and emulsions), enzymatic lipid oxidation occurred. The inclusion in the emulsions of rapeseed oil, especially of rapeseed oil FFAs, remarkably increased the amounts of volatile products. The largest quantities of products were formed in food models at pH 6.4, which is close to the pH optimum of LOX. Further studies on lipase in food models are needed.

6.
Langmuir ; 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869234

RESUMO

Understanding the wetting characteristics of a droplet on a solid surface is an important topic in basic research and various engineering applications. The further understanding of wetting characteristics of working fluid is very valuable for revealing the mechanism of phase change heat transfer, especially for understanding the complex phenomena of phase change heat transfer of mixtures. In this study, the wetting behaviors of R32, R1234yf, and R32/R1234yf nanodroplets on square pillar-type substrates were investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. The influences of structure size, droplet composition, and droplet size on the position of the critical line were investigated in particular. The results show that the droplet tends to be the Cassie state with higher pillar and shorter spacing. The influence of droplet composition on wetting state conversion is approximately linear with concentration. The influence of droplet size is relatively small. The results are reasonably explained by the force analysis method proposed in this paper.

7.
Chem Biol Interact ; : 108923, 2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838051

RESUMO

Angina pectoris can be used as an early warning for coronary artery disease. Vasodilation is a potential target for angina pectoris. Traditional Chinese medicine - Compound Danshen Dripping Pill (CDDP) is widely used to improve the symptoms of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). To investigate the influence of vasodilation effect and underlying pharmacological mechanisms of CDDP, we determined the vasodilation effect of thoracic aorta ring on rat induced by norepinephrine (NE). Then targets-fishing method was used to predict the potential mechanism of CDDP on vasodilation, based on the structures of the main components. Then, iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics analysis was used for verification of the candidate target proteins and pathways to illustrate the underlying pharmacological mechanisms. Furthermore, the differentially expressed proteins in the enriched pathways were validated by western blotting. In this study, we found that CDDP can significantly inhibit NE induced aortic contraction tension, and the mechanism may be related to platelet activation, cGMP - PKG signaling pathway and vascular smooth muscle contraction. The method of discovery and verification on mechanism for vasodilation of CDDP provides a new way to analysis the mechanism of drug, especially the multi-component herbal medicine.

8.
Mol Biol Rep ; 2019 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838656

RESUMO

Cancer stem cells (CSCs), a rare subset of cancer cells, are well known for their self-renewing capacity. CSCs play a critical role in therapeutic failure and are responsible for poor prognosis in leukemia and various solid tumors. However, it is still unclear how CSCs initiate carcinogenesis and evade the immune response. In humans, the melanoma initiating cells (MICs) are recognized as the CSCs in melanomas, and were verified to possess CSC potentials. The enzymatic system, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) is considered to be a specific marker for CSCs in several tumors. The expression of ALDH in MICs may be closely correlated with phenotypic heterogeneity, melanoma-genesis, metastasis, and drug resistance. The ALDH+ CSCs/MICs not only serve as an indicator for therapeutic efficacy, but have also become a target for the treat of melanoma. In this review, we initially introduce the multiple capacities of MICs in melanoma. Then, we summarize in vivo and in vitro studies that illustrate the relationship between ALDH and MICs. Furthermore, understanding of chemotherapy resistance in melanoma relies on ALDH+ MICs. Finally, we review studies that focus on melanoma immunotherapies, rendering ALDH a potential marker to evaluate the efficacy of anti-neoplastic therapies or an adjuvant anti-melanoma target.

9.
Dig Liver Dis ; 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31818638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most lethal cancers owing to the high metastasis rate. The molecular mechanism underlying HCC progression remains unclear. AIMS: We aimed to explore the function and mechanism of action of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP2) in HCC. METHODS: Expression of IGFBP2 was evaluated with western blotting and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Loss- and gain-function assays were conducted to evaluate the effects of IGFBP2 on HCC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Signaling pathways were screened with a dual-fluorescein reporting system, and levels of epithelial and mesenchymal markers were measured after altering IGFBP2 expression. Cell fractionation analysis was conducted to evaluate the nuclear translocation of p65. RESULTS: IGFBP2 expression was upregulated in HCC tissues, predicted worse prognosis, and was associated with strong metastatic potentials. IGFBP2 depletion significantly inhibited HCC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, whereas IGFBP2 overexpression showed reverse phenotypes. The underlying mechanism involved IGFBP2-mediated nuclear localization of p65, which activated nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and zinc finger E-Box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1) transcription via binding to the gene promoter. CONCLUSION: This study for the first time identifies IGFBP2 as a novel therapeutic target in HCC that activates the NF-κB-ZEB1 signaling axis and promotes HCC tumorigenesis.

10.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31829345

RESUMO

Euphorikanin A is a diterpenoid possessing a highly congested and unprecedented 5/6/7/3-fused tetracyclic ring skeleton. To access the challenging chemical structure of Euphorikanins, an efficient total synthetic approach is described. The stereoselective synthesis of the core structure of Euphorikanin A has been achieved from a simple dienyne building block, and a domino ring-closing metathesis (RCM) strategy was used for the gram-scale synthesis of the highly strained Euphorikanin A core. This paves the way for the synthesis of structurally diverse Euphorikanins.

11.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789517

RESUMO

Pre-schisanartanin C belongs to the family of Schisandra nortriterpenoids with potent antihepatitis, antitumor, and anti-HIV activities. This paper presents the enantioselective total synthesis of pre-schisanartanin C (1). An important step in the total synthesis of 1 is gold-catalyzed intramolecular cyclopropanation of an 1,8-enyne substrates bearing a secondary ester group at the propargylic position to prepare a bicyclo[6.1.0]nonane core. Additional highlights include i) an asymmetric Diels-Alder reaction to install the initial C5 stereogenic center of 1, and ii) a sequential Pd-catalyzed Stille coupling, regio- and stereo-selective Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation, and a subsequent intramolecular lactonization to contruct the side chain of 1. The developed chemistry paves the way for the total syntheses of other family members bearing highly rigid bicyclo[6.1.0]nonane cores.

12.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 538, 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As a common accompanying dispersal structure, specialized seed appendages play a critical role in the successful germination and dispersal of many plants, and are regarded as an adaptation character for plants survival in diverse environments. However, little is known about how the appendages modulate the linkage between germination and environmental factors. Here, we tested the responses of germination to seasonal environmental signals (temperature and humidity) via seed appendages using Atriplex centralasiatica, which is widely distributed in salt marshlands with dry-cold winter in northern China. Three types of heteromorphic diaspores that differ in morphology of persistent bracteole and dormancy levels are produced in an individual plant of A. centralasiatica. RESULTS: Except for the nondormant diaspore (type A, with a brown seed enclosed in a persistent bracteole), bracteoles regulated inner seed dormancy of the other two dormant diaspore types, i.e., type B (flat diaspore with a black inner seed) and type C (globular diaspore with a black inner seed). For types B and C, germination of bracteole-free seeds was higher than that of intact diaspores, and was limited severely when incubated in the bracteole-soaking solution. Dormancy was released at a low temperature (< 10 °C) and suitable humidity (5-15%) condition. Oppositely, high temperature and unfit humidity induced secondary dormancy via inhibitors released by bracteoles. Type C with deeper dormancy needed more stringent conditions for dormancy release and was easier for dormancy inducement than type B. The germination windows were broadened and the time needed for dormancy release decreased after the bracteole flushing for the two dormant types in the field condition. CONCLUSIONS: Bracteoles determine the germination adaptation by bridging seeds and environmental signals and promising seedlings establishment only in proper seasons, which may also restrict species geographical distribution and shift species distributing ranges under the global climate change scenarios.

13.
Cancer Med ; 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802650

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is a common malignant tumor. Increasing evidences indicated that CRC showed a resistance to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and further resulted in a poor prognosis. In this study, we aim to investigate the effect of long noncoding RNA nuclear paraspeckle assembly transcript 1 (LncRNA NEAT1) on cell viability, sensitivity to 5-FU, and autophagy of CRC cell lines. METHODS: MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-Htetrazolium bromide) was used to detect cell viability, immunofluorescent staining was used to detect autophagy puncta, and luciferase reporter system was used to determine binding ability between miR-34a and NEAT1 or putative targets. Additionally, indicated mRNAs and protein expressions were determined by qRT-PCR or western blotting, respectively. RESULTS: We found that NEAT1 expression was increased in CRC tissues and cells, which showed a negative correlation with miR-34a expression. In addition, NEAT1 knockdown noticeably inhibited the proliferation of CRC cells and enhanced 5-FU sensitivity. It revealed that NEAT1 knockdown suppressed the LC3 puncta and the expressions of Beclin-1, ULK1, and ratio of LC3II/I. Overexpression of miR-34a showed similar trends with NEAT1 knockdown. miR-34a was validated to target the putative binding sites in 3'-UTR of HMGB1, ATG9A, and ATG4B, which are involved in the activation of autophagy. Inhibition of miR-34a or overexpression of HMGB1 could effectively reverse elevated 5-FU sensitivity upon NEAT1 knockdown. In addition, 3-MA reversed NEAT1 overexpression-induced resistance in HT29 cells. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that LncRNA NEAT1 could target miR-34a and promote autophagy to facilitate 5-FU chemoresistance in CRC.

14.
Cell Biochem Biophys ; 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811601

RESUMO

Circular RNAs (cicRNAs) have been identified to play pivotal roles in several cancer types. However, functions of circRNA in malignant melanoma are poor defined. Our current study demonstrated that human circMYC was obviously upregulated in human melanoma tissue. Furthermore, circMYC promoted the proliferation of human melanoma cells and Mel-CV cells. The expression of circMYC can repress Mel-CV cell glycolysis and LDHA activities in the in vitro glycolysis and lactate production evaluations. circMYC directly bound to miR-1236 as a molecular sponge that targeting miR-1236 in Mel-CV cells via bioinformatics analysis, pull-down assay, and luciferase reporter assays. Our present study revealed that 3' UTR of LDHA acted as a target of miR-1236 using Mel-CV cells. Based on our findings, c-MYC-SRSF1 axis may regulate the production of circMYC. Overall, these results elucidate potential effects of circMYC in melanoma development and provide a promising biomarker for melanoma diagnosis.

15.
Langmuir ; 2019 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814410

RESUMO

Extensive studies have been carried out to investigate the stability of super-hydrophobic surfaces under acid, alkali and salt solutions. It is noted that the previous literature just demonstrated a variety of experimental phenomena. However, very rare work has focused on the protection mechanism or failure mechanism of fluorinated super-hydrophobic surfaces from the perspective of chemical aspects. Herein, this paper aims to investigate the effects of acid, alkali and salt solutions on the stability of fluorinated super-hydrophobic surfaces, and the anti-corrosion/corrosion mechanism will be further proposed. The super-hydrophobic coating was obtained on silicon substrates by laser surface texturing followed by fluoroalkyl silanes modification. The resultant surfaces presented the water contact angles (WCAs) of 157.6±0.4 ° with small water sliding angles (WSAs) of 1.3±0.3 °. The newly fabricated super-hydrophobic surfaces were then immersed in different concentration of corrosive solutions (acid, alkali and salt solution). The revolution of surface wettability, surface morphology on treated silicon surface were evaluated through water contact angles (WCAs), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), white light confocal microscope. The results indicate that the hydrogen ion (H+) played a positive role in the retention of super-hydrophobicity. However, the hydroxyl (OH-) and chloride ions (Cl-) presented the negative influence. The protection mechanism or corrosion mechanism under different solutions were proposed based on the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results. In addition, the potentiodynamic polarization (PDP) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements provided strong support in data were conducted to verify the rationality of the proposed mechanism.

16.
J Clin Invest ; 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31815740

RESUMO

An excess of fecal bile acids (BAs) is thought to be one of the mechanisms for diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D). However, the factors causing excessive BA excretion remain incompletely studied. Given the importance of gut microbiota in BA metabolism, we hypothesized that gut dysbiosis might contribute to excessive BA excretion in IBS-D. By performing BA-related metabolic and metagenomic analyses in 290 IBS-D patients and 89 healthy volunteers, we found that 24.5% of IBS-D patients exhibited excessive excretion of total BAs and alteration of BA-transforming bacteria in feces. Notably, the increase in Clostridia bacteria (e.g., C. scindens) was positively associated with the levels of fecal BAs and serum 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (C4), but negatively correlated with serum fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) concentration. Furthermore, colonization with Clostridia-rich IBS-D fecal microbiota or C. scindens individually enhanced serum C4 and hepatic conjugated BAs but reduced ileal FGF19 expression in mice. Inhibition of Clostridium species with vancomycin yielded opposite results. Clostridia-derived BAs suppressed the intestinal FGF19 expression in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the Clostridia-rich microbiota contributes to excessive BA excretion in IBS-D patients, which provides a mechanistic hypothesis with testable clinical implications.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885145

RESUMO

A palladium catalyzed C-H functionalization and consecutive ß-fluoride elimination reaction between indole heterocycles and fluorinated diazoalkanes is reported. This approach provides a facile method for the rapid synthesis of gem-difluoro olefins using fluorinated diazoalkanes under mild reaction conditions, which is, to the best of our knowledge, reported for the first time in this work. Cyclopropanation products were obtained, when N-arylated rather than N-alkylated indoles were applied in this reaction. Mechanistic studies reveal the importance of the ß-fluoride elimination step in this transformation. This methodology presents a new concept for a simple and direct transfer of a 1-aryl-(2,2-difluorovinyl) group to access gem-difluoro olefins.

18.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 5681701, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31871550

RESUMO

Approximately 90% of male diabetes mellitus patients have varying degrees of testicular dysfunction. The molecular mechanism underlying diabetes-induced testicular damage has not been thoroughly elucidated. In this research, we sought to determine the influence of metformin (Met) on diabetes-induced testicular injury and the mechanism involved with a focus on testicular dysfunction, apoptosis, autophagy, and prokineticin 2 (PK2) signalling. In our study, C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into the normal control group, the diabetes group, and the Met-treated group. Streptozotocin (50 mg·kg-1·d-1) was injected intraperitoneally into the mice for 5 days in a row to induce type 1 diabetes, which was diagnosed by a blood glucose level ≥ 16.7 mmol/L after 7 days. The experimental animals were orally administered Met (250 mg·kg-1·d-1) for 16 weeks. Properties of testicular function, including sperm motility and the total concentration of epididymal sperm, were assessed. Changes in testicular structure, such as the blood-testis barrier, histological pathology, and organelles, were observed. The levels of apoptosis and expression of related proteins, such as Bax and Bcl-2, were measured. Moreover, autophagy-related proteins, including Beclin-1, p62, and LC3B, as well as the PK2/PKR pathway, which consists of PK2, PKR1, PKR2, AKT, and GSK3ß, were analysed. Upon the induction of diabetes, reproductive capacity was significantly impaired and a disordered arrangement of testicular seminiferous tubules and destroyed organelles in spermatogenic cells was observed. Met administration preserved testicular function and structure. In addition, in mice with diabetes, the levels of PK2, PKR2, p-Akt, and p-GSK3ß were significantly decreased at different times, while that of PKR1 was markedly increased, and these changes were normalized by Met. Furthermore, diabetic mice showed increased apoptosis and decreased autophagy in the testes, the effects of which were nullified by Met. These results suggest that Met rescues diabetes-induced testicular damage by attenuating apoptosis and inducing autophagy. This effect is likely mediated by the PK2/PKR/AKT/GSK3ß signalling pathway.

19.
J Evid Based Dent Pract ; 19(4): 101310, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843178

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This meta-analysis aimed at comparing the angular and linear changes of soft tissue profile using conventional anchorage techniques and mini-implant (MI)-based space closure in patients with dentoalveolar protrusion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Electronic databases, viz. PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, were searched for relevant literature from their inception to December 2017 according to the specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. The following Medical Subject Heading terms were used for searching: "skeletal anchorage", "temporary anchorage devices", "miniscrew implant", "mini-implant", "micro-implant". Selected randomized control trials (RCTs) were assessed for their quality using Cochrane's Risk of Bias Tool, whereas the Newcastle-Ottawa scale was used for non-RCTs. Standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were obtained with either fixed- or random-effects models based on the heterogeneity of the included studies. RESULTS: A total of 5 articles (2 RCTs with moderate risk of bias and 3 high-quality non-RCT studies) were included in the final analysis. The nasolabial angle had significantly greater changes in the MI group than in the conventional anchorage group (SMD = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.39 to 0.97, P < .0001). Significantly higher retraction of the upper lip was seen in the MI group than in the conventional group (SMD = -0.51, 95% CI = -0.84 to -0.18; P = .002). No significant difference was seen in the facial convexity (SMD = -0.34, 95% CI = -0.76 to 0.07, P = .106) and lower lip retraction (SMD = 0.28, 95% CI = -1.72 to 2.28, P = .784) between the groups. CONCLUSION: It was seen that MIs facilitated favorable soft tissue profile than the conventional anchorage devices. However, more high-quality studies are warranted to confirm the clinical effectiveness of MIs.

20.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 180: 113068, 2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884392

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic progressive disease, it often involves kidney, lung, heart, and other systems.Renal damage is quite common in RA. Exploring of biomarkers of renal damage in the course of RA progression is of significant importance for disease diagnosis and treatment. We use type II Collagen-Induced Arthritis(CIA) Model. Serums were collected at the 4th, 6th, 8th, and 10th week after the first immunization. An untargeted metabonomic strategy based on UPLC-Q/TOF/MS with support vector machine(SVM) was developed to discover the biomarkers in the rats' serum samples between the RA stage(4-6 weeks in RA model, at which time the kidneys are not affected) and renal damage in RA stage(8-10 weeks in RA model, and the kidneys are affected). Principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were used to analyze the metabolic profiles of rat serum. The support vector machine (SVM) method was used to screen the specific markers of renal damage in RA. Following multivariate statistical and integration analysis, 5 specific markers of renal damage in RA were screened and found. After the analysis of these metabolites, pentose and glucuronate interconversions are closely related to the pathogenesis of RA renal damage. The present study first use untargeted dmetabonomics combined with the pathological features in the different phases of CIA model rats. This will provide a basis for the choice of treatment drugs for patients with RA who may be complicated by renal damage.

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